GB2496221A - Mobile interference mitigation via autonomous denial and beacon frames - Google Patents

Mobile interference mitigation via autonomous denial and beacon frames Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2496221A
GB2496221A GB1206053.9A GB201206053A GB2496221A GB 2496221 A GB2496221 A GB 2496221A GB 201206053 A GB201206053 A GB 201206053A GB 2496221 A GB2496221 A GB 2496221A
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network
text
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user equipment
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GB201206053D0 (en
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Hong Wei
Erlin Zeng
Hai Ming Wang
Na Wei
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Renesas Mobile Corp
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Renesas Mobile Corp
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W72/00Local resource management, e.g. wireless traffic scheduling or selection or allocation of wireless resources
    • H04W72/12Dynamic Wireless traffic scheduling ; Dynamically scheduled allocation on shared channel
    • H04W72/1205Schedule definition, set-up or creation
    • H04W72/1215Schedule definition, set-up or creation for collaboration of different radio technologies
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W74/00Wireless channel access, e.g. scheduled or random access
    • H04W74/08Non-scheduled or contention based access, e.g. random access, ALOHA, CSMA [Carrier Sense Multiple Access]
    • H04W74/0833Non-scheduled or contention based access, e.g. random access, ALOHA, CSMA [Carrier Sense Multiple Access] using a random access procedure
    • H04W74/0841Non-scheduled or contention based access, e.g. random access, ALOHA, CSMA [Carrier Sense Multiple Access] using a random access procedure with collision treatment
    • H04W74/085Non-scheduled or contention based access, e.g. random access, ALOHA, CSMA [Carrier Sense Multiple Access] using a random access procedure with collision treatment collision avoidance
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W48/00Access restriction; Network selection; Access point selection
    • H04W48/08Access restriction or access information delivery, e.g. discovery data delivery
    • H04W48/12Access restriction or access information delivery, e.g. discovery data delivery using downlink control channel
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • H04W84/02Hierarchically pre-organised networks, e.g. paging networks, cellular networks, WLAN [Wireless Local Area Network] or WLL [Wireless Local Loop]
    • H04W84/10Small scale networks; Flat hierarchical networks
    • H04W84/12WLAN [Wireless Local Area Networks]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W88/00Devices specially adapted for wireless communication networks, e.g. terminals, base stations or access point devices
    • H04W88/02Terminal devices
    • H04W88/06Terminal devices adapted for operation in multiple networks or having at least two operational modes, e.g. multi-mode terminals

Abstract

In a smartphone or other user equipment (UE) having three antennas, one for each of three Radio Access Technologies (RATs, fig. 1, eg. LTE, GPS, WLAN), coexistence interference is mitigated by autonomously denying operation of one antenna (eg. the LTE) while short, critical signals (eg. WLAN beacons) are transmitted or received at another. The autonomous denial is co-ordinated with different networks (fig. 2C) by receiving a WiFi beacon frame, determining its beacon interval and sending this interval, together with a Basic Set Service ID, to an access point of the other network (eg. an E-UTRA eNB) in order to allow it to avoid collisions (302). The beacons40 delayed transmission time or th schedule for autonomous denials may be determined and sent instead of the beacon interval. This information is sent in the Beacon Information Indication Control Element (BII CE, 22G, fig. 8).

Description

METHODS, APPARATUS AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS

FOR OPERATING WIRELESS DEVICES

Technical Field

The present invention relates to methods, apparatus and computer programs for operating wireless devices. The exemplary and non-limiting embodiments of this invention relate generally to wireless communication systems, methods, devices and computer programs, and, in specific examples, relate to what is termed in the art autonomous denial for controlling interference among components of a multi-radio device. Examples of embodiments provide for liE-assisted in-device interference handling.

Background

The following abbreviations which may be found in the specification and/or IS the drawing figures are defined as follows: 3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project AP access point (in a WLAN system) Bil beacon information indication BOT beacon offset indication BSSID basic service set identifier BT Bluetooth CA carrier aggregation CC component carrier CE control element CRS common reference signal CTS clear to send DCI downlink control information DDI dynamic denial indicator DL downlink DRX discontinuous reception DTIM delivery traffic indication message eNB node B/base station in an E-TJTRAN system E-IJTRAN evolved UTRAN (LTE) GNSS global navigation satellite system GPS Global Positioning System ISM industrial, scientific, medical (unlicensed spectrum) LCID logical channel identifier LTE Long Term Evolution (E-UTRAN) LTE-A Long Term Evolution -Advanced (of E-UTRAN) MAC medium access control NAV network allocation vector OLLA outer ioop link adaptation FCC primary component carrier (also termed FCeII) PDCCH physical downlink control channel PIJCCI-l physical uplink control channel IS FUSCH physical uplink shared channel RAT radio access technology RF radio frequency RRC radio resource control RTS request to send SCC secondary component carrier (also termed SCeI1) SR scheduling request STA station (in a WLAN system) that is not also operating as an AP TBTT target beacon transmit time TU time unit UE user equipment IJL uplink UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network WiFi wireless fidelity, generally a WLAN system WLAN wireless local area network (IEEE 802.11, also termed WiFi) The advent of smartphones has resulted in the widespread capacity of handheld mobile stations to access multiple different radio technologies and the varied services they offer. While some of this multi-RAT capacity may be handled by a single RF chain in the UB (termed a software defined radio), in other cases such as GNSS and WLAN there is a RF chain separate from that used for the cellular system RAT(s). Other UEs may have different RE chains for 3G and 4G cellular systems, with or without GNSS andior WLAN capability. Due to the different antenna architectures for these different frequencies and the compact space a UE offers to enclose all of this various hardware, engineering a UE oflcn includes designing to mitigate the interference these various closely-packed radios might cause to one another while in operation. In the radio arts, this is generally termed coexistence interference.

Figure 1 illustrates schematically a RF front end of a UE which carries IS multiple radio transceivers. In this example there are three distinct RE transceivers, each shown as RE and baseband components in a chain with the related antenna: one for WLAN which functions also for the Bluetooth BT protocols (1st radio), one for the LTE system (2nd radio), and one for GNSS (specifically Global Positioning System GPS, 3rd radio). Transmissions from the LTE radio may interfere with the GPS receiver and with the WLANIBT receiver, while transmissions from the WLAN/BT transceiver may cause interference to the LTE receiver.

Morc spccifically, due to extrcmc proximity of multiple radio transccivcrs within the same UE, the transmit power of one transmitter may be much higher than the received power level of another receiver. By means of filter technologies and sufficient frequency separation, the transmit signal may not result in significant coexistence interference. But for some coexistence scenarios, such as different RATs within the same UE operating on adjacent frequencies, current state-of-the-art filter technology might not provide sufficient rejection of the signals that are spurious to that RE chain. For this reason, solving the problem of coexistence interference by a single generic RE design for use in multiple TiE models may not always be possible.

To this end the 3GPP group has established an ongoing study item in RAN2 on this topic, notably at 3GPP TR 36.816 vll.0.0, "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-IJTRA); Study on signalling and procedure for interference avoidance for in-device coexistence". Among the several solutions proposed there is one termed autonomous denial, which is analysed to be effective to remove the in-device interference for rare but critical WLAN/BT signalling events. Such events are typically short, for example during BT and WLAN connection-setup and WLAN beacon reception in general. Autonomous denial concerns the device itselL the UE in the above examples, suspending its transmission or reception on one radio while another radio is transmitting or receiv[ng, for the purpose of mitigating interference that is otherwise expected to occur if both radios were in active transmit or receive operation simultaneously.

IS Some of the signalling events that have traditionally been the source of high coexistence interference include the Bluetooth connection setup messages Inquiry Scan followed by Inquiry Response if the inquiry scan is successful, Page Scan followed by Page Response if the page scan is successful, and BT SNIFF events which is used to maintain a connection during the BT idle mode. In the WLAN system, the connection setup messages which have demonstrated high coexistence interference include Active Scanning, Beacon reception, and Beacon transmission.

For the case the liE autonomously denies itself operation on the LTE cellular system in order to transmit or receive any of the above very short signalling events without corruption due to coexistence interference from the LTE system, the adverse results have quite a large impact on the LTE system itself as detailed at document Tdoc R2-114323 by Ericsson and ST-Ericsson entitled "Autonomous Denial and WiFi beacon handling" (3GPP TSG-RAN WG2 #75; Athens, Greece; 22-26 August 2011). For example, the eNB might take such denial as PDCCH failure, which might then impact on PDCCI-l aggregation level or the wrong link adaptation. Eventually these can adversely impact the throughput capacity of the LTE system. But these signalling events are difficult for thc LTE system to predict so autonomous denial seems the only valid option to deal with coexistence interference, but this unpredictability means it will be difficult to control the overall impact to the LTE system when multiple UEs engage in autonomous denial.

Further rcscarch in this area may be seen at document R2-1 14440 by Qualcomm entitled "LTE Autonomous Denials for ISM Connection-Setup Events" (3GPP TSG-RAN WG2 #75; Athens, Greece; 22-26 August 2011). This document proposed limiting the denial rate to mitigate the impact of the autonomous denial to other parts of the system, with the LTE eNB having the capacity to adjust the rate loop thresholds for coexistence scenarios. The present inventors consider this tess than ideal in that different products use different link adaptation algorithms and so in a practical system there would be dramatically different levels of impact with the same denial rate, resulting in overall unreliable system performance. Document IS R2-l 14440 also considers that the UE can provide assistance information to the network to keep the link adaptation working, such as signalling the eNB afterwards that an autonomous denial took place. But since the duration of the various interrupts are not alike, it is uncertain how much impact there has already been to the LTE system performance, and additionally the UE may experience poor channel conditions at the time of its autonomous denial and the network will not take action to address the poor channel, thinking the sole problem was autonomous denial.

Other relevant documents include R2-1 10230, "Timeline analysis of TDM solutions for coexistence with WiFi"; and R2-112188, "Analysis of DRX based solutions for in-device coexistence". These propose a time domain multiplexing solution based on the LTE Release 8/9/10 DRX mechanism.

Generally the solutions to avoid in-device interference fall into one of three modes or techniques, shown schematically at Figures 2A to C. Figure 2A illustrates the un-coordinated mode in which filtering and hardware design are the sole means to avoid in-device interference. Figure 2B illustrates coordination within the UE only among the various radios. Figure 2C illustrates a mode in which there is also coordination with the cellular network, the LTE network as shown in the example.

Relevant teachings with respect to the Figure 2C approach may be seen at co-owned PCI application PCT/CN2OII/081559 filed on October 31, 2011 which informs the cellular network that there has been an autonomous denial within the TIE. The contents of PCT/CN2OI 1/08 1559 are hereby incorporated by reference as if fully reproduced herein.

Consider the beacons which are transmitted and rcccived in the WLAN system. Although missing a few beacons in a rather long period is not a problem for WiFi, frequent loss of beacon reception may result that the STA dc-associates from the AP, depending on implementation. In addition, the STA is required to receive DTIM, which informs the STAs about the presence of buffered multicastlbroadcast data on the AP. Typically the DTIM interval is set to three Beacon intervals. In IS summary, beacon reception is very critical for proper WiFi operation.

Autonomous denial in the UE without coordination with the network may have a severe negative impact in the LTE system performance. For example, the eNB might take such autonomous denial as PDCCH failure, which might impact on the PDCCH aggregation level, or result in the wrong link adaptation which eventually adversely impacts the LTE systcm capacity.

Sum mary According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for controlling a user equipment, the method comprising getting a beacon frame and determining a beacon interval in use in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and sending, via a second radio of a user equipment to an access node of a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information based on contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval in use in the first network that operates according to a first radio access technology.

According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided apparatus for use in a user equipment, the apparatus comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: get a beacon frame and determine a beacon interval in use in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and send via a second radio to an access node of a second network operating according to a second radio access technology information based on contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval which is in use in thc first network that operates according to a first radio access technology.

According to a third aspect of the present invention, therc is provided a computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, when executed on a user equipment, causes the user equipment to perform: getting a beacon frame and determining a beacon interval in use in a first network that operates according to a IS first radio access technology; and sending via a second radio to an access node of a second network operating according to a second radio access technology information based on contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval which is in use in the first network that operates according to the first radio access technology.

According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for controlling a user equipment, the method comprising: for a first radio of the user equipment operating in a first network, calculating at least one of a delayed beacon transmission time and a time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial; and sending, via a second radio of the user equipment operating in a second network to an access node of the second network, an indication of at least one of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial.

According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, there is provided apparatus for use in a user equipment, the apparatus comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: calculate, for a first radio of the user equipment operating in a first network, at least one of a delayed beacon transmission time and a time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial; and send, via a second radio of the user equipment operating in a second network to an access node of the second network, an indication of at least one of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial.

According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, when executed on a user equipment, causes the user equipment to perform: calculating, for a first radio of the user equipment operating in a first network, at least one of a delayed beacon transmission time and a time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial; and sending, via a second radio of the user equipment operating in a second network to an access node of the second network, an indication of at least one of the IS delayed beacon transmission time and the time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial.

According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for controlling a network access node, the method comprising: receiving from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilising the received information to mitigate interferencc between transmissions from thc user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network.

According to an eighth aspect of the present invention, there is provided apparatus for use in a network access node, the apparatus comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: receive from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilise the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network.

According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, when executed on a network access node, causcs the network access node to perform: receiving from a user cquipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilising the rcccivcd information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network.

IS

According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for controlling a network access node, the method comprising: receiving from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio acccss technology, information about at least one of a bcacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilising at least the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in thc first network by at least scnding to the liE in the second nctwork a configuration to adjust at least one of the user equipment's autonomous denial rate and autonomous denial timer.

According to an eleventh aspect of the present invention, there is provided apparatus for use in a network access node, the apparatus comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: receive from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilise at least the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network by at least sending to the UE in the second network a configuration to adjust at least one of the user equipment's autonomous denial rate and autonomous denial timer.

According to a twelfth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, whcn executed on a network access node, causes the network access node to perform: receiving from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilising at least the received information to mitigate IS interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first nctwork by at least sending to the UE in the second network a configuration to adjust at least one of the user equipment's autonomous denial rate and autonomous denial timer.

The processing systems described above may comprise at least one processor and at least one memory storing computer program code.

The computer programs described above may be provided on a computer-readable medium.

Further features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of preferred embodiments of the invention, given by way of example only, which is made with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a RF front end chip in a user device having RE chains for three radios and related antennas attached thereto, and is an example of the multi-radio interference problem mitigated by the autonomous denial relevant to these teachings; Figures 2A to C schematically show three distinct modes or approaches for avoiding interference between closely spaced radios within a same tiE as in Figure 1, namely uncoordinated (Figure 2A), coordinated within the IJE only (Figure 2B) and coordinated within the IJE and also with the network (Figure 2C); Figure 3A shows a timing diagram illustrating collisions among an active period of a LTE DRX cycle for a TIE and beacons of a WLAIN network in which the TIE is also operating;

IS

Figure 3B shows a timing diaam similar to Figure 3A but showing further detail of LTE and WLAN activity; Figure 4 shows a high level schematic diagram of examples of nodes involved in the LTE and WLAN activity of Figure 3B and interactions among radio modules thereof according to an exemplary embodiment of these teachings; Figure 5A shows a table showing exemplary logical channel identifier values for various indices according to an exemplary embodiment of these teachings; Figure SB shows schematically an example of a new control element according to an exemplary embodiment of these teachings which the TIE signals to the cellular access node and which includes the beacon interval information; Figure 5C shows schematically an example of a new control element according to an exemplary embodiment of these teachings which the UE signals to the cellular access node and which includes the beacon offset information; Figure 6 shows a logic flow diagram from the perspective of the UE that illustrates the operation of an example of a method, and a result of execution by an apparatus of a set of computer program instructions embodied on a computer readable memory, in accordance with the exemplary embodiments of this invention; Figure 7 shows a logic flow diagram from the perspective of the network or network access node that illustrates the operation of an example of a method, and a result of exccution by an apparatus of a sct of computer program instructions embodied on a computer readable memory, in accordance with the exemplary embodiments of this inveiltion; and

IS

Figure 8 shows a simplified block diagram of an example of a user device in a radio environment with a cellular base station/eNB and a local WLAN access point and illustrates an exemplary user device suitable for use in practising the exemplary embodiments of the invention.

Detailed Deserintion The background section references two documents which rely on DRX based solutions. These may help protect the most critical signalling of ISM systems such as the Beacon Frame. However, if the traffic load is heavy it becomes in efficient. Also, the beacon transmission may be delayed if there is traffic at TBTT. The eND has to take this factor into account and make the OFF period longer. Otherwise, collision could happen as is shown at Figure 3A. The DRX period is not synchronised to the beacon interval and so eventually there is a collision as shown at 302.

Recall again Figure 1 and consider that each different radio (WLAN, LTE and GPS) is a module. These may be physically distinct or all disposed on the same BY front end chip, but these radio modules are distinct at least functionally as each is for operating according to a different RAT. Assume that the UE wants to use its WiFi module for web surfing or some other communications. To do so, the STA must get a beacon first from an associated AP. According to an embodiment of these tcachings, after getting the beacon: * The UE's WiFi module may transmit Beacon interval and BSSID to its own LTE module.

* Then the UE's LTE module may transmit the Beacon interval and BSSID value to the eNB, using for cxamplc ncw defined signalling such as a ncw MACCE.

If the eNB thinks the Beacon interval is too small which may heavily influence LTE performance, it may send a new defined signalling such as new MAC CE to the liE to configure the autonomous denial rate or the autonomous denial timer to mitigate the influence on LIE performance.

If Beacon frame transmission is going to be delayed by busy traffic around TBTT, the UE's WiFi module may send the latest NAY value received from RTS!CTS/Data from other STAs to the UE's LTE module, and then: * the UE's LTE module may calculate its next Beacon frame transmission time and then * the liE's LTE module may send the offset or exact value to the eNB, using for example new defined signalling such as new MAC CE or PRY layer signalling.

a The LI signalling possibility at least includes using PUCCH signal format to transmit such offset or exact value to the eNB. It is also supported that multiple UEs can share the same PUCCH resources when the eNB knows that these UEs are connected to the same WiFi AP, e.g. UE with same BSSID. The latter would require that LIEs report the WiFi BSSID to the cNB mentioned above.

o This offset can also be taken as the time that the UE may do autonomous denial.

After receiving the offset or exact value, it is up to the eNB's implementation S that it can avoid scheduling UL at the delayed Beacon time or know clearly the UE's autonomous denial instead of DTX. Thus, this will not affect PDCCH efficiency and does not cause as much resource waste as the DRX method.

According to various embodiments of these teachings: * The UE reports the beacon interval and BSSID of thc associated AP to the eNB. BSSID is mainly used for UE grouping by the eNB.

* If the Beacon is delayed, the UE sends new defined signalling such as new fast LI signalling or new MAC CE containing delayed time to the cNB so that the eNB could handle it by implementation.

Now is described one exemplary implementation with respect to Figure 3B and 4. At time TI, the UE's WiFi module receives Beacon frame 402 from associated AP 21. The UE will get the Bcacon interval and BSSID value and send these at 404 to its own LTE module (transmitter 20D-2 and receiver 20E-2, sec Figure 8) via the internal link/bus between the UE's WiFi module (transmitter 20D-I and receiver 20E-1, sec Figurc 5) and LTE moduic. In this example, the beacon intcrval is 100TUs, which is around lOOms. After receiving the Beacon 402, the UE 20 will send this to the eNB 22 using the newly defined Beacon Information Indication (BIT) MAC CE 410 (see Figure SB), which contains the Beacon interval and BSSID.

At time T2, the UE's WiFi module knows the busy medium period will last 2Sms via other STA's RTS/CTS/Data frame 412 and the AP 21 cannot transmit its Beacon frame at time T3, which is a TBTT. So the UE's WiFi module will send this NAV value to the eNB 22 using the newly defined Beacon Offset Indication (BOl) MAC CE 420 (see Figure SC). So the eNB 22 will know when is the transmission time of the next delayed Beacon frame, which is time T4. Because there is no busy medium at the next TBTT at time T5, the UE 20 will not send any offset indication to the eNB 22, and the eNB 22 can avoid scheduling the IJE's UI. or will take the IJE's PDCCH missing as an autonomous denial instead of DIX at time Ti Figure 5A shows an exemplary but non-limiting table showing LCID values for various indices according to an exemplary embodiment of these teachings.

Figure SB shows a new Bli MAC control element according to an exemplary embodiment of these teachings which the UE 20 signals to the LTE eNB 22 and which includes the beacon interval infonmation shown at 410 of Figure 4. In an exemplary embodiment, the field Duration of this CE 410 is defined as follows: the Duration field identifies the number of TUs that the AP will schedule for Beacon transmissions. In an embodiment the length of this field is 16 bits.

IS Figure SC shows a new BOL MAC control element according to an exemplary embodiment of these teachings which the UE signals to the LTE cNB 22 and which includes the beacon offset information shown at 420 of Figure 4. In an exemplary embodiment, the Duration field of this CE 420 is defined as follows: the Duration field identifies the number of milliseconds that the WiFi module (of the UE 20) will

be occnpied. The length of this field is 16 bits.

Following is a more detailed but still non-limiting example for implementing fast LI (layer 1) signalling for the offset report!BOI CE. As the transmission and decoding latency for a MAC message will be on the order of lOms, it may not be sufficiently fast when the UE detects the beacon frame delay just a few ms before the beacon time. The results of such delay would be that eNB is not able to know the beacon delay on time and cannot take this into account in PDCCH link adaption and also DLQJL scheduling for the subframes corresponding to the delayed beacon transmissions. Fast Li control signalling can be used to solve this issue, with the detailed steps in the following. It is assumed here that such fast Li control signalling will use a PUCCH signal format, to take advantage of the high multiplexing capacity (c.g. for PUCCH format lailb thcrc can be a maximum of 18 TIEs multiplexed in a single PRB, while for PUCCH format 3 the capacity is 5 TIEs).

> First some predefined PUCCH format F_k and PUCCH resource [RlçTk} is defined for a TIE #k a In practice F_k can be format lb or format 3 o Rk and T_k is the PIJCCFI channel index and subframc index, respectively. This means a UE is allowed to use the PUCCH channel Rk in the subframe Tk for such reporting.

> Then if TIE detects a beacon delay in subframe #n, it will report the offset value in the nearest subframe which contains a predefined PTJCCH resource for itself as abovc.

o For example, for PUCCH format 3, the payload sizc can bc up to 20 bits. Then the offset can be quantiscd to for example a few bits for reporting.

IS

With such fast LI reporting, the feedback and processing delay can be reduced to just a few ms, e.g. 2ms or 3ms. Without loss of generality, it is assumed that the delay for decoding such Li signalling is 3ms in the following. In this case, it is still possible that UE detect the beacon delay not soon enough, e.g. just 2ms before the predefined beacon internal (or equally, the UE just finds a possible PUCCH resource for such reporting 2ms bcforc the predelmed beacon internal). In this case, it is possible to use some smart eNB implementation to avoid any impact on PDCCI-I OLLA. For example, assuming the nearest subframe to the next beacon time is subframc #x, and assuming 3ms LI signalling decoding delay, the eNB may assume that between subframe fix and subframe #x-1-3, a beacon can possibly be transmitted anywhere, which means the PDCCU missing in these subframc shall not be considered in PDCCH link adaption. After subframe #x+3, the cNB is able to get the feedback, which means no ambiguity in terms of beacon time delay.

Embodiments of the invention detailed above provide certain technical effects

such as for example:

* The LTE eNB can clearly identify the potential autonomous denial which is made by the UE, and can perform conesponding algorithms correctly.

* The LTE eNB can utilise the resource with higher efficiency than DRX.

* The LTE cNB can avoid collision with a delayed WiFi beacon frame to enhance WiFi performance.

Figure 6 is a logic flow diagram which summarises the various exemplary embodiments of the invention from the perspective of the UE (or certain components thereof if not performed by the entire IJE), and may be considered to illustrate the operation of an example of a method, and functional descriptions of computer code of a computer program stored in a computer readable memory, and a specific manner in which components of an electronic device are configured to cause that electronic device to operate (for example at least one memory and computer program code stored thereon configured with at least one processor to cause an apparatus to perform), whether such an electronic device is the access node in frill or one or more components thereof such as a modem, chipset, or the like.

At block 602 the IJE sends via a second radio (the cellular radio/LTE module) of a UE to an access node (cNB) of a second network operating according to a second RAT (LTE) information (BIT CE) about at least a beacon interval in use in a first network that operates according to a first RAT (WLAN). More generally, the IJE sends information based on the contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval.

Furthcr portions of Figure 6 illustrate various of the above exemplary embodiments. Block 604 details that the information about at least the beacon interval comprises a beacon interval and a BSSID.

Block 606 shows that the information about at least the beacon interval is ported to the second radio from a first radio (WLAN module) of the IJE that operates according to the first RAT.

Block 608 specifies an additional step of the UE sending, via the second radio to the access node of the second network, a network allocation vector obtained from signalling exchanged via the first radio in the first network. Block 610 further details block 608 in that the signalling comprises at least one of a RTS message, a as message, and Data exchanged with a STA operating according to the first RAT.

Block 612 builds on block 610 with the additional step that the UE calculates a next beacon transmission time and sends, via the second radio to the access node of the second network, an indication (BOl CE) of a beacon transmission time that is delayed as compared to a time given by the beacon interval.

Figure 7 is a logic flow diagram which summarises the various exemplary embodiments of the invention from the perspective of the eNB (or certain components thereof if not performed by the entire eNB or other access node if different from the (5 LTE system), and may be considered to ifiustrate the operation of an example of a method, and functional descriptions of computer code of a computer program stored in a computer readable memory, and a specific manner in which components of an electronic device are configured to cause that electronic device to operate (for example at least one memory and computer program code stored thereon configured with at least one processor to cause an apparatus to perform), whether such an electronic device is the access node in full or one or more components thereof such as a modem, chipset, or the like.

At block 702 the eNB receives from a TJE, in a second network operating according to a second RAT (LTE), intbrmation (BIT CE) about at least a beacon interval the UE is using in a first network that operates according to a first RAT (WLAN). Then at block 704 the eNB utilises the received information about the beacon interval so as to mitigate interference between transmissions to the tJE in the second network and beacons in the first network. More generally, this information is about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval, not necessarily only the beacon interval.

Further portions of Figure 7 illustrate various of the above exemplary embodiments. Block 706 specifies that the information about at least the beacon interval comprises a beacon interval and a BSSTD.

Block 708 specifies a further step of the eNB receiving from the liE in the second network a network allocation vector relevant to opcration of the UE in the first network. Block 710 follows block 708 and adds the additional step of the eNB rccciving from the UE in thc sccond network an indication (BOl CE) of a beacon transmission time that is delayed as compared to a time given by the beacon interval.

And block 712 follows block 710 in detailing the mitigation from block 704, namely the interference is mitigated between transmissions to the liE in the sccond network and beacons in the first network that are scheduled to be transmitted according to the delayed beacon transmission time noted at block 710.

IS

Block 714 gives more specifics of the interference mitigation of block 704, namely that utilising the beacon interval so as to mitigate the interference comprises sending to the liE in the second network a configuration by which the liE adjusts an autonomous denial rate.

Block 716 shows anothcr way for the eNB to mitigate the interference as first said at block 704, namely that utilising the beacon interval so as to mitigate the interference comprises scheduling resources in the second network for the UE so as to avoid beacons in the first network that are sent according to the beacon interval.

The various blocks shown in each of Figures 6 and 7 may also be considered as a plurality of coupled logic circuit elements constructed to carry out the associated function(s), or specific result of strings of computer program code or instructions stored in a memory. Such blocks and the functions they represent are non-limiting examples, and may be practised in various components such as integrated circuit chips and modules, and the exemplary embodiments of this invention may be realised in an apparatus that is embodied as an integrated circuit. The integrated circuit, or circuits, may comprise circuitry (as well as possibly firmware) for embodying at least one or more of a data processor or data processors, a digital signal processor or processors, baseband circuitry and radio frequency circuitry that are configurable so as to operate in accordance with the exemplary embodiments of this invention.

Reference is now made to Figure 8 for illustrating a simplified block diagram of various electronic devices and apparatus that are suitable for use in practising the cxcmplary embodiments of this invention. In Figure 8 an cNB 22 is adapted for communication over a wireless link 10 with an apparatus, such as a mobile terminal or liE 20. While there are typically several TiEs under control of the eNB 22, for simplicity only one UE 20 is shown at Figure 8. The eNB 22 may be any access node (including frequency selective repeaters) of any wireless network such as LTE, LTE-A, GSM, GERAN, WCDMA, and the like. The operator network of which the IS eNB 22 is a part may also include a network control element such as a mobility management entity MME and/or serving gateway SGW 24 or radio network controller RNC which provides connectivity with further networks (e.g. a publicly switched telephone network and/or a data communications networkllntemet).

The UE 20 includes processing means such as at least one data processor (DP) 20A, storing means such as at least one computer-readable memory (MEM) 20B storing at least one computer program (FROG) 20C or other set of executable instructions, communicating means such as a WLAN transmitter TX 20D-1 and a LTE transmitter 20D-2 as well as a WLAN receiver RX 20E-1 and a LTE receiver 20E-2 (each transmitter/receiver pair forming either the WLAN/WiFi module or the LTE module) for bidirectional wireless communications with the AP 21 and other STAs (over wireless link 12) as well as with the eNB 22 via one or more antennas 20F. Also stored in the MEM 20B at reference number 20G is the liE's algorithmi computer program for compiling and sending the various beacon related information (BIT and BOL CEs in the examples above).

The eNB 22 also includes processing means such as at least one data processor (DP) 22A, storing means such as at least one computer-readable memory (MEM) 22B storing at least one computer program (PROG) 2W or other set of executable instructions, and communicating means such as a transmitter TX 22D and a receiver RX 22E for bidirectional wireless communications with the UE 20 (or UEs) via one or more antennas 22F. The eNB 22 stores at block 22G the eNB's algorithm! computer program for receiving and utilising the various beacon related information (Bit and BOl CEs in the examples above).

Also shown at Figure 8 is the access point AP 21 of a WLAN network which originates thc beacon interval as noted with respect to Figure 4. The ÀY 21 includes a processor DP 2lA configured to execute a program FROG 21C stored on a MEM 2lB, and also a transmitter TX 2lD and receiver RX 21E for operation on the WLAN system.

IS

While not particularly illustrated for the UE 20 or eNB 22 or AP 21, those devices are also assumed to include as part of their wireless communicating means a modem and/or a chipsct which may or may not be inbuilt onto an 1ff front end chip within those devices 20, 21, 22.

At least one of the PROGs 22C in the eNB 22 is assumed to include a set of program instructions that, when executed by the associated DP 22A, enable the device to operate in accordance with the exemplary embodiments of th[s invention, as detailed above. The UE 20 may also have software stored in its MEM 20B to implement certain aspects of these teachings. In these regards, the exemplary embodiments of this invention may be implemented at least in part by computer software stored on the MEM 20B, 22B which is executable by the DP 20A of the UE and/or by the DP 22A of the eNB 22, or by hardware, or by a combination of tangibly stored software and hardware (and tangibly stored firmware). Electronic devices implementing these aspects of the invention need not be the entire devices as depicted at Figure 4 and may be one or more components of same such as the above described tangibly stored software, hardware, firmware and DP, or a system-on-a-chip Soc or an application specific integrated circuit ASIC.

In general, the various embodiments of the UE 20 can include, but are not limited to personal portable digital devices having wireless communication capabilities, including but not limited to cellular telephones, navigation devices, laptop/palmtop!tablet computers, digital cameras and music devices, and Internet appliances.

Various embodiments of the computer readable MEMs 20B, 22B include any data storage technology type which is suitable to the local technical environment, including but not limited to semiconductor based memory devices, magnetic memory devices and systems, optical memory devices and systems, fixed memory, removable memory, disc memory, flash memory, DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM and the like.

IS Various embodiments of the DPs 20A, 22A include but arc not limited to general purpose computers, special purpose computers, microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSP5) and multi-core processors.

Various modifications and adaptations to the foregoing exemplary embodiments of this invention may become apparent to those skilled in the relevant arts in view of the foregoing description. While the exemplary embodiments have been described above in the context of the LTE and LTE-A system, as noted above the exemplary embodiments of this invention may be used with various other types of wireless eoniniunication systems.

The above embodiments are to be understood as illustrative examples of the invention. Further embodiments of the invention are envisaged. Tt is to be understood that any feature described in relation to any one embodiment may be used alone, or in combination with other features described, and may also be used in combination with one or more features of any other of the embodiments, or any combination of any other of the embodiments. Furthermore, equivalents and modifications not described above may also be employed without departing from the scope of the invention, which is defined in the accompanying claims.

Claims (1)

  1. <claim-text>CLAIMS1. A method for controlling a user equipment, the method comprising: getting a beacon frame and determining a beacon interval in use in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and sending, via a second radio of the user equipment to an access node of a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information based on contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval in use in thc first network that operates according to the first radio access technology.</claim-text> <claim-text>2. A method according to claim 1, in which the first radio access technology is IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network V/LAN; the second radio access technology is E-UTRAN; the access node is an eNB; and the information about the at least one of the beacon frame and the beacon interval is sent in a beacon information indication IS control clement BIt CE.</claim-text> <claim-text>3. A method according to claim 1 or claim 2, in which the information based on the contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval comprises an indication of the beacon interval and a basic service set identifier BSS[D.</claim-text> <claim-text>4. A method according to any of claims 1 to 3, in which the information based on the contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval is ported from a first radio which is a WLAN radio of the user equipment to the second radio which is a cellular radio that operates according to the second radio access technology.</claim-text> <claim-text>5. A method according to any of claims 1 to 4, comprising: sending, via the second radio to the access node of the second network, a network allocation vector obtained from signalling exchanged via a first radio of the user equipment in the first netDrk.</claim-text> <claim-text>6. A method according to claim 5, in which the signalling comprises at least one of a request to send RTS message, a clear to send CTS message, and data exchanged with a station operating according to the first radio access technology.</claim-text> <claim-text>7. Apparatus for use in a user equipment and comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: get a beacon frame and determine a beacon interval in use in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and send via a second radio to an access node of a second network operating according to a second radio access technology information based on the contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval which is in use in the first network that operates according to the first radio access technology.</claim-text> <claim-text>K Apparatus according to claim 7, in which the information based on the IS contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval comprises an indication of the beacon interval and a basic service set identifier BSS[D.</claim-text> <claim-text>9. Apparatus according to claim 7 or claim 8, in which the information based on the contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval is ported from a first radio which is a WLAN radio of the user equipment to the second radio which is a cellular radio that operates according to the second radio access technology.</claim-text> <claim-text>10. Apparatus according to any of claims 7 to 9, arranged to send, via the second radio to the access node of the second network, a network allocation vector obtained from signalling exchanged via a first radio of the user equipment in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>11. A computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, when executed on a user equipment, causes the user equipment to perform: getting a beacon frame and determining a beacon interval in use in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and sending via a second radio to an access node of a second network operating according to a second radio access technology information based on the contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval which is in use in the first network that operates according to the first radio access technology.</claim-text> <claim-text>12. A computer program according to claim II, comprising instructions such that thc inlbrmation based on thc contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval comprises an indication of the beacon interval and a basic service set identifier BSSID.</claim-text> <claim-text>13. A computer program according to claim 11 or claim 12, comprising instructions such that the information based on the contents in the beacon frame including at least the beacon interval is ported from a first radio which is a WLAN radio of the user equipment to the second radio which is a cellular radio that operates IS according to the second radio access technology.</claim-text> <claim-text>14. A computer program according to any of claims 11 to 13, comprising instructions, which, when executed on a user equipment, cause the user equipment to send, via the second radio to thc access node of the second network, a network allocation vector obtained from signalling exchanged via a first radio of the user equipment in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>15. A method for controlling a user equipment, the method comprising: for a first radio of the user equipment operating in a first network, calculating at least one of a delayed beacon transmission time and a time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial; and sending, via a second radio of the user equipment operating in a second network to an access node of the second network, an indication of at least one of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial.</claim-text> <claim-text>16. A method according to claim 15, in which the said at least one of the indications of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time that the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial is sent in a beacon offset indication control element BOT CE.</claim-text> <claim-text>17. Apparatus for use in a user equipment and comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: calculate, for a first radio of the user equipment operating in a first network, at least one of a delayed beacon transmission time and a time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial; and send, via a second radio of the user equipment operating in a second network to an access node of the second network, an indication of at least one of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial.IS</claim-text> <claim-text>18. Apparatus according to claim 17, in which the said at least one of the indications of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time that the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial is sent in a beacon offset indication control element BOl CE.</claim-text> <claim-text>19. A computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, when executed on a user equipment, causes the user equipment to perform: calculating, for a first radio of a user equipment operating in a first network, at least one of a delayed beacon transmission time and a time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial; and sending, via a second radio of the user equipment operating in a second network to an access node of the second network, an indication of at least one of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time when the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial.</claim-text> <claim-text>20. A computer program according to claim 19, comprising instructions such that said at least one of the indications of the delayed beacon transmission time and the time that the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial is sent in a beacon offset indication control element BOl CE.</claim-text> <claim-text>21. A method for operating a network access node, the method comprising: receiving from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user cquipmcnt is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilising the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the sccond network and beacons in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>IS 22. A method according to claim 21, in which the first radio access technology is IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network WLAN; the second radio access technology is E-UTRAN; the network access node comprises an eNB; and the information is received in a beacon information indication control element Bli CE.</claim-text> <claim-text>23. A method according to claim 21 or claim 22, in which the information comprises an indication of the beacon interval and a basic service set identifier BSSID.</claim-text> <claim-text>24. A method according to any of claims 21 to 23, the method comprising: receiving from the uscr equipment in the second network at least one of: a network allocation vector relevant to operation of the user equipment in the first network and an indication at least one of a beacon transmission time that is going to be delayed and a time that the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial.</claim-text> <claim-text>25. A method according to claim 24, in which: the indication of the at least one of the beacon transmission time that is delayed and the time that the user equipment is going to do autonomous denial is received in a beacon offset indication control element BOl CE; and utilising the received information to mitigate interference comprises mitigating interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network that are scheduled to be transmitted according to the at least one of the indicated beacon transmission time that is going to be delayed and the indicated time that the LiE is going to do autonomous denial.</claim-text> <claim-text>26. Apparatus for use in a network access node and comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: rcccivc from a user equipment, in a sccond network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates IS according to a first radio access technology; and utilise the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>27. Apparatus according to claim 26, in which the first radio access technology is IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network WLAN; the second radio access technology is E-UTRAN; the apparatus comprises an eNB; and the information is received in a beacon information indication control element Bli CE.</claim-text> <claim-text>28. A computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, when executed on a network access node, causes the network access node to perform: receiving from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilising the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>29. A computer program according to claim 28, in which the first radio access technology is IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network WLAN; the second radio access technology is E-UTRAN; the apparatus comprises an eNB; and the information is received in a beacon information indication control element B!! CE.</claim-text> <claim-text>30. A method for controlling a network access node, the method comprising: receiving from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and IS utilising at least the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network by at least sending to the TIE in the second network a configuration to adjust at least one of the user equipment's autonomous denial rate and autonomous denial timer.</claim-text> <claim-text>31. A method according to claim 30, in which: utilising at least the received information to mitigate interference comprises scheduling resources in the second network for other user equipments so as to avoid beacons in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>32. Apparatus for use in a network access node and comprising a processing system constructed and arranged to cause the apparatus to: receive from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilise at least the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network by at least sending to the UE in the second network a configuration to adjust at least one of the user equipment's autonomous denial rate and autonomous denial timer.</claim-text> <claim-text>33. Apparatus according to claim 32, in which the processing system is configured such that the apparatus utilises at least the received information to mitigate interference by scheduling resources in the second network for other user equipment so as to avoid beacons in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>34. A computer program comprising a set of instructions, which, when executed on a network access node, causes the network access node to perform: receiving from a user equipment, in a second network operating according to a IS second radio access technology, information about at least one of a beacon frame and a beacon interval the user equipment is using in a first network that operates according to a first radio access technology; and utilising at least the received information to mitigate interference between transmissions from the user equipment in the second network and beacons in the first network by at least sending to the LiE in the second network a configuration to adjust at least one of the user equipment's autonomous denial rate and autonomous denial timer.</claim-text> <claim-text>35. A computer program according to claim 34, comprising instructions such that said network access node utiliscs at least the received information to mitigate interference by scheduling resources in the second network for other user equipment so as to avoid beacons in the first network.</claim-text> <claim-text>36. A method of operating a wireless device, substantially in accordance with any of the examples as described herein with reference to and illustrated by Figures 4 to 8 of the accompanying drawings.</claim-text> <claim-text>37. A wireless device, substantially in accordance with any of the examples as described herein with reference to and illustrated by Figures 4 to 8 of the accompanying drawings.</claim-text>
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