GB2511085A - Electric drive system - Google Patents

Electric drive system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2511085A
GB2511085A GB1303173.7A GB201303173A GB2511085A GB 2511085 A GB2511085 A GB 2511085A GB 201303173 A GB201303173 A GB 201303173A GB 2511085 A GB2511085 A GB 2511085A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
drive
gear
output
controller
electric
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB1303173.7A
Other versions
GB201303173D0 (en
Inventor
David Grant Allan
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
HARPER ADAMS UNIVERSITY
Original Assignee
HARPER ADAMS UNIVERSITY
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by HARPER ADAMS UNIVERSITY filed Critical HARPER ADAMS UNIVERSITY
Priority to GB1303173.7A priority Critical patent/GB2511085A/en
Publication of GB201303173D0 publication Critical patent/GB201303173D0/en
Publication of GB2511085A publication Critical patent/GB2511085A/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P5/00Arrangements specially adapted for regulating or controlling the speed or torque of two or more electric motors
    • H02P5/68Arrangements specially adapted for regulating or controlling the speed or torque of two or more electric motors controlling two or more dc dynamo-electric motors
    • H02P5/69Arrangements specially adapted for regulating or controlling the speed or torque of two or more electric motors controlling two or more dc dynamo-electric motors mechanically coupled by gearing
    • H02P5/695Differential gearing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K17/00Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles
    • B60K17/04Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles characterised by arrangement, location, or kind of gearing
    • B60K17/12Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles characterised by arrangement, location, or kind of gearing of electric gearing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K17/00Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles
    • B60K17/34Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles for driving both front and rear wheels, e.g. four wheel drive vehicles
    • B60K17/356Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles for driving both front and rear wheels, e.g. four wheel drive vehicles having fluid or electric motor, for driving one or more wheels
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2036Electric differentials, e.g. for supporting steering vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2072Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed for drive off
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2072Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed for drive off
    • B60L15/2081Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed for drive off for drive off on a slope
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/32Control or regulation of multiple-unit electrically-propelled vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L3/00Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or energy consumption
    • B60L3/0023Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train
    • B60L3/0046Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train relating to electric energy storage systems, e.g. batteries or capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L3/00Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or energy consumption
    • B60L3/04Cutting off the power supply under fault conditions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L3/00Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or energy consumption
    • B60L3/10Indicating wheel slip ; Correction of wheel slip
    • B60L3/106Indicating wheel slip ; Correction of wheel slip for maintaining or recovering the adhesion of the drive wheels
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K16/00Machines with more than one rotor or stator
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/006Structural association of a motor or generator with the drive train of a motor vehicle
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/10Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters
    • H02K7/116Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters with gears
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P5/00Arrangements specially adapted for regulating or controlling the speed or torque of two or more electric motors
    • H02P5/68Arrangements specially adapted for regulating or controlling the speed or torque of two or more electric motors controlling two or more dc dynamo-electric motors
    • H02P5/69Arrangements specially adapted for regulating or controlling the speed or torque of two or more electric motors controlling two or more dc dynamo-electric motors mechanically coupled by gearing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/26Rail vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2220/00Electrical machine types; Structures or applications thereof
    • B60L2220/40Electrical machine applications
    • B60L2220/42Electrical machine applications with use of more than one motor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/10Vehicle control parameters
    • B60L2240/12Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/42Drive Train control parameters related to electric machines
    • B60L2240/421Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/42Drive Train control parameters related to electric machines
    • B60L2240/423Torque
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/46Drive Train control parameters related to wheels
    • B60L2240/465Slip
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/54Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
    • B60L2240/545Temperature
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2260/00Operating Modes
    • B60L2260/20Drive modes; Transition between modes
    • B60L2260/28Four wheel or all wheel drive
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/64Electric machine technologies in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

Abstract

An electric drive system 200 for driving an output comprises: a first electric motor 250 arranged to drive a first input shaft 230 at a first angular velocity, ω1, and a second electric motor 260 arranged to drive a second input shaft 240 at a second angular velocity, ω2. A gear mechanism 210 transmits angular rotation of the first and second input shafts to drive the output 220 at an output angular velocity, ωout, such that ωout is proportional to aω1bω2, where a and b are constants. When the output is to be driven from ωout=0, controller 270 controls the first and second motors to drive the first and second input shafts in a first phase to primary first and second angular velocities, ω1,p and ω2,p, such that aω1,p≈bω2,p . The input shafts are subsequently driven in a second phase in which the first angular velocity, ω1, or the second angular velocity, ω2, or both are varied such that aω1≠bω2 and the output is driven from ωout=0. The invention is suitable for motors powering an electric vehicle, particularly when pulling off in situations of high output load such as off-road or otherwise difficult terrain, or moving at low velocity.

Description

I
Electric Drive System This invention relates to an electric drive system for driving an output for use with electric motors.
A typical DC electric motor has an output shaft, which rotates at an angular velocity, or rotation spccd, w. The output shaft has a torquc, 1', and provides powcr P. Figure 1 schematically shows the relationship between the rotation speed, (0, of the output shaft of a typical DC electric motor, the output torque, T, and output power, P. The maximum torque is at the stall torque, T5, which is when the output shaft of the motor is not rotating i.e. when cv = 0. The torque produced by the motor is approximately inversely proportional to the shaft rotation speed or angular velocity cv.
Thc maximum angular velocity, Wrnax, occurs at zero torquc, i.c. whcn no load is applied to the output shaft. The power provided by the motor is related to the product of the angular velocity and the torque, and is represented by the parabolic relationship shown in Figure 1. The power is zero when the rotation speed is zero and also when it is at its maximum, Wrnax. The maximum power occurs at wrnax/2 and T5/2 since a linear inverse relationship between T and cv is assumed.
In typical use an electric motor will start at rest, its angular output speed is zero, cv = 0, and so will operate around the stall torque. The amount of torque is proportional to the amount of current the motor can draw, so in order to provide a large torque at zero angular velocity, the current drawn by the motor will be high. The available current will be limited by the power source, such as the battery supplying the current, or the amount of current the circuitry is able to handle without overheating. Typically the circuitry delivering the current will have a cut-off to avoid damage from overheating.
If the current is not adequate to provide enough torque to the motor it will not be able to drive the applied load and it will stall. If the motor is powering a vehicle, which is moving from rest, the motor will stall and the vehicle will be unable to move. This can especially be a problem in situations where high levels of torque are required, at low speed where the vehicle is not assisted by momentum, such as on undulating terrain in off-road conditions, or when driving up a step or kerb. Off-road, agricultural and construction vehicles often operate at low speed and with high loads, so these considerations are particular applicable.
Typical solutions to this problem are adapted from well known solutions to the corresponding problem found in other forms of motor such as petrol or diesel engines.
In that field it is well known to use a clutch system to disengage the drive to control the output at low vehicle speeds. This adds additional weight and complication over a direct drive system, but is still accepted as a good solution. Flywheels may also be used to minimise the chance of the motor stalling at low speeds. This requires the addition of a large and heavy flywheel, but is still accepted as a good solution and has been used for many years. It is also known to incorporate speed reduction gearing either in the transmission or at the output wheels to reduce the angular velocity of the output of the drive and increase the applied torque at the wheels. This avoids operating the motor at low speed when the vehicle speed is low, but the speed reduction gearing will limit the overall maximum speed of the vehicle, and adds additional heavy gearing to the vehicle.
The inventor has realised that electric traction motors can be very efficient. However, when moving from rest, stopping and starting, or travelling at low speed, direct drive and gear assisted electrically powered vehicles will operate with the motor angular velocity 0, and this particular zone of operation is inefficient. In consequence when operating at low speeds or with a stop-start duty cycle, the inefficiency will have a direct and significant effect on vehicle range and performance (such as pulling-off in rough terrain).
Motor efficiency is inversely related to the total amount of power losses in the motor.
Motor losses are often divided into two major areas: conduction losses and speed-related losses. One function of this invention is to mitigate against losses in efficiency and effectiveness in the drive system of vehicles operating at near zero speed (co 0) and the inventor has considered management of low speed efficiency losses. The primary cause of low speed motor efficiency is conduction loss. Conduction losses are the result of the motor drive current flowing in the motor coils with a finite resistance. These losses are related to the motor current squared times the motor resistance (12R).
When the speed of the motor is controlled through variation of the voltage the torque at the output shaft will be proportional to the current. Therefore as the speed and torque are inversely proportional when operated at low speeds the motor will draw high current; due to the resistance of the windings and other supply components the proportion of energy lost to waste heat will be significant. As a direct consequence of this waste heat loss most typical electric motors will demonstrate an efficiency of 30 - 50% at near zero speed (w 0).
The present invention provides a drive system that recognises and solves the problem of requiring a high current at low output angular velocities and provides a drive system that is less prone to stalling and more efficient when running at low speeds.
The present invention provides an electric drive system for driving an output comprising: a first electric motor arranged to drive a first input shaft at a first angular velocity, wi, a second electric motor arranged to drive a second input shaft at a second angular velocity, w,, a gear mechanism arranged to transmit angular rotation of the first and second input shafts to drive the output at an output angular velocity, such that w0 is proportional to ami -bw2, where a and b arc constants and controller arranged to control operation of the first and second electric motors. When the output is to be driven from w0 = 0, the controller is arranged to control the first and second electric motors to drive the first and second input shafts: in a first phase to primary first and second angular velocities, o and m2,, such that ami. hro2, and in a second phase subsequently to vary the first angular velocity, (0i, or the second angular velocity, (02, or both such that am1!= bmo and the output is driven from (0,ut = 0.
The output of the drive system is therefore zero, whilst the first and second electric motors run at non-zero angular velocities. When the output is required to be driven from Woj = 0, i.e. when the vehicle pulls away from rest, the first, or the second, electric motor angular velocity is varied such that they no longer cancel out, and the output is accordingly non-zero. This means the electric motors do not run at low angular velocity where the torque is high and a large current is drawn. The result of this is that the motors run in a more efficient part of their output profile, even whilst the vehicle is at rest, pulling off (especially in situations of high output load such as on off-road or otherwise difficult terrain), or moving at low velocity. The performance and range of the vehicle is therefore improved.
The controller may be arranged to control the first and second electric niotors to (Irive the first and second input shafts to primary first and second angular velocities such that am1,1, = bm213. The angular velocities of the first and second electric motors may be controlled so that they cancel each other out and the output velocity is zero. The velocity of the first and second input drive shafts at which the output velocity is zero may depend on the gear ratios within the gear mechanism, the gear ratios determining thc values of a and b.
Each of the primary first and second angular velocities is substantially non-zero, such as grcater than 10% of (Ornax, where (Ornax is thc maximum angular velocity of each motor and input shaft pair. This means that when running at the primary first and second angular velocities the first and second electric motors run in an efficient region of their output profile.
Each of the primary first and second angular velocities is between 20% and 80% of (Onaax. Some electric motors may have an increased efficiency in the region of 20% to 80% of their maximum output velocity.
The controller is arranged to control the rate of rotation of the first and second motors in response to user input. The user niay be provided with an input means to control the output angular velocity of the drive system by varying the angular velocity of the first and second motors.
The electric drive system may further comprise a sensing system arranged to measure wi and w2 and to communicate the measurements to the controller, such that in the first phase the controller is arranged to control the first, second or both electric motors so that that am1 and bw2 are bought closer to being equal. This means the values of am1 and bw2 can be controlled so that the angular velocity of the output is zero and the vehicle will remain at rest during the first phase.
The controller may be arranged to determine whether am1 = bm2, and if it is determined that aw!= bm2, the controller being further arranged to control the first, second or both electric motors so that am1 and bm2 are brought closer to being equal.
This allows the controller to maintain the values of aw1 and bw2 such that the output angular velocity is zero.
The sensing system may comprise a first sensor arranged to measure an and a second sensor to measure w2. This allows the controller to monitor the angular velocity of the first and sccond input shafts so that the velocity of the first and second motors can be controlled.
The electric drive system may further comprise a third sensor arranged to measure ouE and communicate its value to the controller, in the first phase the controller being arranged to control the first, second or both electric motors so that aw1 and bw2 are brought closer to being equal. The first and second electric motors can be controlled in response to the output angular velocity so that the output velocity remains at zero during the first phase, or is at the desired velocity to drive the vehicle in the second phase.
The gear mechanism may comprise a lubrication system arranged to operate under unusually high centrifugal forces. When running in a region of their output profile that is efficient, the first and second electric motors may run at angular velocities around, or in excess of, half of their maximum output, even whilst the output angular velocity is zero. This produces great centrifugal forces within the gear mechanism that can force the lubricant in an outward radial direction from the axis of rotation, resulting in the lubricant being forced away from the centre, and becoming insufficiently distributed throughout the components of the gear mechanism.
The lubrication system may comprise a deflector, machined feature or a bearing surface arranged to direct lubricant. The deflector, bearing surface or machined features may be arranged to direction lubricant to: the star gear and carrier contact area; the teeth of the star gear; the mounting spindles and sides of the inner planet gears; the sides and teeth of the outer planet gears; or to the ring gear of the gear mechanism. The first, second or both input shafts may comprise sealed and pre-lubricated roller bearings. This ensures that the lubricant is distributed evenly throughout the gear mechanism and is not pulled away from the centre of rotation by the increased centrifugal force experienced by the gear mechanism. If the components towards the axis of rotation are not sufficiently lubricated they may experience excess wear, become damaged and fail.
The gear mechariisni niay be an epicyclic gear system. The drive may be transmitted from the first and second input shafts to the output shaft using a system of star, planet and ring gears in an epicyclic layout. This allows the first and second input rotations to effectively be cancelled out and provide an output at rest whilst the first and second input angular velocities arc non-zero.
The present invention further comprises a vehicle wheel comprising an electric drive system of the present invention mounted thereon. The drive system described above may be connected directly (or indirectly) to the wheel of a vehicle in order to power the vehicle.
The present invention further comprises a vehicle track or winch drum comprising the electric drive system of the present invention mounted thereon. The drive system described above may be connected directly (or indirectly) to the track of a vehicle in order to power the vehicle, or to the winch drum or spool in order to drive the winch.
The present invention may provide an electric drive system for driving an output comprising: a first electric motor arranged to drive a first input shaft at a first angular velocity, a second electric motor arranged to drive a second input shaft at a second angular velocity, a gear mechanism arranged to transmit angular rotation of the first and second input shafts to drive the output shaft at an output angular velocity, wherein the first and second shafts are arranged to work against one another so that when they are at an equal angular velocity the output shaft is at rest; a controller arranged to control operation of the first and second electric motors, such that when the output shaft is to be driven from rest, the controller is arranged to control the first and second electric motors to drive the first and second input shafts to a predefined optimum angular velocity, whilst they are still working against one another, and then vary the angular velocity of the first input shaft, the second input shaft or both such that they no longer work completely against one another and the output is driven from rest.
The predefined optimum angular velocity of the first and second motor may be a velocity in a high efficiency region. The region of high efficiency angular velocities may be between 20% and 80% of 131flax between 40% and 80% of 0max or between 40°% and 60% of WTha. The predefined optimum angular velocity may be where the power output is greatest. The predefined optimum angular velocity maybe at, or in excess of, (O, ax/2.
Embodimcnts of thc invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Figure I shows the relationship between angular velocity, torque arid power of a typical electric motor; Figure 2 shows a schematic view of a drive system according to an embodiment of the invention; Figure 3 shows an example epicyclic gear layout; Figure 4 shows a schematic view of the gear mechanism of the present invention; Figure 5 shows a side view of the gear mechanism of the present invention; Figure 6 shows a cut away view of the drive system of the present invention; Figure 7 shows a schematic view of an alternative gear mechanism of the present i n vent io n; Figure 8 shows a schematic view of an alternative gear mechanism of the present invention; Figure 9 shows a drive system according to a second embodiment of the present invention; Figure 10 shows a drive system according to a third embodiment of the present invention; Figure 11 shows a drive system according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention; Figure 12 shows a drive system according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention; Figure 13 shows a drive system according to a sixth embodiment of tile present invention; Figure 14 shows a drive system according to a seventh embodiment of the present invention; Figure IS shows a drive system according to an eighth embodiment of the present invention; Figure 16 shows a drive system according to a ninth embodiment of the present invention; Figure 17 shows a drive system according to a tenth embodiment of the present invention; and Figure 18 shows a drive system according to an eleventh embodiment of the present invention.
Referring to Figure 2, in one embodiment a drive system 200 comprises a gear mechanism 210 that has an output 220 that is in the form of a single drive shaft, axle, ring, plate, cog or gear that is driven to rotate at an angular speed, WOU The gear mechanism is connected to a first input drive 230 and a second input drive 240, each in the form of a drive input rotating at an angular speed, Wi and w2 respectively.
The first input drive 230 and the second input drive 240 are driven by first 250 and second 260 electric motors respectively. The first and second electric motors are controlled by a system controller 270. In this embodiment, the system controller is arranged to control the speed of the first and second motors individually. The system controller processes an input from the operator 280 -the input may be a throttle or other speed controller and determines the required rotation speed of each of the first and second motors to achieve the desired output rotation speed.
In some embodiments a vehicle may be powered by two or more separate drive systems 200, each distinct drive system providing drive for each wheel of the vehicle.
In some embodiments a further high-level controller may command and/or receive feedback from the individual system controllers 270. In some embodiments a vchiclc may be powered by separate drive systems arranged to provide drive for each wheel individually. Each separate drive system, including its electric motors, and its gear mechanism, is connected directly (or indirectly) to the wheel of a vehicle in order to power the vehicle.
The gear mechanism 210 is arranged such that the output 220 shaft is driven at an angular velocity given by: t0uut X am1 -bw2, (I) where a and b are constants. The value of a and b is determined, amongst othcr things, by the gear ratios within the gear mechanism, by the ratio selection for the mechani sin.
The output velocity is proportional to the difference between the input angular velocities. Therefore, if a>0 and h>O and the first and second input shafts are arranged to be driven such that coi and to2 are positive, the first and second drive inputs effectively act against each other via the gear mechanism. The first and second motors can therefore be controlled to work such that they initially cancel each other out. Even though the first and second motors are working to rotate their respective input shafts, the controller can control their relative work rates (with knowledge of a and b) such that there is no or little effect on the rotation of the output shaft, i.e. m01 = 0, or about 0. In a simple example, where a = b, the drive system 200 therefore results in the output shaft rotation speed being proportional to the difference in rotation speed of the first and second inputs, and the output rotation speed may be zero when the rotation speed of both inputs is non-zero.
The inventors have recognised that this technique can solve the problem of providing high torque and low output engine speeds (around torni. = 0) without requiring a large input driving current. As is clear from Figure 1, once the motor has started rotating, the torque will decrease as the rotation speed (angular velocity) increases. It is therefore advantageous to run the motor at a rotation speed that is not near-zero where possible. The present invention allows both motors 250 and 260 to be run at a desircd non-zero rotation speed (with a low torque and low current), whilst the output, given by the difference in motor speeds can be zero or low. In this way, the controller can control the first and second motors such that they are made to work in efficient portions of their output profiles (e.g. around 50% of maximum torque or maximum to -see Figure 1). When operating at about 50% of its maximum torque, an electric motor with the profile shown in Figure 1, will be operating at approximately maximum power, but will be drawing a reasonable (not very large) amount of current -as a result, large initial torque output (via the output drive) can be provided without drawing a dangerously (in terms of efficiency, performance, overheating, automatic cut-outs etc.) large current. This is important when the vehicle is pulling away from rest.
The parabolic nature of the relationship between power and angular velocity means that the power will be equal at two different angular velocities, (01 and to2, during the operating cycle of the motor, as illustrated in Figure 1. The niotor can therefore provide the same amount of power, whilst running at a higher rotation speed, and hence at a lower level of torque and lower current. The controller can be used to make the first and second motors operate in particularly efficient regions of their profiles to achieve a desired output in the region of toOU 0, with a consequent benefit of increased range due to reduction in the current required.
When the vehicle is to be started, both motors begin at rest: to1 = = 0. In one example, an operator, for example a human operator, provides an indication that the vehicle should begin to move forward -this can be via a start button, for example.
The controller 270 receives the indication. The controller then instructs activation of the first 250 and second 260 electric motors such that they drive the first 230 and second 240 input drive shafts from rest to a rotational speed to1 and t02 respectively.
The controller controls operation of the motors 250, 260 such that aw1 = bw2, i.e. after the motion is transferred through the gear mechanism 210, Worn = 0, i.e. the output shaft 220 reniains stationary, and the vehicle (toes not move.
During a first phase, the angular velocities u1 and w2 are increased until they reach respective primary angular velocities w, and w2.,. The primary angular velocity may bc a predetermincd value at which thc first and second motors are known to run sufficientty efficiently. This may be in the region of Figure 2 where the efficiency of cach motor is between 90% and 95%. This may be in the region whcre the vetocity is equal to or around wmax/2, which corresponds to the point where the power delivered tO by the motor is greatest. In a typicat electric motor the optimat angutar vetocity may be 2500 rpm.
In one example identical first and second motors are used and known to work efficiently at a rotation speed of 2500 rpm. Atso, it is assumed, a = b = 1, for simptieity. The drive system starts with both motors at rcst, and in response to an niput from the operator, the rotation speed of both the first and second motors is increased concurrently until (01 = (02 = 2500 rpm. This process is controlled by the system controtter 270 with no input from the user except the first activation signal.
Ctearty, in other embodiments, other efficient rpm values witt appty. A dcsircd region of operation for an eteetrie motor may be within 20% to 80% of its maximum rotational speed value.
With the motors hetd at an equal rotation speed, the output drive, and hence the vehicle, will remain at rest. This state of operation may be achieved following a first user action, such as pressing a start button. When the user wishes to start the vehicte in motion, a further input is given to the system controtler 270. This input may be in the form of a throttle lever or pedal typical in motorised vehicles, for example. During a second phase, in response to the further user input the system controller 270 reduces the rotation speed of one of the motors (the second motor in this example) whitst the first motor is kept at the originat rotation speed (2500 rpm in this exampte). As the output is proportionat to the difference in the motor rotation speeds, the difference will no longer be zero, and the vehicle will begin to move from rest. As the difference in the motor rotation speed increases so does the vehicte speed and the vehicte witt aceeterate. When the vehicle reaches the desired speed the user may stop the input indicating velncle acceleration is required, at which point the motors will stop varying iii rotation speed and the vehicle speed will remain constant.
In some embodiments, the entire action described above may be completed by the controller in response to a single user input (such as operation of a throttle, for example). The initiation of thc first and second electric motors under the supervision of the controller is quick enough to make this feasible.
In another embodiment, ami hm,. In this case am1 is substantially equal to bw2, and the contributions for the first and second electric motor will not cancel out exactly.
This may be due to manufacturing variations between the first and second electric motors, gear mechanism or system controller. In other embodiments, am1 may be equal to bm2 within a threshold that may be predefined as a tolerable threshold.
Therefore w0 has a tolerable, perhaps small, non-zero value. The controller is arranged to control operation of vehicle brakes in order to ensure there is no undesired movement of the vehicle at this stage. If am i > Jim2 then the vehicle would be urged to move forward; whilst if am < bm2 then the vehicle would be urged to move backward.
The vehicle brakes arc activated to prevent this, at this stage. The application of the brake prevents the rotation of the output, and will force the input drive from the faster' motor to the slower' motor, which will have the effect of equalising the speed of both motors. The user can therefore manage vehicle creep before pulling away by the application of the brake. This is similar to the operation of single motor vehicles with automatic gear boxes, where vehicle creep is managed by application of the brake. If the difference in am1 and Jim2 is tolerable, any vehicle creep can be managed by application of the brakes. The motors will typically stabilise to a condition where am1 = Jim2. In an electric system, this is a usually acceptable condition since it generally does not take long for each motor to be driven from rest into or near its zone of optimum efficiency.
In yet another embodiment, if the initial operator instruction is to move forward then the controller controls the motors such that am1 Jim2 and am1 > Jim2 Therefore, the vehicle may creep forward whilst the motors are being brought into an efficient operating region before pulling away significantly. Similarly, if the initial operator instruction is to move backward then the controller controls the motors such that am1 Jim and am1cbm2 Therefore, the vehicle may creep backward whilst the motors are being brought into an efficient operating region before pulling away significantly. It is envisaged that, in some embodiments, due to the quick response time of an electric motor, there will be no significant delay between the creeping' and the pulling away -a user of the vehicle does not need to take account of it.
In some embodiments thc system uses a first electric motor A, which has its angular velocity controlled to optimise efficiency, range and power for the chosen application, and a second clcctric motor, B, in which thc controller utiliscs a dcfault matching function to match' motor speed of B to A when not receiving any command froni the operator. The controller is arranged to drive A to an optimum value, and then is arranged to control the angular velocity of B to match A in order to keep them equal, or substantially equal. Acceleration would in effect result from overriding' the default niatching function, and controlling the second motor B to provide a desired difference in angular velocity.
In yet further embodiments the system comprises an automatic output brake function for both safety and controllability that can be applied by the system controller with input from the user.
As the output rotation speed is proportional to the difference in the two input motor rotation speeds the drive system can easily and efficiently operate in a regime where the output rotational speed is low (i.e. the vehicle speed is low), yet the torque and hence the current drawn by each motor remains low. This therefore allows the vehicle to operate efficiently at low speeds and with a high torque. Otherwise, it is very difficult to operate a conventional electric powered vehicle at low speed -the large current drawn at low speeds (due to the high torque) usually results in implementation of an automatic cut-out mechanism to prevent overheating or damage to the battery or other components.
In some embodiments, in order to maintain the first and second inputs at equal rotation speeds an additional control system is used. This may be in the form of a feedback mechanism that measures the relative speed of the inputs and adjusts them accordingly to maintain w01= 0. One of the motors may be deemed to be a lead motor, with the second motor arranged to adjust its speed to maintain a zero difference in rotation speed.
In a particularly useful embodiment, the first and second motors are substantially identical. They have substantially the same power profiles and are the same size.
Therefore, efficiently, drive requirements can be shared between them to provide for equal wear and tear over time. In this example, the controller may alternately, or from lime to lime, switch between the motors that it considers to be the first and the second motor.
The gear mechanism of the present invention may be a reverse star compound epicyclic gear layout 400 as shown in Figure 3. The gear mechanism comprises a first group of six inner planet gcars 402a, 402b, 402c, 402d, 402e, 402f arranged around, and meshed with, a central star gear 406. A second group of six outer planet gears 404a, 404b, 404c, 404d, 404e, and 404f are also arranged around the central star gear, but do not mesh with the star gear 406. Each of the second group of planet gears meshes with two of the first group of plant gears. Around the second group of planet gears is a ring gear 408, which meshes with each of the second group of planet gears 404a, 404b, 404c, 404d, 404e, 404f In other cmbodiments there may be only one group of planet gears each meshed with both the star gear and ring gear. In some embodiments the number of planet gears in each group may be more than six. In some embodiments the number of planet gears in each group may be less than six.
The gear mechanism 210 of the present invention is shown schematically in Figure 4, with common components from Figure 3 given the same labels. In this case the inputs and output from the gear mechanism are also shown. Referring to Figure 4, the star gear 406 is connected to the first input drive 230. Around the star gear are the first group 402 and second group 404 of planet gears. The first group of planet gears are connected via a planet gear carrier 510. The axis of rotation is held in a fixed position relative to the planet gears, but each of the planet gears are themselves free to rotate.
The planet gear carrier 510 forms a second input to the gear mechanism and is connected to the second input drive. The output of the system is the ring gear 408, which is connected to the wheels of a vehicle being driven by the system.
Figure 5 shows a detailed side view of the gear mechanism 210 of tile present invention. The gear mechanism comprises a central star gear 602 which has an aperture 604 arranged to receive a shaft or axle. The shaft or axle provides a first input, from the first electric motor, to the gear mechanism. The first input therefore drives the star gear. The gear mechanism further comprises a planet gear carrier 606 which is arranged to rotate concentrically with the star gcar. The planet gear carrier has an aperture 608 arranged to receive an axle or shaft in order to drive the planet gcar carrier. This axle or shaft forms the second input to the gear mechanism and is driven by the second electric motor. The second input therefore drives the planet gear carrier.
The first group of planet gears 402 are attached to the planet gear carrier by means of axles, one of which 610 is shown in Figure 5. The axle 610 is rigidly fixed to the planet gear carrier, but in some embodiments may be free to rotate. Figure 5 shows one of 612 the first group of planet gears 402, which rotates about the axle 610. The planet gear 612 is meshed with the star gear 602 and so drive is transferred from the star gear to the planet gear 612. The second group of planet gears 404 are similarly mounted to the planet gear carrier. One of 616 the second group of planet gears 404 is shown in Figure 5 mounted to the planet gear carrier via axle 614. The planet gear 616 is meshed %vith one of the first group of planet gears (not shown in Figure 5) and with the ring gear 618. Drive is therefore transferred from the first group of planet gears to the ring gear, via the second group of planet gears. The use of two groups of planet gears reverses the direction of the star gear such that it rotates in the same direction as the ring gear.
In the reverse-star full-complement planetary-epicyclic embodiment (shown in Figure 3) the outer planet gears (404) may be mounted onto a drive carrier, or may be retained in position by their meshed location and side guides. Such side guides comprise recesses in the housing of the gear mechanism in which the planet gears may be located. The planet gears are held in place by the side guides without the need of a planet gear carrier. In the design shown in figures 3 and 6, the outer planets are not carrier mounted, in the design shown in Figure 5 both the inner and outer planet are carrier mounted.
The drive system 200 is shown in Figure 6 labelled to correspond to Figure 2. The first electric motor 250 is shown driving the first input drive 230. The second electric motor 260 is shown driving the second input drive 240. The output drive 220 is also shown.
In other embodiments the gear mechanism may be a double star compound epicyclic layout (also known as a spur gear differential, spur gear axial differential, helical gear differential, helical gear axial differential, or axial differential) as shown schematically in Figure 7. The double star planetary layout comprises a first 802 and second 804 star gear. The first star gear 802 forms the first input drive and is driven by the first electric motor. The second star gear 804 forms the second input drive and is driven by the second electric motor. The first and the second star gears both rotate around the same axis. The first star gear 802 is meshed with a first group of planet gears 806. Tn Figure 7 two of the first group of planet gears are shown, but it is to be understood that there can be any suitable number. The second star gear 804 is meshed with a second group of planet gears 808. Again in Figure 7 two of the second group of planet gears are shown, but it is to be understood that there can be any suitable number. Each of the first and second groups of planet gears are arranged to mesh with one another to link both of the star gears to the output. The output of the mechanism in Figure 7 is the planet gear carrier 810, which is fixed to both groups of planet gears.
In yet another embodiment shown in Figure 8, the gear mechanism is a simple epicyclic layout. In this embodiment the gear mechanism comprises a single central star gear 902, which is surrounded by a single group of planetary gears 904. Each one of the group of planetary gears meshes with the star gear, and with the surrounding ring gear 906. The first input drive is arranged to rotate the star gear 902 and the second input drives the planet gear carrier 908 which is fixed to the planet gears. The output drive is formed by the ring gear, which is connected to the wheels of the vehicle.
In yet other embodiments the gear mechanism may be a bevel gear differential or a spur gear mechanism.
The design of the gear mechanism includes considerations for wear and bearing performance. This system includes features and devices to ensure that sufficient lubrication is provided to the system during all behaviours. Generally, when co = 0, or w01 0, the gears within the gear mechanism will be rotating at relatively high speeds. The components of the gear mechanism in this invention will be subject to high centrifugal forces, compared to a standard' epicyclic gear systcm when used normally. The inventor has realised that this is a problem particular to this invention.
This is the normal condition that occurs during system idle and at the start of each operation. In order to solve this problem, in sonic embodiments there is provided a lubrication system. The lubrication system ensures that sufficient lubrication is provided to the gears during this operating behaviour. In addition, the lubrication system ensures that when w1 102 and 100>0 the centrifugal force experienced by the gear mechanism will not starve the star gear of lubrication. The design of the gearbox includes deflectors; bearing surfaces and machined features to direct lubrication to the star gear and carrier contact area, to the teeth of the star gear, to the mounting spindles and sides of the inner planet gears, to the sides and teeth of the outer planet gears, and to the ring gear of the gearbox. In some embodiments the input drives utilise sealed and pre-lubricated roller bearings to maintain effective lubrication.
The lubrication system has been described in conjunction with an epicyclic gear mechanism. Particularly high centrifugal forces are experienced using this invention with such gear mechanisms. However, the lubrication system in other embodiments may be useful with other types of gear mechanism to avoid similar problems caused by high centrifugal forces.
The drive system of the present invention is particularly useful in situations where a high torque is required at a low output rotation speed. This may be the case in off-road vehicles where a high level of torque is required to traverse over difficult terrain. The present invention also provides improved speed control at low vehicle speed and at a high torque. This may be important in vehicles such as agricultural machines (such as tractors) where equipment is pulled or dragged at a low speed across difficult terrain.
The present drive system is also suitable for use in applications such as: military vehicles, construction equipment and road vehicles of moderate to high mass particularly those having high stop/start duty cycles (such vehicles include: buses, trains, electric railway vehicles or trains, delivery vehicles, etc.). It may be particularly useful in autonomous vehicles, such as agricultural and military vehicles, where accurate control of the speed is required at low vehicle speeds. Other mechanical systems requiring accurate control of low speed/high torque machinery include: winches, cranes, windlasses, cable or chain lift elevators, funicular systems, ground and aerial cable cars and conveyor drive mechanisms. This invention is useful in such systems.
Various modifications will be apparent to the skilled person without departing form the scope of the claims. Alternative embodiments of the present invention are shown in Figures 9 to 19, which show variations on the drive system of Figure 2.
Components common to each of the figures are labelled accordingly.
In Figure 9 the first electric motor 250 is controlled by a motor controller 1010 and the second motor 260 is controlled by motor controller 1020. The motor controllers are each individually controlled by the system controller 270. The drive system further comprises a first speed sensor 1030 arranged to monitor the angular velocity of the first electric motor 250, a second speed sensor 1040 arranged to monitor the angular velocity of the second electric motor 260 and a third speed sensor 1050 arranged to measure the angular velocity of the gear mechanism output. The system controller is arranged to receive signals from each of the speed sensors 1030, 1040, 1050 and relay signals to the motor controllers 1010 and 1020 in order to control the angular velocity of the first and second electric motors. During the first phase, i.e. before the vehicle has moved from rest, the system controller may be arranged to control the angular velocity of the first electric motor, the second clcctric motor or both such that ao1 and hco2 are brought closer to being equal. The controller may be further arranged to, again duruig the first phase, to determine whether aw1 = bw2 and if it is determined that aw1 != b2, the controller may be arranged to control the angular velocity of the first electric motor, the second electric motor or both such that aw1 and bw2 are brought closer to being equal. In some embodiments the third speed sensor arranged to measure w0 and communicate its value to the controller, and during the first phase the controller niay be arranged to control the first, second or both electric motors so that aw1 and bw2 are brought closer to being equal. The drive system further comprises a transmission creep brake 1060 which may be operated by the uscr to prevent the vehicle creeping before it pulls away. In sonic embodiments the transmission creep brake may be an automatic feature under the control of the system controller.
Figure 10 shows an embodiment where the output of the gear mechanism 210 is connected via a differential 1110 to a drive shaft 1120. The wheels 130 of a vehicle to be driven by the drive system are connected to the drive shaft such that the drive system may drive the vehicle.
Figure 11 shows an embodiment of the invention where a vehicle is driven by two drive shafts, with two wheels mounted on each. Each of the two drive shafts is connected via a differential to a drive system of the present invention. The operator input is arranged to control each of the drive systems independently or separately in order to drive the vehicle. The operator is also able to operate both system controllers to achieve either the same speed or different speeds for each of the vehicle wheels so that a variable control of wheel slip can be managed providing traction control for the vehicle. This is of particular value in off-road vehicles operating on difficult terrain where wheel slip is more likely to be encountered.
Figure 12 shows an embodiment of the present invention where the output of the gear mechanism is connected directly to a wheel of a vehicle being powered by the drive system. A single wheel is therefore driven directly by the drive system without a differential. The arrangement of Figure 12 can be extended to provide Iwo drive systems each with a single wheel attached to the output, as shown in Figure 13. This can be mounted on a vehicle and will act as a drive shaft with a wheel at each end, except that the wheel speeds can be controlled independently of each other. A master drive controller 1310 is arranged to receive signals from the user to drive the wheels and power the vehicle. This arrangement can be extended to a vehicle with any number of driven wheels as shown in Figure 14. Each wheel is driven by a drive system 200 and each can be controlled independently by a master controller which receives signals from the user input. These embodiments provide the advantage that the drive to each wheel can easily be controlled independently which can allow improved torque vectored steering and traction management.
The present invention is also suitable for application to a tracked vehicle rather than a vehicle which is driven by wheels. As is shown in Figure 15, a vehicle may be driven by two tracks 1610, 1620 each powered by a respective drive wheel or gear 1630 and 1640. The drive wheels 1630 and 1640 are individually powered by drive system 200.
A master controller 1310 is provided to receive signals from the user input and control the drive systems accordingly. The speed and direction of each track can therefore be controlled independently in order to steer the vehicle. The arrangement can be extended to a vehiclc with two or more pairs of tracks, each driven by a separate drive system 200, as shown in Figure 16.
Figure 17 shows an embodiment where a winch is powered by the drive system of the present invention. The drive system 200 has its output connected to a winch drum 1810 which can therefore be rotated in response to the user input. A cable or rope can be wound around the winch drum. Such a system is suitable for use in a crane, cable car or funicular drive for example. When used to power a winch the drive system of the present invention provides improved control at low speeds whilst still delivering a high torque, which is important when winching heavy loads. The cable speed may be precisely controlled and the direction changed without the need to reverse the direction of the driving motor.
In some embodiments the drive system 200 may be mounted in a self contained unit comprising a single input which is arranged to receive signals from a user interface in order to control the unit, and an output comprising a single shaft that may be connected directly to a wheel of a vehicle. The drive system of the present invention can be made small and light so that it can be conveniently packaged into a single unit.
In some embodiments, the present invention may be par icular useful when incorporated into the rear wheel of an electric motor cycle, where the rear wheel is directly driven, and attached to, the drive system of the present invention. In this embodiment the first and second input drive may be driven by a first and second electric motor mounted within the frame of the motor cycle, with the drive transmitted to the rear wheel by means of a drive belt or chain.
In the embodiment shown in Figure 18 the gear mechanism 210 is mounted in and functions as the wheel hub of the motorcycle with the drive provided by means of two chains, belts or shafts 1910, 1920. This would result in an improved acceleration, a significant increase in vehicle range as the high current regions of operations are avoided, as previously detailed and a reduction in the overall vehicle weight by avoiding the use of a heavy gearbox.
In summary, the present invention provides an electric drive system that allows efficient operation at or around zero output velocity by use of a gear mechanism which allows both input motors to i-un at an cfficient angular velocity. By ensuring both input motors always operate in a region where their output angular velocity is non-zcro, thc efficiency and power dclivercd by thc motors is maximised, whilst significantly reducing the likelihood of stalling. This is especially important in relation to off-road vehicles where there is a large rolling resistance and so a large torque is required for the vehiclc to pull away from rcst. In prior art systems this requires a large torque output from the motors and so a large current is drawn, thus reducing the efficiency and range of the vehicle and increasing the likelihood of the vehicle stalling.

Claims (15)

  1. Claims 1. An electric drive system for driving an output comprising: a first electric motor arranged to drive a first input shaft at a first angular velocity, (Ut, a second electric motor arranged to drive a second input shaft at a second angular vclocity, W2, a gear mechanism arranged to transmit angular rotation of the first and sccond input shafts to drivc the output at an output angular velocity, m0, such that m0 is proportional to am1 -1)0)2, where a and 5 are constants, a controller arranged to control operation of the first and second electric motors, wherein when the output is to be driven from m0, = 0, thc controller is arranged to control the first and second electric motors to drive the first and second input shafts: in a first phase to primary first and second angular velocities, wl.p and 02,p, such that awi*, hw2 and in a second phase subsequently to vary the first angular velocity, wi, or the second angular vclocity, m2, or both such that am1!= hm2 and the output is driven from tmout = 0.
  2. 2. The electric drive system of claim 1 wherein the controller is arranged to control the first and second electric motors to drive the first and second input shafts to primary first and second angular velocities such that amip = 1)0)2,,.
  3. 3. The electric drive system of claim 1 wherein each of the primary first and second angular velocities is substantially non-zero, such as greater than 10% of 0mx, where tmmax is the maximum angular velocity of each motor and input shaft pair.
  4. 4. The electric drive system of claim 2 wherein each of the primary first and second angular velocities is between 20% and 80% of mfljax
  5. 5. The electric drive system of any preceding claim wherein the controller is arrangcd to control the ratc of rotation of the first and second motors in response to user input.
  6. 6. The electric drive system of any preceding claim further comprising a sensing system arranged to measure m1 and (02 and to communicate the measurements to thc controller, such that in the first phase the controller is arranged to control the first, second or both electric motors so that that am1 and bm2 are brought closer to being equal.
  7. 7. The electric drive system of claim 6 wherein the controller is arranged to determine whether am i = bm2, and if it is determined that am i!= hm2, the controller being further arranged to control the first, second or both electric motors so that am1 and bw2 are brought closer to being equal.
  8. 8. The electric drive system of claim 6 or claim 7 wherein the sensing system comprises a first sensor arranged to measure Wi and a second sensor to measure (0-'.
  9. 9. The electric drive system of any preceding claim further comprising a third sensor arranged to measure mO and communicate its value to the controller, in thc first phase the controller being arranged to control thc first, second or both electric motors so that am1 and bm2 are brought closer to being equal.
  10. 10. The electric drive system of any preceding claims wherein the gear mechanism comprises a lubrication system arranged to operate under high centrifugal forces.
  11. 11. The electric drive system of claim 10 wherein the lubrication system comprises a deflector or bearing surface arranged to direct lubricant.
  12. 12. The electric drive system of any preceding claim wherein the gear mechanism is an epicyclic gear system.
  13. 13. A vehicle wheel comprising an electric drive system of any preceding claim mounted thereon.
  14. 14. A vehicle track or winch drum comprising the electric drive system of any preceding claim mounted thereon.
  15. 15. The electric drive system substantially as herein described with reference to any one or more of Figures 2 to 18.
GB1303173.7A 2013-02-22 2013-02-22 Electric drive system Withdrawn GB2511085A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1303173.7A GB2511085A (en) 2013-02-22 2013-02-22 Electric drive system

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1303173.7A GB2511085A (en) 2013-02-22 2013-02-22 Electric drive system
US14/769,535 US9768714B2 (en) 2013-02-22 2014-02-05 Electric drive system
PCT/GB2014/050319 WO2014128433A2 (en) 2013-02-22 2014-02-05 Electric drive system
EP14704632.0A EP2959572A2 (en) 2013-02-22 2014-02-05 Electric drive system
CN201480022954.0A CN105392656A (en) 2013-02-22 2014-02-05 Electric drive system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB201303173D0 GB201303173D0 (en) 2013-04-10
GB2511085A true GB2511085A (en) 2014-08-27

Family

ID=48091944

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB1303173.7A Withdrawn GB2511085A (en) 2013-02-22 2013-02-22 Electric drive system

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (1) US9768714B2 (en)
EP (1) EP2959572A2 (en)
CN (1) CN105392656A (en)
GB (1) GB2511085A (en)
WO (1) WO2014128433A2 (en)

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2969629B1 (en) * 2013-03-15 2020-08-19 Linamar Corporation Hybrid axle assembly for a motor vehicle
CN107424315A (en) * 2017-03-31 2017-12-01 珠海小可乐科技有限公司 The control method and control device intelligently locked
KR102334659B1 (en) * 2017-06-29 2021-12-03 현대모비스 주식회사 Apparatus and method for detecting faults in in-wheel driving system of vehicle
EP3879134A1 (en) 2020-03-13 2021-09-15 Volvo Car Corporation Transmission arrangement with torque vectoring

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1180500A (en) * 1967-06-09 1970-02-04 Siemens Ag A Combination of a Shaft and Driving Means for causing it to Rotate at a Speed Dictated by a Control Voltage Applied to the Driving Means
US5134346A (en) * 1987-04-08 1992-07-28 Erowa Ag Apparatus for driving a spindle of an electroerosive machine
US5331266A (en) * 1992-06-24 1994-07-19 Hughes Aircraft Company Cooperative differential drive system
EP1262687A2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2002-12-04 IHI Aerospace Co., Ltd. Electromotive actuator and method for controlling the same

Family Cites Families (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP3322072B2 (en) * 1994-08-12 2002-09-09 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Power transmission lubrication system
US6461266B1 (en) * 2001-04-26 2002-10-08 Ervin Weisz Differential electric engine with variable torque conversion
US20050023052A1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2005-02-03 Beck Michael S. Vehicle having an articulated suspension and method of using same
JP2007001493A (en) * 2005-06-27 2007-01-11 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Control unit for hybrid vehicle
JP4310361B2 (en) * 2006-12-27 2009-08-05 本田技研工業株式会社 Power equipment
US7847509B2 (en) * 2007-12-26 2010-12-07 Pitney Bowes Inc. System and method for controlling electric motors to simulate a mechanical differential
WO2010144753A1 (en) * 2009-06-10 2010-12-16 Czero, Inc. Systems and methods for hybridization of a motor vehicle using hydraulic components
JP2011217471A (en) * 2010-03-31 2011-10-27 Canon Inc Drive force transmission device and universal head device using the same
US20110281679A1 (en) * 2010-04-08 2011-11-17 The Regents Of The University Of Colorado, A Body Corporate Hybrid transmission using planetary gearset for multiple sources of torque for marine, or two wheeled land vehicles
WO2012029178A1 (en) * 2010-09-03 2012-03-08 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Drive control device of vehicle
US20140183996A1 (en) * 2012-12-29 2014-07-03 Hongping He Magnetic Powertrain and Components
US9365105B2 (en) * 2013-10-11 2016-06-14 Delbert Tesar Gear train and clutch designs for multi-speed hub drives

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1180500A (en) * 1967-06-09 1970-02-04 Siemens Ag A Combination of a Shaft and Driving Means for causing it to Rotate at a Speed Dictated by a Control Voltage Applied to the Driving Means
US5134346A (en) * 1987-04-08 1992-07-28 Erowa Ag Apparatus for driving a spindle of an electroerosive machine
US5331266A (en) * 1992-06-24 1994-07-19 Hughes Aircraft Company Cooperative differential drive system
EP1262687A2 (en) * 2001-06-01 2002-12-04 IHI Aerospace Co., Ltd. Electromotive actuator and method for controlling the same

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB201303173D0 (en) 2013-04-10
US9768714B2 (en) 2017-09-19
CN105392656A (en) 2016-03-09
EP2959572A2 (en) 2015-12-30
WO2014128433A2 (en) 2014-08-28
US20160006378A1 (en) 2016-01-07
WO2014128433A3 (en) 2015-08-27

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US7950481B2 (en) Electric powertrain for machine
KR101391047B1 (en) Front-and-rear-wheel drive vehicle
KR101495354B1 (en) Differential generation power distribution system
GB2511085A (en) Electric drive system
US8944950B2 (en) System and method of differentiating torque between wheels of a vehicle
JP2008543643A (en) Power take-off device for automobile
CN101992686A (en) Drive unit for vehicle and drive method of vehicle
CA2734314C (en) Single-powered multi-cvt differential system with stabilizing device
KR20120084737A (en) Motor vehicle with electric motor
CN111152650A (en) Hybrid axle drive with torque vectoring
JP4607002B2 (en) Traveling vehicle
JP2004322753A (en) Right and left wheel driving device for vehicle
EP3482985B1 (en) Dual-drive electric machine having controllable planetary gear set
US8790205B2 (en) Multi-CVT drive system having epicycle gear set
US2517879A (en) Gear box
JP3890803B2 (en) Power transmission device for hybrid vehicle
KR20150025014A (en) In-wheel system for hybrid electric vehicle
JP5534573B2 (en) Working machine
CN109733209B (en) Control method of differential speed reduction system of vehicle double-bevel gear
CN205818934U (en) A kind of dual-motor drive system and be configured with the electric automobile of this system
US4245712A (en) Transmission system for the drive wheels of vehicles, notably lift trucks
CN205818907U (en) A kind of Two axle drive system and be configured with the electric automobile of this system
EP2492543B1 (en) Dual-drive electric machine having controllable epicycle gear set
CN106004398A (en) Two-axle driving torque and revolving speed automatic or semi-automatic overlay system and electric automobile provided with overlay system
CN103448530A (en) Wheel driving device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
WAP Application withdrawn, taken to be withdrawn or refused ** after publication under section 16(1)