GB2500415A - Retort for producing charcoal - Google Patents

Retort for producing charcoal Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2500415A
GB2500415A GB1204955.7A GB201204955A GB2500415A GB 2500415 A GB2500415 A GB 2500415A GB 201204955 A GB201204955 A GB 201204955A GB 2500415 A GB2500415 A GB 2500415A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
vessel
retort
region
feed pipe
flue
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB1204955.7A
Other versions
GB2500415B (en
GB201204955D0 (en
Inventor
Geoffrey Self
Robin Rawle
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
CARBON COMPOST Co Ltd
Original Assignee
CARBON COMPOST Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by CARBON COMPOST Co Ltd filed Critical CARBON COMPOST Co Ltd
Priority to GB1204955.7A priority Critical patent/GB2500415B/en
Publication of GB201204955D0 publication Critical patent/GB201204955D0/en
Publication of GB2500415A publication Critical patent/GB2500415A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2500415B publication Critical patent/GB2500415B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B1/00Retorts
    • C10B1/02Stationary retorts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B1/00Retorts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B1/00Retorts
    • C10B1/02Stationary retorts
    • C10B1/06Horizontal retorts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B21/00Heating of coke ovens with combustible gases
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B25/00Doors or closures for coke ovens
    • C10B25/02Doors; Door frames
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B47/00Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with indirect heating, e.g. by external combustion
    • C10B47/02Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with indirect heating, e.g. by external combustion with stationary charge
    • C10B47/06Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with indirect heating, e.g. by external combustion with stationary charge in retorts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/02Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of cellulose-containing material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27BFURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • F27B5/00Muffle furnaces; Retort furnaces; Other furnaces in which the charge is held completely isolated
    • F27B5/02Muffle furnaces; Retort furnaces; Other furnaces in which the charge is held completely isolated of multiple-chamber type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27BFURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • F27B5/00Muffle furnaces; Retort furnaces; Other furnaces in which the charge is held completely isolated
    • F27B5/06Details, accessories, or equipment peculiar to furnaces of these types
    • F27B5/16Arrangements of air or gas supply devices
    • Y02E50/14

Abstract

A retort (10) for producing charcoal, and a method of use thereof, the retort (10) having an inner vessel (140), for receiving wood to be converted into charcoal, and an outer vessel (20) containing the inner vessel (140) and defining an intermediate region between the inner vessel (140) and the outer vessel (20). The intermediate region including a burning region configured for burning fuel to heat the inner vessel (140); a flue (60) from the inner vessel (140) to a region outside the outer vessel (20), for conveying gas from the inner vessel (140) to the atmosphere; a feed pipe (210) from the inner vessel (140) to the intermediate region, for conveying gas from the inner vessel (140) to the intermediate region, wherein the entire length of the feed pipe (210) is located within the outer vessel (20).

Description

RETORT
The present invention relates generally to a retort for producing charcoal and a method of use thereof, and finds particular, although not exclusive, utility in charcoal retorts.
Charcoal is obtained by heating wood until its complete pyrolysis (carbonization) occurs, leaving only carbon. Conventional charcoal manufacture involves burning vood that has been mostly covered with mud or bricks, to reduce the amount of oxygen available. The heat generated by burning part of the wood pyrolyzes lO the rest of the wood, forming charcoal. The limited supply of oxygen prevents the charcoal from burning. A more modem alternative is to heat the wood in an airtight metal vessel, xvhich is much less polluting and allows volatile wood gas to he collected.
A conventional charcoal kiln produces about 100kg of charcoal for every 700kg of wood; that is a mtio of 1:7.
According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a retort, for producing charcoal, comprising: an inner vessel, for receiving wood to he converted into charcoal; an outer vessel containing the inner vessel and defining an intermediate region between the inner vessel arid the outer vessel, the iritennediate region coriiprlsirig a burning region configured for burning fuel to heat the inner vessel; a flue from the inner vessel to a region outside the outer vessel, for conveying gas from the inner vessel to the atmosphere; a feed pipe from the flue to the intermediate region, for conveying gas from the inner vessel to the intermediate region, wherein the entire length of the feed pipe is located within the outer vessel.
In this way, wood gas produced in the inner vessel may he conveyed to the intermediate region, in which it may he burnt. In particular, such wood gas may be maintained at an elevated temperature (luring its passage to the intermediate region, in order to improve its combustion.
Accordingly, less pollution may he released into the atmosphere than with conventional methods of making charcoal. Because the wood inside the inner vessel is heated in the absence of air, all of the wood present may he available for pyrolysis.
There may he no wood wasted. There may be no ash produced in the inner vessel. Any type of wood may undergo pyrolysis within the retort of the present invention, for instance scrap wood, logs, brush, twigs, sawdust or any other type of wood.
I
The retort may be a charcoal-producing retort, specifically, a charcoal retort.
The retort may be able to produce 100kg of charcoal from 400 kg of wood; that is a ratio of 1:4. The retort niay he able to convert wood to charcoal at a ratio of between 1:3 to 1:5.
The inner chamber may have a volume of between 1m3 and 3m3. Specifically between I Sin3 and 2m3, and in particular I.63m3.
The retort may be configured to accept a maximum of between 100kg and 1,000kg of wood. Specifically, between 300kg and 800kg, and in particular 400kg, 600kg or 750kg.
The retort may be configured to produce between 25kg and 250kg of charcoal per burn. Specifically between 100kg and 200kg, and in particular 150kg.
The retort may he configured to convert wood to charcoal in (i.e. have a burn time of) between 2 and 10 hours from lighting to shut down. Specifically, between 4 and 8 hours, and in particular 6 hours.
Upon heating wood, moisture is initially driven off as steam and/or water vapour. Tt is undesirable to convey such moisture into the intermediate region, as this would inhibit burning of fuel to heat the inner vessel. After between approximately I antI 4 Flours, the rrla5ority of riioisture iiiay have been tlriven out of the wood, the temperature within the inner vessel may reach approximately 270°C, 350°C 375°C or 500°C, and wood gas may start to be produced.
The retort may further comprise a flue valve for controlling flow of gas through the flue. The flue valve may he arranged to control flow of gas into and/or out of the flue. In this way, the amount of gas conveyed from the inner vessel to the atmosphere can he regulated. In particular, the amount of gas conveyed from the inner vessel to the atmosphere can he regulated, in response to the composition of the gas given off by the wood. For instance, the flue valve may he a sliding shutter, a lid, a cap, an iris diaphragm, or any other type of valve. In particular, the flue valve may he a removable cap configured to he rcstahlc on an open upper end of the flue. The removable cap may comprise a seal disposed around an internal periphery. The seal may be arranged to he cngagcahlc with the periphery of the open upper end of the flue. In this way, the cap may form an air-tight seal with the flue. The seal may he a ceramic rope seal. Such a seal may he incorporated on any other part of the retort where an air-tight seal is desired, such as joins between components, doors, hatches, or vents. The flue valve may be configured to substantially stop all gas flow to the atmosphere from the inner vessel. The flue valve may allow controlled adjustment of flow of gas through the flue, over a continuous range of aperture sizes. Alternatively, the flue valve may allow controlled adjustment of flow of gas through the flue over a discrete set of aperture sues. In particular, the flue valve may have only two states, for instance, open and dosed.
By restricting the amount of gas conveyed from the inner vessel to the atmosphere, gas may he diverted into the feet] pipe. Gas in the feed pipe may he conveyed to the intermediate region, for burning as fuel in the burning region, to heat lO the inner vesseL The gas conveyed to the intermediate region from the inner vessel may produce sufficient heat when burned to maintain the inner vessel at a temperature sufficient for wood gas to continue to he driven off.
The feed pipe may he arranged such that, in use, gas flow from the inner vessel may he required to substantially change direction within the flue to enter the feed pipe.
The change of direction may be a substantial reversal of direction. For instance, gas moving upward within the flue may be required to move downward to enter the feed pipe. In one embodiment, an inlet of the feed pipe may be arranged inside the due and face art outlet of tire flue. Alternatively, the cirarige of direction riray be a change of direction of substantially 90 degrees. In one embodiment, an inlet of the feed pipe may be arranged inside the flue and face a longitudinal wall of the flue. In this way, the majority of gas flowing within the flue, in use, will not enter the feed pipe unless flow of gas out of the flue is restricted.
The retort may further comprise a feed pipe valve for controlling flow of gas through the feed pipe. The feed pipe valve may he arranged to control flow of gas into and/or out of the feed pipe. In this way, the amount of gas conveyed from the inner vessel to the intermediate region can he regulated. In particular, the amount of gas conveyed from the inner vessel to the intermediate region can he regulated, in response to the composition of the gas given off by the \vood. For instance, the feed pipe valve may be a sliding shutter, a lid, a cap, an iris diaphragm, or ally other type of valve. The feed pipe valve may he configured to substantially stop all gas flow to the intermediate region from the inner vessel. The feed pipe valve may allow controlled adjustment of flow of gas through the feed pipe, over a continuous range of aperture sizes.
Alternatively, the feed pipe valve may allow controlled adjustment of flow of gas through the feed pipe over a discrete set of aperture si2es. In particular, the feed pipe valve may have only two states, for instance, open and closed.
The burning region may he located substantially under the inner vesseL In this way, heat from burning fuel may he more efficiently transferred to the inner vessel.
The feed pipe may he configured to convey gas into a substantially central part of the burning region. In this way, gas from the inner vessel may be burned in the most economical part of the burning region.
The retort may further comprise a second feed pipe from the flue to the intermediate region, for conveying gas from the inner vessel to the intermediate region.
lO The second feed pipe may be configured to convey gas into the burning region in a direction substantially opposite to that of the first feed pipe. In this way, gas from one feed pipe may he used to slow the flow of gas from the opposing feed pipe in order for burning of the gas to be restricted to a substantially central part of the burning region.
The retort may further comprise a deflector coupled to an outlet end of the feed pipe. The deflector may he configured to direct gas, as it exits the feed pipe, in any desired direction. The direction that gas, as it exits the feed pipe, is directed by the deflector may be adjustable. In this way, damage to the retort from burning gas from the feed pipe may he reduced, by being able to adj ustably direct gas away from vulnerable regions. The deflector may he an angled deflector plate. The deflector may be configured to clamp onto the outlet end of the feed pipe. The deflector may be configured to clamp onto the outlet end of the feed pipe by means of a securing nut.
The dellector may be configured to couple to the feed pipe at a plurahty of orientations.
The plurality of orientations may he at 90 degree intervals.
The retort may further comprise a trailer and/or skids for supporting the retort.
Alternatively, the retort tnay he mountable on a trailer and/or skids. In this way, the retort may he more easily tnovahle.
The retort may further comprise a temperature sensor within the inner vessel and/or the due, for measuring a temperature of the inner vessel, the wood to he converted into charcoal and/or the gasses passing through the flue. The retort may further comprise a temperature indicator, for indicating a temperature measured by the temperature sensor to an operator. The temperature sensor may he a digital thermometer. In this way, an operator may monitor the temperature of the inner vessel in order to manage effective conversion of wood to charcoal.
The retort may further comprise a first replaceable sacrificial member located on an inside surface of the outer vessel, adjacent the burning region. In this way, the outer vessel may be protected from the effects of burning within the burning region. The retort may further comprise a second replaceable sacrificial member located on an outer surface of the inner vessel, adjacent the burning region. Tn this way, the inner vessel may be protected from the effects of burning within the burning region. In addition, the sacrificial members may be convenicntly replaced. The sacrificial members may be sacrificial baffle plates. The sacrificial members may he disposed longitudinally within the intermediate region.
lO The retort may further comprise an extraction pipe from the lo\ver side of the inner vessel. The extraction pipe may be arranged to remove fluid from the inner vessel to a location external to the retort. The extraction pipe may he configured to extract moisture, condensed fluid and/or wood gas from the inner chamber. In this way, moisture given off when the wood is heated may condense inside the inner vessel and he removed via the extraction pipe as a liquid. Extraction of moisture from the inner vessel may improve pyrolysis of wood inside the inner vessel. Additionally, wood gas may also be extractcd from the inner vessel for storage and later use, including powering a corrihustiori engine and/or distil hug into various products. Furthermore, fractions of the wood gas having relatively low boiling points may condense within the inner vessel and be removed via thc extraction pipe as a liquid, for storage and later use. Thc retort may further comprise an extraction pipe valve for controlling the flow of fluid through the extraction pipe. The extraction pipe valve may be a stop valve, tap, or any other type of fluid valve. The extraction pipe valve may be configured to substantialiy stop all lluid flow from and/or into the extraction pipe. The extraction pipe valve may alloxv controlled adjustment of flow of fluid through the extraction pipe, over a continuous range of aperture sizes. Alternatively, the extraction pipe valve may allow controlled adjustment of flow of fluid through the extraction pipe over a discrete set of aperture sizes. In particular, the extraction pipe valve may have ody two states, for instance, op en and closed.
The retort may further comprise an access door substantially at each end of the retort. Each access door may he configured to provide access to an interior of the inner vessel and/or die intermediate region. In this way, easy access to the interior of the inner vessel and the intermediate region may he provided. The retort may comprise a pair of access doors substantially at each end of the retort. One of each pair of access doors may he configured to provide access to an interior of the inner vessel and the other of each pair of access doors may be configured to provide access to the intermediate region. Alternatively, the retort may comprise an access door at only one end of the retort. The retort may comprise a pair of access doors at only one end of the retort. Each access door may be hingably connected to the outer vessel or the inner vessel, for instance by means of a lift off hinge. At least one access door may further comprise a respective firehox door therein; each firehox door may he configured to provide access to the intermediate region only. In this way, operation of the firebox lO doors may allow regulation of air io\v into the burning region, thus providing a mechanism for controlling the temperature of the inner vessel. The firebox door may he of the hammer gate type or may be of a hinged type, such as having a vertical hinge.
Alternattvely, at least one access door may he configured to provide access to an interior of the inner vessel only, and/or at least one access door may he configured to provide access to the intermediate region only. The retort may comprise at least one firehox door spatially separate from the access door.
The due may be located closer to a first end of the retort than to an opposing second end. The retort may comprise a second flue located closer to the second eric] of the retort than to the first end. In this way, even distribution of heat may he effected by convection of exhaust gasses from the inner vessel. The flue may be located substantially at one end of the retort. A second flue may be located substantially at an opposing end of the retort. The or each flue may he located approximately one third, one quarter or one fifth of the way along the retort from one end. The flue may he located centrally, or off-centre of the retort.
The inner and outer vessels may he substantially cylindrical. Accordingly, heat loss can he reduced for a given internal volume of retort by minimising the reducing the surface area of the retort. Access doors may he provided on each phase of the cylinder.
The retort may he made from metal, in particular steel, for instance mild steel or stainless steel. The metal may have a thickness in the range of 3mm to 10mm, in particular 4mm.
The retort may he insulated. The outer vessel may he insulated. In particular, the insulation may comprise a ccraimc wool blanket covering and/or sheet insulation.
The insulation may be protected by a galvanic sheet over the insulation. The ceramic wool blanket may be between approxi ately 25mm and I 00mm thick.
The above and other characteristics, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the prucip1es of the invention. This description is given for the sake of example only, without limiting the scope of the invention. The reference figures quoted belo\v refer to the attached drawings.
Figure I is a perspective view of a retort according to a first embodiment of the lO present invention.
Figure 2 is a cutaway perspective view of the interior of the outer vessel sho\vn in figure 1.
Figure 3a is a sectional view of one of the flues shoxvn in figure 1.
Figure 3h s a sectional view of a flue according to an alternative embodiment.
Figure 4 is a perspective view of a deflector according to a first embodiment of the invention.
The present invention will be described with respect to particular embodiments anti with reference to certain drawings hut the invention is not limited thereto hut only by the claims. The drawings described are only schematic and are non-litniting. Tn the drawings, the size of some of the elements may be exaggerated and not dra\vn to scale for illustrative purposes. The dimensions and the relative dimensions do not correspond to actual reductions to practice of the invention.
Furthermore, the terms first, second, third and the like in the description and in the claims, are used for distinguishing between similar elements and not necessarily for describing a sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking or in any other manner. It is to he understood that the terms so used are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and that the embodiments of the invention described herein are capable of operation in other sequences than described or illustrated herein.
Moreover, the terms top, bottom, over, under and the like in the description and the claims are used for descriptive purposes and not necessarily for describing relative positions. It is to he understood that the terms so used are interchangeable under appropriate circumstances and that the embodiments of the invention described herein are capable of operation in other orientations than described or illustrated herein.
It is to be noticed that the term "comprising", used in the claims, should not be interpreted as being restricted to the means listed thereafter; it does not exclude other elements or steps. It is thus to he interpreted as specifying the presence of the stated features, integers, steps or components as referred to, hut does not preclude the S presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps or components, or groups thereof. Thus, the scope of the expression "a device comprising means A and B" should not be limited to devices consisting only of components A and B. It means that with respect to the present invention, the only relevant components of the device are A and B. i0 Reference throughout this specification to "one embodiment" or "an embodiment" means that a particular feature, structure or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the present invention. Thus, appearances of the phrases "in one embodiment" or "in an embodiment" in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all 1 5 referring to the same embodiment, but may refer to different embodiments.
Furthermore, the particular features, structures or characteristics of any embodiment or aspect of the invention may be combined in any suitable manner, as would be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art from this disclosure, in one or more embodiments.
Similarly, it should he appreciated that in the description of exemplary embodiments of the invention, various features of the invention are sometimes grouped together in a single embodiment, figure, or description thereof for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure and aiding in the understanding of one or more of the various inventive aspects. This method of disclosure, however, is not to he interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed invention requires more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive aspects lie in fewer than all features of a single foregoing disclosed embodiment. Thus, the claims following the detailed description are hereby expressly incorporated into this detailed description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate embodiment of this invention.
Furthermore, while some embodiments described herein include some features included in other embodiments, combinations of features of different embodiments are meant to he within the scope of the invention, and form yet further embodiments, as will be understood by those skilled in the art. For example, in the following claims, any of the claimed embodiments can be used in any combination.
In the description provided herein, numerous specific details are set forth.
Ijowever, it is understood that embodiments of the invention may he practised without these specific details. Tn other instances, well-known methods, structures and techniques have not been shown in detail in order not to obscure an understanding of
this description.
In the discussion of the invention, unless stated to the contrary, the disclosure of alternative values for the upper or lo\ver limit of the permitted range of a parameter, coupled with an indication that one of said values is more highly preferred than the other, is to be construed as an implied statement that each intermediate value of said parameter, lying between the more preferred and the less preferred of said alternatives, is itself preferred to said less preferred value and also to each value lying between said less preferred value and said interniediate value.
The use of the term "at least one" may, in some embodiments, mean only one.
The invention will now he described by a detailed description of several embodiments of the invention. It is clear that other embodiments of the invention can he configured according it) the knowledge of personts skilled iii tine art without departing from the true spirit or technical teaching of the invention, the invention being limited only by the terms of the appended claims.
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a retort 10 according to a first embodiment of the present invention.
The retort 10 comprises an outer vessel 20. The outer vessel 20 is substantially cylindrical in form, having two opposing substantially flat, substantially circular ends, each disposed within a respective substantially vertical plane, and an outer wall, substantially uniformly curved around a longitudinal axis of the outer vessel 20. The outer vessel 20 is made from sheets of mild steel with a thickness of 4mm. The outer wall is covered with a ceramic wool blanket of thickness between approximately 25mm and 100mm, which in turn is covered with a galvanic sheet. The outer vessel 20 has an axial length of approximately 2.Sm, and a diameter of approximately I.7m.
The outer vessel 20 is mounted, with its longitudinal axis hori2ontal, on a pair of elongate members 30 of length 2.5m. Each elongate member 30 is orientated substantially parallel with the longitudinal axis of the outer vessel 20. Each metnbcr 30 is formed from mild steel sheet of thickness 4mm.
The outer vessel 20 is mounted on the members 30 by means of three independent supporting bulkheads 40. A first bulkhead is located at one axial end of the outer vessel 20, a second bulkhead is located at the other axial end of the outer vessel 20, and a third bulkhead is ocated at the axial centre of the outer vessel 20. Each bulkhead is formed from a single mild steel shcct/phttc of thickness 4mm, disposed substantially vertically and having two opposing planar surfaces, a substantially straight lower face, two substantially vertical and straight side faces and a concave upper face for lO receiving the outer vessel 20. Each steel phttc is bolted and/or welded to the outer vessel 20 on the concave upper face and to the members 30 at the edge joining the lower face to the side faces. Six through holes of differing sizes are present in each steel plate between opposing planar surfaces of the plate. ny number and/or size of holes may he used that do not compromise structural integrity.
A chimney 50 is located on top of the uniformly curved outer wall of the outer vessel 20, approximately mid-way between the ends of the outer vessel 20. The chimney 50 is substantially cylindrical, comprising a uniformly curving surface around a longitudinal axis arid a hollow iriteilor, anti having a tiiarrieter of approx nately I 5cm and an axial length of between approximately 5cm and I Sm, and in particular!m. The chimney 50 is open at each axial end such that a path for gas to exit the interior of the outer vessel 20 is provided thercthrough. The chimney 50 is made from sheets of mild steel with a thickness of 4mm.
Two flues 60 extend through the top of the uniformly curved outer wall of the outer vessel 20, approximately txvo-thirds of the way toward each end of the outer vessel 20 from the chimney 50. Each flue 60 is substantially cylindrical, comprising a uniformly curving surface around a longitudinal axis and a hollow interior, and having a diameter of approximately 15cm and an axial length of approximately 30cm. Each flue projects above the top of thc uniformly curved outcr wall of thc outer vessel 20 by approximately 5cm, the remaining axial length of each flue being within the outer vessel 20. Each flue 60 is open at each of its axial ends such that each provides a path for gas to exit the interior of an inner vessel (not shown) within the outer vessel 20. Each flue is made from sheets of mild steel with a thickness of 4mm.
Each flue 60 is seated within a frustoconical member 235 comprising a sheet of mild steel with a thickness of 4trnn curved around a longitudinal axis. The axial ends of the frustoconical member 235 are open, such that a flue may he received therein. The frustoconical member is located within a hole in the top of the uniformly curved outer wall of the outer vessel 20. A ceramic rope seal may he pressed and/or urged into a wedge-shaped region between the frustoconical member 235 and the flue 60, such that an air-tight seal may be formed, preventing the escape of gas around the outer periphery of the flue 60, through the hole in the top of the uniformly curved outer wall of the outer vessel 20.
lO Each flue 60 is provided with a respective cap 70, removably disposed on the upper axial end of the flue 60, and for controlling flow of gas through the due 60. The cap 70 comprises a substantially disc shaped portion, for seating in a horizontal plane on the upper axial end of the flue 60, and a ring-like downwardly depending rim having a diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the flue 60. The rim acts to prevent accidental removal of the cap 70 from the flue 60. Each cap is made from mild steel with a thickness of 4mm.
At each axial end of the outer vessel 20 is provided a substantially circular access door 80, disposed in a vertical plane. Fach door 80 is hingeably mounted ott one side by means of a lift off hinge 90, for providing access to the interior of the outer vessel 20. Each door has a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the outer vessel 20.
Each door 80 may be reinforced; however, for clarity this has not been shown in the figures. In particular, each door 80 may be reinforced with a circumferential rib and/or three horizontal ribs, formed integrally with the door 80. Alternatively, each door 80 may he reinforced with a circumferential rib and/or nine substantially radial ribs, formed integrally with the door 80. Each door comprises a circumferential flange for effectively sealing the door 80 against the outer vessel 20. The flange may have a ceramic rope seal located on one side thereof, arranged for engagement with the outer vessel 20. Altcrnanvcly, the ceramic rope seal may he located on the outer vessel 20, arranged for engagement with the flange. In this way, the seal between the door 80 and the outer vessel 20 may be made substantially air-tight.
Each access door 80 may he secured closed with a plurality of latches 100. The latches are located around the circumference of die axial ends of the outer vessel 20,
II
and are configured to couple the circumferential flange to the outcr wall of the outer \Tessel 20.
Each access door 80 includes a hinged firehox door 110 therein, \vhtch provides access to a burning region within the outer vessel 20. Each firehox (1001 110 is disposed in a lower half of the circular access (1001 80, aix] comprises a vertically hinged door leaf. Each door leaf is substantially rectangular, having dimensions of 30cm by 40cm, and \vhen in a closed position covers an opening of substantially the same size.
One of the firehox door leafs 110 additionally comprises a cut-away portion in an upper side of the tirebox door leaf. An extraction pipe 120, for removing fluid from lO the inner vessel, is arranged to pass through the cut-away portion. The cut-away portion and extraction pipe 120 are sized and arranged to allow the access doors 80 and the firebox door 110 to he opened and closed without causing damage to, and/or interference \vith, the extraction pipe 120.
An access point 130 in the flue 60 allows insertion of a temperature probe into the outer vessel, for monitoring temperatures within the outer vessel.
Figure 2 shows a cutaway perspective view of the interior of the outer vessel 20 shown in figure 1.
The inner vessel 140 is substantially cylindrical in form, having two opposing substantially flat, substantially circular ends, each disposed within a respective substantially vertical plane, and an outer wall, substantially uniformly curved around a longitudinal axis of the inner vessel 140. The inner vessel 140 is made from sheets of mild steel with a thickness of 4mm. The inner vessel 140 has an axial length of approximately 2.3m, and a diameter of approximately 95cm. The longitudinal axis of the inner vessel 140 is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the outer vessel 20, and is displaced approximately 12cm above the longitudinal axis of the outer vessel 20. The flues 60 are welded and/or bolted to the top of the inner vessel 140.
The inner vessel 140 is elevated above the interior surface of the outer vessel 20 by a series of internal support members 150, such that an intermediate region is formed bet\veen the outer surface of the inner vessel 140 and the inner surface of the outer vessel 20. In particular, a burning region is formed within the outer vessel 20, underneath the inner vessel 140. Any form of support means may he used to supporting the inner vessel 140 within the outer vessel 20. The internal support members 150 each comprise a rigid elongate member having support plates at each end.
(I)ne of the support plates is configured to engage with the outer surface of the inner vessel 140. The other support plate is c()nhgured to engage with the lamer surface of the outer vessel 20. The support plates may he welded and/or bolted to the lamer vessel and the outer vessel 20, respectively.
At each axial end of the inner vessel 140 is provided a substantially circular inner vessel door 160, disposed in a vertical plane. Each inner vessel door 160 is hingeably mounted on one side, in the same manner as the access doors 80, by inner vessel hinges 170, for providing access to the interior of the outer vessel 20. Each inner vessel door has a diameter substantially equal to the diameter of the inner vessel 140. Each lO inner vessel door 160 comprises a circumferential flange for effectively sealing the door against the inner vessel 140. The circumferential flange may have a ceramic rope seal located on one side thereof, arranged for engagement with the inner vessel 140.
Alternattvely, the ceramic rope seal may he located on the inner vessel 140, arranged for engagement with the flange. In this way, the seal between the inner vessel door 160 and the inner vessel 140 may he made substantially air-tight.
Each inner vessel door 160 may he secured closed with a plurality of inner vessel latches 180. The latches 180 are located around the circumference of the axial ends of the inner vessel 140, and are configured to couple the circumferential flange to the outer wall of the inner vessel 140.
A first replaceable sacrificial member 190 resides inside the outer vessel 20, on a lower surface of the outer vessel 20, thereby defining a lower side of the burning region.
The first replaceable sacrificial member 190 is made from a rectangular sheet of mild steel with a thickness of 4nma. The first replaceable sacrificial member 190 is curved so as to fit lii close engagement with the lower surface of the outer vessel 20 along its entire axial length.
A second replaceable sacrificial member 200 resides inside the outer vessel 20, on a lower surface of the inner vessel 140, thereby defining an upper side of the burning region. The second replaceable sacrificial member 200 is made from a rectangular sheet of mild steel with a thickness of 4mm. The second replaceable sacrificial member 200 is curved so as to fit in close engagement with the lower surface of the inner vessel 140 along its entire length. The second replaceable sacrificial member 200 may be attached to the Inner vessel 140 by any suitable means, such as by bolts. l-ioxvever, in preferable embodiments, the second replaceable sacrificial member 200 rests on a pluraltt of brackets. In this way, sess due to thermal expansion of the second replaceable sacrificial member is avoided.
Two metal feed pipes 210 wrap around the inner vessel 140, having one end including a respective feed pipe inlet 220 disposed within a respective one of the flues 60, and an opposing end located within the burning region. The feed pipes 210 have a square cross-section of dimension of approximately 5cm. However, alternative embodiments in which the feed pipes 210 have a circular cross-section of diameter of approximately 5cm are also envisaged.
Figure 3a is a sectional view of one of the dues 60 shown in figure 1. The feed pipe 210 passes substantially horizontally through the uniformly curving surface around the longitudinal axis of the flue 60, adjacent the lower axial end of the flue 60. Inside the flue 60, the feed pipe 210 is arranged to bend through approximately 90 degrees, and continues parallel to the longitudinal axis of the flue 60, terminating at the feed pipe inlet 220, which is arranged inside the flue 60 to face the cap 70. Accordingly, gas from the inner vessel 140 will move up the flue 60 and he required to reverse direction within the flue 60 and move down to enter the feet] pipe 210.
Figure 3b is a sectional view of a flue 60 according to an alternative ernhodinierit. The arrangement of the feed pipe 210 differs from the arrangerrieiit of Figure 3a in that the feed pipe inlet 220 is substantially adjacent the lower axial end of the flue 60, the feed pipe terminating soon after passing through the uniformly curving surface around the longitudinal axis of the flue 60. In addition, the feed pipe inlet 220 is closed by a sliding shutter 240, xvhich may he moved to allow gas to flow into the feed pipe 210. The feed pipe inlet 220 is arranged inside the flue 60 to face an opposing curved side of the flue 60. Accordingly, gas from the inner vessel 140 will move up the flue 60 and he required to change direction within the flue 60 by approximately 90 degrees to enter the feed pipe 210, once the feed pipe shutter 240 has been moved to allow gas to flow into the feed pipe 210.
Figure 4 is a perspective view of a deflector 250 according to a first embodiment of the invention. The deflector 250 comprises a collar 260 for receiving an outlet end of a feed pipe 210, a securing bolt 270 for securing the collar 260 to the feed pipe 210, and a deflecting plate 280 for directing gas flow from the feed pipe 210. The deflector 250 is made from sheet mild steel with a thickness of 4mm, and welded and/or bolted together.
The collar 260 is made from a single rectangular strip of sheet steel, bent into a ring shape having a substantially square perimeter, and four substantially flat and square faces. The collar 260 therefore defines a passage therethrough of square cross-section, with dimensions of approximately 5cm by 5cm. The passage is sized in order to receive an end of one of the feed pipes 210 therein. That is, the smallest internal diameter of the passage is slightly larger than the external diameter of the feed pipe 210.
(I)n one face of the collar 260, a securing bolt 270 is received within a threaded bore, such that rotation of the bolt 270 causes axial movement of the bolt through the bore. In this way, the bolt 270 may be used to clamp the collar 260 onto the feed pipe lO 210. The securing bolt 270 has a threaded shaft and a hexagonal head, for driving the bolt with a spanner or wrench. The securing bolt 270 may be replaced by any other means of securing the collar 260 to the feed pipe 210 known in the art. In particular, the collar 260 may he sized to provide a friction fit about the feed pipe 210, such that no additional securing means is required.
The deflecting plate 280 is made from a single rectangular strip of sheet steel, bent a third of the way along its length at an angle of approximately 30 degrees to form a first plane and a second plane larger than the first plane. The deflecting plate 280 is welded arid/or bolted vja the second platte to one face of die collar 260, such that gas exiting a pipe onto which the collar 260 has been secured will he deflected by the fIrst plane of the deflecting plate 280.

Claims (17)

  1. Claims I. A retort, for producing charcoal, comprising: an inner vessel, for receiving wood to he converted into charcoal; an outer vessel containing the inner vessel and defining an intermediate region between the inner vessel and the outer vessel, the intermediate region comprising a burning region configured for burning fuel to heat the inner vessel; a flue from the inner vessel to a region outside the outer vessel, for conveying gas from the inner vessel to the atmosphere; lO a feed pipe from the inner vessel to the intermediate region, for conveying gas from the inner vessel to the intermediate region, wherein the entire length of the feed pipe is located \vithin the outer vessel.
  2. 2. The retort of claim 1, further comprising a flue valve for controlling flow of gas through the flue.
  3. 3. The retort of claim I or claim 2, wherein the feed pipe is arranged such that, in use, gas flow from the inner vessel is required to substantially change direction within the flue in order to enter the feed pipe.
  4. 4. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising a feed pipe valve for controlling flow of gas through the feed pipe.
  5. 5. The retort of any preceding claim, wherein the burning region is located substantially under the inner vessel.
  6. 6. The retort of claim 5, wherein the feet] pipe is configured to convey gas into a substantially central part of the burning region.
  7. 7. The retort of claim 5 or claim 6, wherein the retort further comprises a second feed pipe from the due to the intermediate region, for conveying gas from the inner vessel to the intermediate region, the second feed pipe configured to convey gas into the burning region in a direction substantially opposite to that of the first feed pipe.
  8. 8. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising a deflector coupled to an outlet end of the feed pipe, configured to direct gas, as it exits the feed pipe, in any desired direction.
  9. 9. The retort of claim 8, wherein the direction that gas, as it exits the feed pipe, is directed by the deflector is adjustable.
  10. 10. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising a trailer and/or lO skids for supporting the retort.
  11. 11. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising a temperature sensor within the flue and a temperature indicator, for indicating a temperature measured by the temperature sensor to an operator.
  12. 12. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising a first replaceable sacrificial member located on an inside surface of the outer vessel, adjacent the burning region.
  13. 13. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising a second replaceable sacrificial member located on an outer surface of the inner vessel, adjacent the burning region.
  14. 14. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising an extraction pipe from the lower side of the inner vessel, for removing fluid from the inner vessel to a location external to the retort, and an extraction pipe valve for controlling the flow of fluid through the extraction pipe.
  15. 15. The retort of any preceding claim, further comprising an access door substantially at each end of the retort, each door configured to provide access to an interior of the inner vessel and/or the intermediate region.
  16. 16. The retort of any preceding elaim, wherein the flue is located closer to a first end of the retort than to an opposing second end, and a second flue is located closer to the second end of the retort than to the first end.
  17. 17. A retort substantially as hereinbefore descnbed with reference to the accompanying drawings.
GB1204955.7A 2012-03-21 2012-03-21 Retort Active GB2500415B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1204955.7A GB2500415B (en) 2012-03-21 2012-03-21 Retort

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1204955.7A GB2500415B (en) 2012-03-21 2012-03-21 Retort
PCT/GB2013/050746 WO2013144591A1 (en) 2012-03-21 2013-03-21 Retort for producing charcoal
AU2013239526A AU2013239526B2 (en) 2012-03-21 2013-03-21 Retort for producing charcoal
EP13715400.1A EP2828355A1 (en) 2012-03-21 2013-03-21 Retort for producing charcoal
US14/386,753 US20150083574A1 (en) 2012-03-21 2013-03-21 Retort

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GB201204955D0 GB201204955D0 (en) 2012-05-02
GB2500415A true GB2500415A (en) 2013-09-25
GB2500415B GB2500415B (en) 2016-09-07

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WO (1) WO2013144591A1 (en)

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RU187805U1 (en) * 2017-09-12 2019-03-19 Сергей Анатольевич Самойленко Retort
WO2019213710A1 (en) * 2018-05-11 2019-11-14 Iron Fire (All Industries) Pty Ltd An improved charcoal making kiln

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CN201215327Y (en) * 2008-04-21 2009-04-01 李田丁 Coal gasification stove
CN201351935Y (en) * 2009-01-14 2009-11-25 张国祥 Energy-saving gas furnace
RU2421502C1 (en) * 2009-12-10 2011-06-20 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Курганский государственный университет" Method of processing organic material into fuel components and apparatus for implementing said method
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CN103589441B (en) * 2013-11-25 2014-11-19 潍坊金丝达环境工程股份有限公司 Improved energy-saving continuous gasification cracking furnace

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GB2500415B (en) 2016-09-07
US20150083574A1 (en) 2015-03-26
EP2828355A1 (en) 2015-01-28
WO2013144591A9 (en) 2014-01-09
WO2013144591A1 (en) 2013-10-03
AU2013239526B2 (en) 2017-02-23
AU2013239526A1 (en) 2014-11-06

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