533,586. Calculating-apparatus. BRITISH TABULATING MACHINE CO., Ltd., KEEN, H. H., and WRIGHT, T. O. Aug. 15, 1939, No. 23577. [Class 106 (i)] A totalizing counter for an adding and subtracting apparatus comprises for each denomination an entry member and a register member operable in one or other direction and mechanically independent of the members in the other denominations, a transfer mechanism, and means controlled by the transfer mechanism for effecting the transfer of a unit in one or other direction to the next higher denomination and, in the case of the highest denomination to transfer a unit to the lowest denomination after the passage of the highest register member through a pre-determined position. In the form shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 4, the units of the counter are carried on plates 1 and comprise a driven member, planet gearing and a register member. The driven member or gear wheel 8 is integral with a sun wheel 12 that drives a pair of planet gears 13 on shafts 14 supported in a cage or carrier 15 loosely mounted on a tubular shaft 16 secured to the plate 1. The register member is formed as a gear wheel 18 that meshes with the planet gears 17 and is integral with a notched locking disc 20 and two transfer cam discs 21, 22 fixed on a central spindle 19- The carrier 15 is also provided with a notched locking plate 23. The locking plates 20, 23 co-operate alternatively with the arms 24, 25 of a four-armed lever 24-27 pivoted on a stud 28. The arm 27 normally engages a notch in the armature 33 of an electromagnet 34. For safety purposes the arm 24 is spring connected to the arm 25 and has a projection 30 engaging the arm 27. The drive for the wheel 8 is derived from a constantly running shaft 4 through a reversing mechanism and gears 37, 9 and 10. The holding of the locking plate 20 by the arm 24 as shown in Fig. 1 locks the register member 18-22 while the wheel 8 and the carrier 15 rotate idly. On energizing the magnet 34 the four armed lever is rocked to release the locking plate 20 and the arm 25 arrests the locking plate 23 whereupon the movement is imparted to the register member. The magnet 34 is energized at a time in the cycle depending upon the value of the digit entered and the ratio of the gearing is such that as the shaft 4 makes one revolution per machine cycle a unit digit is represented by one-sixteenth of a revolution of the shaft, by one-tenth of a revolution of the wheel 8, and by one-thirtieth of a.revolution of the register member 18-22, the register having three sets of 0 to 9 digit positions. The reversing mechanism comprises a gear 62 and notched disc 63 secured to the shaft 4, a support 64 with a shaft carrying gears 67, 68, and a gear 70 integral with the gear 37. The gear 68 drives the gear 70 through an idler 69 (not shown). The support has also pivoted thereon a pawl 71, Fig. 6, held free of the notched disc 63 by a latch arm 76, Fig. 1, of the armature 88 of an electro-magnet 89. In this position the support is held stationary and the motion of the shaft 4 is transmitted, for addition, through the gears 62, 67-70 to the gear 37 which turns in a direction opposite to that of the shaft. On energizing the magnet 89, for subtraction, the pawl 71 is freed to engage the notched disc 63 and the gears 67, 68 are prevented from turning so that the gear 37 is now rotated in the same direction as the shaft. A block 83 is mounted on the shaft 4 for each denomination and is formed with cam projections 31., 32, for resetting the four-armed lever 24-27. Transfer mechanism.-For effecting transfers during addition the disc 21 is operative. The disc has three sets of notches 41 and projecting teeth 42 for co-operation with a pivoted transfer pawl arm 39 which acts through an interposer 52 to operate the contact blade 49 of a contact arm 45. The interposer is pivoted to a lever 55 and is held in the full line position shown during addition. When the pawl 38 of the transfer arm is in the notch 41 the register member is in the " 9 " position and the contact blade 49 rests on the contact 50. In passing to the " 0 " position the transfer arm 39 is raised and the contact blade 49 is pressed by the interposer, against the contact blade 51 ; in all other positions the blade is held in the intermediate position. In the raised position the arm 39 is held by a notch in a lever 44. The contacts 51 prepare a circuit for transfer to the next higher denomination while the contacts 50 prepare for subsequent transfers to the higher denominations simultaneously. To prepare transfer, during subtraction the disc 22 is operative. It has three notches 60 and projections 61 for co-operation with a second transfer arm 57 which acts in a similar manner to the arm 39 to operate the contact blades 49. This second arm is inoperative during adding by reason of the alignment of a notch 59 in its upper edge with the interposer 52. When the reversing gear is operated to change the direction of rotation the lever 55 is moved to the dotted line position, Fig. 1, by a cam 65 on the support 64, and the interposer moved to align it with the notch 62 of the first transfer arm 39 thereby rendering it ineffective while permitting the second arm 57 to function. A cam projection on the block 83 operates the lever 44 to release the transfer arms 39, 57. Record card operation ; circuit arrangements.-The card is passed through two reading stations UB, LB, Fig. 7, the digits being read at the lower brushes and entered in the counter on the energization of the magnets 34 through the wires 94 and relay contacts 95a. The transfer circuit contacts 49, 50 and 51 are arranged as shown in circuit with the relay contacts 95b. When a number is to be subtracted a special hole in the card is sensed at the upper brushes and a circuit is completed through a relay magnet 97 to close its contacts and at an appropriate time in the cycle operate the reversing relay 89. If the amount subtracted is greater than the amount added the total can be shown as a negative amount by subtracting unity from the lowest denomination thereby expressing the amount by reference to the nines complement. For this purpose the contact 49 of the highest denomination is connected by a wire 100 to the contact 50 of the units denomination. The highest denomination in this instance is to be regarded as an auxiliary denomination for indicating purposes only, the counter having two denominations each with two numeral drums with the digits arranged reversely in accordance with the nines complements. Usually the amount registered is to be printed or transferred to another totalizing-counter for which purpose reading out commutators are provided. The commutators, Figs. 2 and 9, comprise a ring 101 of insulating material with two sets of contact studs 102 and two contact segments 103 that co-operate with contact brushes 106 mounted in an insulating ring 105 on a metal bush 104 secured to the shaft 19. The brushes are pressed outwardly by means of a coiled spring 107. The circuit arrangement, Fig. 10, shows the connections of the positive and negative contact studs 102, 102r to an impulse emitter 108, 109, and the connections of the corresponding segments 103, 103n to the contacts 113a, 113an of relays A113-D113 and to the printing or counter magnets 114. By the provision of plug connections 115, 116, 120 and 122 the eight denominations shown can be connected to form a single counter or a plurality of independent counters ; the connections as shown form two counters each of four denominations, the denominations being permanently connected in pairs, each pair with its own reversing gear and operating circuit. To obtain the true total, positive or negative, a selection must be made of the appropriate section of the commutator. The selection, in each counter, is effected by means of a relay 118 in association with relays 125, 126 and co-operating contacts 118a, b, 125a, b, 126a, b. An alternative form of device for operating the contacts 118a is shown in Fig. 11, the magnet 132 operates a ratchet wheel 129 with twice as many teeth as the notched disc 128 operating the contacts. Counters for non-uniform notations. For a duo-decimal column the register member 18 and locking plate 20 is mounted loosely on the sleeve 16 and has fixed thereto a wheel 133, Fig. 12, which drives, through an intermediate pinion, a wheel 136 to which the transfer discs 21 and 22 are secured, the shaft 19 being eccentrically mounted in the sleeve 16. The digit positions " 10 " and " 11 " precede the " 9 " position and are read at the upper brushes in a circuit arrangement shown for the units denomination in Fig. 13. The reading brush 137 for this column is connected to a relay 138 and in parallel circuits through relays 139, 141 and cam contacts 140, 142. Modified counter operation.-The counter magnet 34 is replaced by a magnet with an armature 146, Fig. 14, which acts on the arm 24, the arm being returned by a spring 147 instead of by means of the cams 31, 32 and 84. The latching arm 44 of the transfer levers is released by means of a magnet 148. The modifications in the circuit arrangement are shown in Fig. 15, the wires 94 pass through relays 152 with holding contacts 152a in circuit with cam contacts 153. Specification 519,843 is referred to.