GB2517564A - Advances in gas and simulated gas lighting - Google Patents

Advances in gas and simulated gas lighting Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2517564A
GB2517564A GB1411083.7A GB201411083A GB2517564A GB 2517564 A GB2517564 A GB 2517564A GB 201411083 A GB201411083 A GB 201411083A GB 2517564 A GB2517564 A GB 2517564A
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GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
gas
light
diodes
mantles
lantern
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB1411083.7A
Other versions
GB2517564A8 (en
GB201411083D0 (en
Inventor
Brian Michael Harper
William Forrest Fagan
Duncan Hine
Original Assignee
Brian Michael Harper
William Forrest Fagan
Duncan Hine
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB201311009A priority Critical patent/GB201311009D0/en
Application filed by Brian Michael Harper, William Forrest Fagan, Duncan Hine filed Critical Brian Michael Harper
Publication of GB201411083D0 publication Critical patent/GB201411083D0/en
Publication of GB2517564A publication Critical patent/GB2517564A/en
Publication of GB2517564A8 publication Critical patent/GB2517564A8/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21LLIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF, BEING PORTABLE OR SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR TRANSPORTATION
    • F21L19/00Lanterns, e.g. hurricane lamps or candle lamps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21SNON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES; SYSTEMS THEREOF; VEHICLE LIGHTING DEVICES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLE EXTERIORS
    • F21S10/00Lighting devices or systems producing a varying lighting effect
    • F21S10/04Lighting devices or systems producing a varying lighting effect simulating flames
    • F21S10/043Lighting devices or systems producing a varying lighting effect simulating flames by selectively switching fixed light sources
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V37/00Details of lighting devices employing combustion as light source, not otherwise provided for; Night lamps; Votive lamps
    • F21V37/0004Details of lighting devices employing combustion as light source, not otherwise provided for; Night lamps; Votive lamps using liquid fuel
    • F21V37/0058Reflectors, cover glasses, chimneys; Smoke-removing devices; Preheaters
    • F21V37/0062Reflectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V5/00Refractors for light sources
    • F21V5/006Refractors for light sources applied to portable lighting devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V7/00Reflectors for light sources
    • F21V7/0008Reflectors for light sources providing for indirect lighting
    • F21V7/0016Reflectors for light sources providing for indirect lighting on lighting devices that also provide for direct lighting, e.g. by means of independent light sources, by splitting of the light beam, by switching between both lighting modes
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21VFUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF; STRUCTURAL COMBINATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES WITH OTHER ARTICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F21V7/00Reflectors for light sources
    • F21V7/0025Combination of two or more reflectors for a single light source
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L35/00Thermoelectric devices comprising a junction of dissimilar materials, i.e. exhibiting Seebeck or Peltier effect with or without other thermoelectric effects or thermomagnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21WINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO USES OR APPLICATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
    • F21W2131/00Use or application of lighting devices or systems not provided for in codes F21W2102/00-F21W2121/00
    • F21W2131/10Outdoor lighting
    • F21W2131/103Outdoor lighting of streets or roads
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21YINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO THE FORM OR THE KIND OF THE LIGHT SOURCES OR OF THE COLOUR OF THE LIGHT EMITTED
    • F21Y2107/00Light sources with three-dimensionally disposed light-generating elements
    • F21Y2107/40Light sources with three-dimensionally disposed light-generating elements on the sides of polyhedrons, e.g. cubes or pyramids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F21LIGHTING
    • F21YINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES F21K, F21L, F21S and F21V, RELATING TO THE FORM OR THE KIND OF THE LIGHT SOURCES OR OF THE COLOUR OF THE LIGHT EMITTED
    • F21Y2115/00Light-generating elements of semiconductor light sources
    • F21Y2115/10Light-emitting diodes [LED]

Abstract

A lantern which can be a gas burner or an LED lamp comprising reflectors inside the lantern. The lantern preferably has a monitoring and control system which actively monitors and controls energy consumption. There is also preferably the ability to recover energy from the heat to recharge the internal batteries. The lantern also preferably has a light diffusing dome to equally disperse light form the LEDs and means for reproducing sound and visual patterns of a gas lantern in LED lanterns. There is also included a method of converting a gas lantern into an LED lantern using a device that can be retrofitted.

Description

Description
Figure 1 shows the component layout of the lantern, the collective name for the whole lamp assembly. The tent is typically a truncated four sided pyramid that encases the upper part which is known as the Canopy. Within the tent another truncated metal cone is located, called the chimney, that conveys the hot gases produced by the gas mantle's combustion to the cap, a downward facing concave disk with an air gap around its circumference. The hot gases escapes through this air gap.
The ogee is attached to the top of the tent with a gap to allow ambient air into the lantern so forming a balanced flue. On top of the cap is located a smaller decoration called the spike. The above is a historic gas lamp design The next section describes the invention.
Near tile base of the tent, a solid metal bar, called the heat pipe, passes through slots in the chimney to contact the hot surface of the super-burner and/or the hot chimney gases. Heat from the mantle combustion is thus conducted to thermoelectric generators(T.E.G.) at the far ends of the pipe. The purpose of a T.E.G. is to generate electricity by means of the thermal gradient that is established between the hot end of the heat pipe and the tent surface that is cooled by the outside ambient air. The electrical cunent so produced, charges batteries that are used to power a central management system/control electronics in an environmentally friendly way. This is referred to as energy harvesting and is hidden from view.
The light produced by the mantles is directed by a series of reflectors, that can be either of metal or glass, in order that a greater energy efficiency can be achieved by reducing mantles. These anti-light pollution reflectors are positioned underneath the top reflector at such an angle and of such a size that the reflected light is directed in the desired direction and only in the desired direction. These flat or curved reflectors can be placed on the top of each of the glass panes that frame the lamps housing.
They can be each independently adjusted in position by deforming their aluminium mounting bracket to cater for different lighting distribution requirements of various sfteet locations, such as on the side of a hill. The top reflector redirects the mantle light down in the desired direction. In an alternative arrangement, one or more of the glass windows and the anti light pollution minors of the lamps housing can be either replaced by two plane mirrors connected at one edge or an angled section of polished metal as shown in Figure 2. They are positioned and angled so that their connected apex is pointed towards the centre of the lamp where the mantles are located so that the reflected light is directed in the desired sideways direction. They cover the entire pane's surface to blend into the frame. Where strong light is required from one side and no light from the opposite side, a plane minor can replace a pane of glass. The reflectors are designed to be hidden or be in keeping with classic gas lanterns and not be invasive on their heritage appearance.
The gas mantles are mounted underneath the super-burner unit that receives the gas/air mixture from the mixer tube. Mantle ignition is initiated under the super-burner by means of a sparking device triggered by signals from the control electronics and or central managememit system. The central management system is, itself, under the control of a remote computer that is connected to it by a wireless multi-channel data link with the aerial preferably mounted on the spike.. As well as the ignition and the on/off switching of the gas mantle, other parameters can be measured such as mantle brightness, gas flow and usage rates, optical sensing of dusk and dawn lighting levels, traffic flow, weather, pollution monitoring etc. The unit also incorporates a sensor that indicates if the lamp is being interfered with and_can sound an alarm_As stated above, power for the control system is derived from internal rechargeable batteries that are constantly topped up by the thermoelectric generators. Alternatively external solar panels can be used for this purpose if sufficient sunlight is available. Internal solar panels, illuminated by the mantles can be used but may interfere with the reflectors and are therefore not preferred.
Dimming of the mantles in the small hours when few people are about, further reduces the gas consumption. Previously, dimming of gas lamps has been accomplished by turning off some of the mantles. This requires complicated split chamber super-burners plus associated pipework and controls. However with methane fuel, gas flow can be halved with still adequate combustion maintained to minimise carbon build up at the mantle and nozzle. Light output reduces but is still usable. The realisation of the above is achieved by closing a solenoid valve with a bypass in the gas line so only allowing a reduced gas flow via the bypass. This solenoid valve is controlled by a time clock or central management system to close typically midnight to 5 am. The return to full gas flow raises the mantle temperature and burns off any carbon.
The purpose of this next section of the invention is to generate gas light from electric power not gas and to simulate, in as accurate a manner as possible, the visual and auditory properties of traditional gas lamps.
Figure 3 shows the simulated mantle that is composed of the following components: A truncated four sided pyramid that supports a number of light emitting diodes [L.E.D.II that are positioned on the outer surface of the pyramid's walls. The number and positions of these diodes are governed by the requirement to uniformly illuminate the diffusing cover that is placed over these diodes to simulate the light emitted by a gas mantle. The pyramid could be replaced with supporting structures with other geometries such as a hemisphere, a cone, or a multiple sided polygon etc. The diodes have an incorporated lens with an angular field of illumination that is selected to give an even intensity on tile inner surface of the diffuser. A spectral light filter, that helps closely recreate the spectral light output distribution of a gas supplied mantle, can be positioned in the optical path.
Figure 4 shows how the hemispherical light diffusing cover is positioned over the arrays of light emitting diodes mounted on the pyramid walls. The diffuser can incorporate holographic, Fresnel, or other optical diffusing means to create a controlled overall uniform light output intensity emission similar to that emitted by conventional gas mantles.
A mounting base not only supports the pyramid and the diffuser, but contains wiring to a module that powers and controls the sequential timing of the light emitting diodes by relaying electrical power and timing signals from the power supply and signal conditioning module, located above the mantle assembly, to the diodes.
This supply module controls the light output of the diodes to allow a timed phased start up of the mantles in a manner that mimics the start up behaviour of gas mantles where there is a time delay between the first mantle starting and the other mantles in the lamp, The supply module also allows the gradual increase in the light intensity that occurs with real gas mantles over the start up period of about 5 minutes as well as the slight flickering effects of light intensity that are present in running gas mantles.
Finally the switch off behaviour of gas mantles is also reproduced with the mantles switching off sequentially with a gradual intensity decay of around 1 second.
The orange afterglow from the hot ceramic nozzle that persists for about S seconds is also simulated by L.E.D.
The invention includes a sound generating electronics module with an incorporated loudspeaker to simulate the clicking and woof type sounds that occur when the lamps are ignited. The continuous background hiss of gas burners is also simulated as can be the occasional popping type noise when they are extinguished.
The same spark generator and electrode as on the gas powered burner is retained on the electric powered burner and operates in the same manner or a small led in a mounting to simulate a pilot light type ignition used instead to mimic pilot light ignited gas powered lanterns.
All copper tubes and assemblies that constitute part of the gas powered burner are retained so the electric powered burner can be exchanged for the gas burner and look and operate identical in the lantern as per figure 1.
By means of installing a retro-fitted assembly to traditional gas lamps that have previously undergone a conversion to sodium illumination as well as to new replica lamps that were also designed to be run with sodium illumination gas light can be recreated and extended in the street.

Claims (7)

  1. Claims 1. The use of plane and curved reflecting elements within the lantern, for both gas and light emitting diode light sources, to greatly improve the efficiency of energy use as well as giving better control of the light intensity distribution directivity and the suppression of illumination in undesired directions.
  2. 2. Integration of the central management system, for both gas and light emitting diode light sources, to monitor and control the operation of said light sources as well as permitting remote monitoring and control of other sensor data related to the environment such as weather, traffic conditions, vandal attack and theft. The use of a miniature flow meter to monitor gas consumption via the central management system so giving a smart meter which may enable the use of bio methane gas so reducing the carbon footprint to near zero.
  3. 3. Energy harvesting and conservation using the hot gases emitted by the gas mantles to supply a self contained hidden independent electrical charging capacity of the central management system's internal rechargeable batteries.
  4. 4. The dimming of gas mantles by pressure reduction to reduce gas consumption.
  5. 5.An apparatus that allows an existing sodium lamp conversion of a gas lamp to that of a novel compact light emitting diode based system that can be retro fitted to existing gas lanterns in order that the original light emitting properties of a gas lamp be faithfully reproduced. This apparatus may also be used to convert new gas replica lamps for the same purpose.The light emitting diodes are specially selected in order that their light spectrum output match as closely as possible the light spectrum output of gas mantles.A further refinement is the use of colour filters, in conjunction with the diodes, to tailor their emitted light spectrum to follow as closely as possible that of gas mantles by suppressing the blue light wavelength emission of the diodes.
  6. 6. A specially manufactured hemispherical light diffusing dome that appears identical to a gas mantle both in the illuminated and unilluminated state, is used to create an evenly radiated, highly efficient, intensity distribution of the emitted light from the diodes. This may be in the form of a holographic optical element, or utilise lenticular, Fresnel, or smoked glass type diffUsers.
  7. 7. The incorporation of electronic circuitry and hardware in the light emiued diode based lantern, that generate the noises and timed sequences of optical and auditory events associated with the operation of conventional gas lighting in order that the psychological perception illusion is created that a conventional gas lamp is in use.This includes the simulation of the electronic ignition function of the gas mantle with sparks or a small led in a mounting to simulate a pilot light type ignition. The light emitting diodes are not all switched on simultaneously but have a time delay from diode to diode exactly mirroring the individual behaviour of gas mantles during their ignition. The diodes are powered such that full brightness is only reached after some minutes again simulating gas mantle behaviour, a random low frequency just detectable light intensity flicker, is electronically generated that simulates the slight flicker of gas mantles. At switch off, the diodes are not all switched off together but have about 0.1 second delay between them. They are then made to exhibit a decay in light intensity lasting about I second similar to gas mantle behaviour. The cooling down orange afterglow of the gas ceramic nozzle that persists for about 5 seconds is also simulated by the diodes. The electronic circuitry allows the variable control of the diodes light output, i.e., the dimming or the increase of the light intensity depending on the required level of illumination desired. In addition the click of the solenoid that switches the gas supply on and off is also simulated as well as the slight hissing sound made when gas flows during operation.
GB1411083.7A 2013-06-20 2014-06-20 Advances in gas and simulated gas lighting Withdrawn GB2517564A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB201311009A GB201311009D0 (en) 2013-06-20 2013-06-20 Advances in gas and simulated gas lighting

Publications (3)

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GB201411083D0 GB201411083D0 (en) 2014-08-06
GB2517564A true GB2517564A (en) 2015-02-25
GB2517564A8 GB2517564A8 (en) 2015-03-11

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GB201311009A Ceased GB201311009D0 (en) 2013-06-20 2013-06-20 Advances in gas and simulated gas lighting
GB1411083.7A Withdrawn GB2517564A (en) 2013-06-20 2014-06-20 Advances in gas and simulated gas lighting

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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB190216291A (en) * 1902-07-22 1903-06-04 Joseph Edmund Webb Improvements in Gas Lamps.
GB321654A (en) * 1928-08-13 1929-11-13 John Bond Improvements in and relating to street lighting appliances
GB377759A (en) * 1931-05-04 1932-08-04 Conrad Thomas Price Improvements in or relating to reflectors
CN2878903Y (en) * 2005-08-01 2007-03-14 韩福忠 Flower lamp for projection various scenes, decoration and illumination
CN202972585U (en) * 2012-12-27 2013-06-05 艾而丹(漳州)光电科技有限公司 Solar induction barn lantern

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB190216291A (en) * 1902-07-22 1903-06-04 Joseph Edmund Webb Improvements in Gas Lamps.
GB321654A (en) * 1928-08-13 1929-11-13 John Bond Improvements in and relating to street lighting appliances
GB377759A (en) * 1931-05-04 1932-08-04 Conrad Thomas Price Improvements in or relating to reflectors
CN2878903Y (en) * 2005-08-01 2007-03-14 韩福忠 Flower lamp for projection various scenes, decoration and illumination
CN202972585U (en) * 2012-12-27 2013-06-05 艾而丹(漳州)光电科技有限公司 Solar induction barn lantern

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Greenergy - http://www.ecofriend.com - Published 28/09/2014 [Accessed 04/12/2014] *
'Samsung Televisions - How to Use Eco Sensor' by SPSN - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETHXJbYY5IA - Available since 25/01/2011 [Accessed 11/12/2014] *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2517564A8 (en) 2015-03-11
GB201411083D0 (en) 2014-08-06
GB201311009D0 (en) 2013-08-07

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