GB2491637A - Manufacture of large composite flywheels for energy storage - Google Patents

Manufacture of large composite flywheels for energy storage Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2491637A
GB2491637A GB201109721A GB201109721A GB2491637A GB 2491637 A GB2491637 A GB 2491637A GB 201109721 A GB201109721 A GB 201109721A GB 201109721 A GB201109721 A GB 201109721A GB 2491637 A GB2491637 A GB 2491637A
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per
flywheel
mandrel
fibre
spool
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GB201109721D0 (en
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William Brian Turner
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William Brian Turner
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F15/00Suppression of vibrations in systems; Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces, e.g. due to motion
    • F16F15/30Flywheels
    • F16F15/305Flywheels made of plastics, e.g. fibre-reinforced plastics [FRP], i.e. characterised by their special construction from such materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/02Additional mass for increasing inertia, e.g. flywheels
    • H02K7/025Additional mass for increasing inertia, e.g. flywheels for power storage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C15/00Construction of rotary bodies to resist centrifugal force
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K15/00Methods or apparatus specially adapted for manufacturing, assembling, maintaining or repairing of dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K15/02Methods or apparatus specially adapted for manufacturing, assembling, maintaining or repairing of dynamo-electric machines of stator or rotor bodies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/16Mechanical energy storage, e.g. flywheels or pressurised fluids

Abstract

To manufacture a large composite flywheel multi-megawatt energy storage device 61 using composite winding technology on site to overcome the transportation difficulties associated with such flywheels. This is accomplished by manufacturing a spool / mandrel in a factory environment (see Drawing 1), which is transportable by road via a permitted load in terms of volume to site and using this as the starting point on site to wind the remainder of the flywheel 61 on a prepared foundation. The operation has to be carried out in a controlled environment, necessitating the use of a temporary or permanent building to house the complete flywheel, winding magazine system, temporary rotating system, tension control and curing and cooling system. The system is designed to run in a vacuum inside a concrete container / lid arrangement. The preferred embodiment is one where a variable speed hydraulic or hydrodynamic or magnetic gearbox drive, coupled to the flywheel, is linked to a constant speed synchronous generator giving perfect wave form and satisfying grid codes in terms of Low Voltage Ride Through.

Description

Page 1 Manufacturing large composite flywheels for multi megawatt energy storage
Background
To date the most commonly used technology for large electrical energy storage is pumped storage and historically it has been a dependable source of storage.
However they are: * Very capital intensive * Geographically limited to suitable mountainous areas or sea cliffs * Generally far from major centres of population and need o Long planning cycle o Long construction lead time * Environmental opposition (Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. (AONB)) * Generally minimum parasitic storage losses except in hot dry climates due to evaporation.
Other competing Technologies
CAES
Multiple types of Batteries Ultra Capacitors How is this flywheel storage technology applied Today there is much focus on renewable energy, most common of which is wind energy and large GW of capacity have been and are being installed, with even more in planning. This power source of course varies from zero to a maximum according to a cubic factor of wind velocity and averages only about 30% of the rated capacity.
This is one major area where energy storage can play a part.
The second area where energy storage can and does play a part is in the management of the National Grid and Distribution systems. This can involve peak demand sustenance and jpad levelling for examples.
A third area for storage is to raise the night time generating levels to sustain the recharging of the energy, which has the effect of possibly reducing the total generating capacity needed and removing the thermal cycling modes of plants especially those taken off-line during the night and extending their life cycles as a result.
History of Large Flywheels for electrical energy storage Steel has been used for various flywheels for electrical storage for some time.
Notable examples are: The flywheels at Cuiham Laboratory: very large diameter, segmented steel construction, low speed, large power output for seconds to support the local grid on start-up of the collider.
Fuji Electric in Japan in the 80's constructed a 6.6m diameter flywheel from thick steel machined plates, stacked in layers, giving a total weight of 650 tons and capable of 160MW for 30 seconds.
Current flywheel technology is focussed on very high speed carbon fibre epoxy composite cylinders, running with active and passive magnetic bearings in a vacuum / Page 2 containment chamber. However their storage capacity is relatively small and their current applications are around fine tuning grid frequency control. Beacon is perhaps the best known as a manufacturer of such devices. These are all manufactured in a factory environment.
Proposed technical specification
(But NOT limited to.) * Weight300ton * Outer diameter circa 10 metres * Inner diameter circa 6 metres * Height 5 metres * Speed <3042 RPM. (FoS of>2.) * 60 MWhr total storage. Useable storage 48 MV/br, e.g. 6 MW output for 8 hours.
* 4 pole 6 MW synchronous machine, running at synchronous speed, generating at 11kV to 15 kV or according to site specification and 50 or 60 Hz.
* Hydraulic or hydrodynamic gearbox drive or variable speed magnetic gearbox for constant speed.
* Low Voltage Ride Through technology by either drive system.
* Limited torque coupling between generator and drive system to prevent damage to drive train from grid disturbances.
Additional notes: * Hydraulic drive system will have an accumulator in the circuit. If made very large, this could be additional energy storage capacity.
* Accumulator could assist with "Black Start" capability.
* With small standby generator or UPS for controls, "Black Start" is also possible.
* Generator if uncoupled could act as a synchronous condenser and produce Vars for Power Factor compensation.
* Hydrodynamic drive could raise possibility of 20MW output generator.
* Hydrodynamic drive could also act as uncoupling device to operate generator as synchronous condenser.
System Advantages (In addition to above) 1) Can be located next to major usage centres 2) Can lower the peak power being dispatched from whatever source to give lower transmission / distribution losses 3) Could be used to eliminate increasing ratings on transmission / distribution systems 4) Very low parasitic losses -estimated at <1% per hour 5) Synchronous generator running at synchronous speed 6) Flywheel overspeed almost impossible, with dual back-up controls.
7) Almost perfect wave form (No power electronics) 8) Will meet all Grid Codes for synchronous machines Page 3 9) Can be used as synchronous condenser, when not in use (Discharging or recharging) 10) Simplistic design, each component has its own ftinction e.g. stator winding cooling in a vacuum is not an issue! 11) Dynamic and damped self balancing system proposal 12) Does not require major geographical features for operation. No need for sites with suitable storage areas and large elevation between for pumped storage (Mountains or sea cliffs) 13) No need for salt cavern storage CAES system. Strategically in UK, better used to store natural gas 14) Lowers the thermal cycling of aging power plants which is costly 15) Enhances the value of renewable energy 16) Raises productivity of existing distribution / transmission systems 17) Improves security of infrastructure 18) Short lead times for equipment.
19) Commodity Storage: Storing energy generated off peak or from surplus "Green energy" for use during peak demand periods during the day, permitting arbitraging the production price of the periods and a more uniform system load factor for transmission, distribution and generation.
20) Rapid grid connection / disconnection of a few seconds possible.
21) Fits well with National Grid uncertainty forecast 4-6 hours out.
22) Could fulfil short term operating reserves, where UK has a big shortfall for 2020.
Renewable energy resources have two problems.
1) "First, many of the potential power generation sites are located far from load centres. Although wind energy generation facilities can be constructed in less than one year, new transmission facilities must be constructed to bring this new power source to market. Since it can take upwards of 7 years to build these transmission assets, long, lag-time periods can emerge where wind generation is "constrained-off' the system. For many sites this may preclude them from delivering power to existing customers, but it opens the door to powering off-grid markets-an important and growing market." esc white Paper, May 2002 2) "Second, most of the power that is generated that is accessible to the grids is generated when there is low demand for it. By storing the power from renewable sources from off-peak and releasing it during on-peak, energy storage can transform this low value, unscheduled power into schedulable, high-value products.
Beyond energy sales, with the assured capability of dispatching power into the market, a renewable energy source could also sell capacity into the market through contingency services". isc white Paper, May 2002 * "Modernize Conservation: Energy storage will help modernize conservation practices by optimizing the economic and environmental profiles of fossil and nuclear assets through reducing dispatch and cycling costs and/or providing new electricity products to the market." ESC white Paper, May 2002 * "Modernize Infrastructure: Energy storage will help modernize the nation's electric power infrastructure by enhancing its efficiency, reliability and security. By operating assets in a more systematic and enhanced role, private sector firms will invest to upgrade the system." E5C White Paper, May 2002 Page 4 "Increase Energy Supply: Energy storage will increase the productivity of domestic resources in two ways. First, by increasing the efficiency of existing power plants, our existing re-sources will go farther. Secondly, storage will promote renewable energy use thereby adding domestic resources to the fuel source." IE5C White Paper, May 2002 * "Protect the Environment: Storage facilities will help reduce the environmental impact of existing power facilities and more quickly and efficiently integrate renewable ones into the system. By operating existing facilities in a more efficient manner, they will produce less waste and reduce dispatch and cycling costs." ESC White Paper, May 2002 * "Security: Energy storage facilities enhance the reliability of the grid.
Reservoirs of energy stored at dispersed sites are less vulnerable to disruption, and can be called up at a moments notice to: 1) reduce volatility, 2) enhance the reserve margin, and 3) provide the necessary ancillary services critical to the proper workings of the transmission and distribution system." E5C White Paper, May 2002 * CCS: Facilitate optimal practices for Carbon Capture and Storage.
* End of life disposal: No major environmental impact. (Especially compared to battery disposal.) System Efficiency This is a key measurement and can also define the market best suited to the overall efficiency and especially parasitic losses during storage periods.
Generator 4 pole, 98% efficiency at >0.95pf Hydraulic or hydrodynamic drive system, 95% Magnetic gearbox 98.5% efficient Step-up / down transformer 98.5% efficiency (11kV! 66kV) Power in 10% losses Power out 10% losses 1. Overall 20% losses * Compared to pumped storage 20-25% losses * No parasitic losses on pumped storage during non-operation. (Exception -evaporation) 2. Parasitic losses are due to: * Minor tosses in standard bearings on centre shaft and / or magnetic shaft and elevating bearings * Some windage and friction as vacuum is not absolute zero * Magnet iron losses when gearbox acts as clutch * Mechanical damping losses * Losses estimated at <1% per hour Page 5
Description
Manufacturing large composite flywheels for multi megawatt energy storage There is a limit to size that can be transported in terms of weight, height and diameter.
In the UK practical limits of size would be 6m diameter and 5m high on a special low trailer as a permitted load on a motorway / dual carriageway. Hence the probable limits on the Fuji Electric flywheel example.
In energy storage angular velocity is more important than mass, which drives the carbon fibre I epoxy solution or other high strength fibre / resin combination. To make this viable in terms of size and cost, a large diameter thick wall cylinder has to be manufactured.
The only way to achieve this is to manufacture the flywheel on site in a controlled environment, where curing and winding are continuous processes.
To achieve this it is proposed to manufacture a spool / permanent winding fixture in a factory environment and transport same to site, bearing in mind the size of permitted loads on the highway.
The spool / mandrel is manufactured in a factory using special removable tooling, whose working surface is coated with a release agent, either film type or painted on.
The spool / mandrel is wound with unidirectional fibres to maximise density and resistance to hoop stresses and fibres are either prepreg or wetted or induced, with epoxy or other resin, in specified layer thicknesses.
The fibres are received in large reels, mounted in a magazine, with tension devices linked by control system to rotation drive of removable tooling.
The resin is selected to fully cure during one revolution, one layer thick, so that exotherming is eliminated, by heating and cooling appropriately.
The resin curing and subsequent cooling, during one revolution thickness, may be achieved using hot air, cold air, infrared heating, ultraviolet or similar curing process.
Use of compressed air heat pipe technology for hot and cold air and waste heat from the air compressor is advantageous.
To achieve a homogeneous composition, the fibre tension is accurately controlled and the top side and outer diameter surfaces are rolled, prior to application of heat to eliminate air pockets.
A building is necessary for machining, environmental control and process control to manufacture spool / mandrel.
The spool / mandrel is then transported to site, where foundations and temporary / permanent building is already prepared and has a controlled environment for process control.
Larger flywheels can be constructed by stacking two or more spools / mandrels for increased height.
The mandrel / spool for winding the flywheel is connected via special torque transmission spokes to a hollow shaft, via a circular damped coupling, rotating about a permanent, precisely machined shaft fixed solidly to the foundation, wherein the mandrel can be precisely rotated by means of bearings, either standard rolling element, oil film bearing metal type, (Plain or tilting pad, etc.), or air bearings between the central fixed shaft and rotating hollow shaft. A magnetic bearing solution will be the subject of a separate application.
The elevating magnet arrays are fitted in location to complete rotational capability.
During winding, temporary bearings mounted like upside down castors may be needed to be fastened to the foundation.
Page 6 A temporary driving system, hydraulic or electric on a ring gear or similar device is fitted to rotate the spool / mandrel slowly and at a high level of controlled torque linked to fibre magazine tension control, to wind the composite fibre on to the spool I mandrel.
The outer and final layer of the flywheel has a different construction to prevent peeling of the fibres due to loss of epoxy or other selected resin at Mach 3 peripheral speeds and this is achieved by using prepreg unidirectional, continuous fibre tape, under tension, being spirally butt, fractional lap or half lap wound over the outer diameter, with the ends positioned under the spiral wrap for the full height of the flywheel, with the start and finish ends 180 degrees apart to maintain balance of flywheel.
The fibres selected may be higher tensile strength for the outer layer and may have a few weft fibres included in the tape construction to keep its shape.
Practically the axis of rotation would have to be vertical. This enables the use of permanent magnets in repulsive mode to elevate the flywheel from beneath, which has a large surface area to contain all the necessary magnets and enable an almost frictionless bearing solution which is maintenance free.
There is the issue that magnets in such a mode cause the rotating mass to be unstable, according to Earnshaw and others. This can be overcome by mechanical means and the use of prime numbers and is known as pseudo-levitation.
The complete flywheel assembly must run in a near perfect vacuum to minimise parasitic losses. For example the proposed rim speed is Mach 3. The vacuum chamber / containment system proposed is concrete with a steel lid. Any concrete porosity issues and vacuum loss can be solved by detecting leaks with foam on the exterior and sealing with liquid epoxy at locations under vacuum where foam quickly disappears, indicating a leak. The two part epoxy will migrate into the concrete, cure and seal the ingress leakage path. Concrete construction would also utilize dumbbell waterbars of rubber, used vertically between each separate pour for additional ingress sealing.
The containmeht chamber does not have to be as robust as if steel were used in the flywheel construction. For example carbon fibre / epoxy composite has the beneficial property that on failing it will delaminate and break into small pieces.
The design uses a completely hermetically sealed chamber by means of a magnetic drive system through the lid of the containment / vacuum vessel. So sealing is not an issue.
In addition to the issue raised in #4, which were passive mechanical devices, it is also proposed to have an active mechanical device to assist in damping and balancing of the rotating masses.
The effect of Precession torque from the earth's rotation on bearing design is important.
Critical speeds especially in the normal running range of 30 -100% angular velocity should be designed out.
Detailed site assembly / construction instructions will be essential.
Emergency equipment can be added in the event of instability. For this proposal SOLAS (Safety of lives at sea.) technology is the preferred embodiment, spraying a water based fog into the containment vessel and venting it through automatic or spring closed doors in the lid of the containment vessel.
The main body of the flywheel is made up of unidirectional fibres bonded in position by epoxy or other suitable resin and is wound in a similar manner as the spool I mandrel above.
Page 7 The outer and final layer of the flywheel has a different construction to prevent peeling of the fibres due to loss of epoxy or other selected resin at Mach 3 peripheral speeds and this is achieved by using prepreg unidirectional, continuous fibre tape, under tension, being spirally butt, fractional lap or half lap wound over the outer diameter, with the ends positioned under the spiral wrap for the full height of the flywheel, with the start and finish ends 180 degrees apart to maintain balance of flywheel.
The fibres selected may be higher tensile strength for the outer layer and may have a few weft fibres included in the tape construction to assist in keeping its shape.
The adhesive bonding of the end component of the final wrapping tape, placed under the fmal wrap tape, must exceed any hoop tension on the outer layer by a considerable factor of safety. The final tape should be continuous with no joints and provided above can be achieved, shorter lengths can be permitted and surface could have two or more, shorter height sections of final wrap.
The rotating mass needs to be check balanced even though all rotating components are manufactured uniformly.
The mechanical properties and expansion of the flywheel and the top magnet array should be similar to prevent separation.
The top surface of the top magnet array, may have serrations or similar to assist in prevention of separation.
Drawing I, shows the spool / mandrel in section as it would leave the factory. The wall thickness #54, must be sufficient to maintain its true shape during manufacture, shipping to site and final winding. The flanges, #55 assist in keeping it stable and the buttresses either angular of parallel between the flanges, #40 assist also. It has to be remembered that in the event of a vacuum failure, the buttresses will stir the air considerably and heat these reinforcements. It is also essential that drainage holes #59, are created in these pockets so that any water collecting in same, drains away instantly.
Any filling of crevices with water under centrifugal force could cause the system to overstress and perhaps fail, If the spool can be created without buttresses it will be better, as a smooth surface means less friction even in a low vacuum. A means of lifting the spool, by a spreader beam attached to the flanges, has to be considered for handling within factory and shipment to site. Flange drilling is shown as #23.
The final layer is applied using basic whipping technique as follows: At start of application of final layer, Drawing 2, #60, the prepreg tape is applied from the bottom of the periphery in an open spiral and fastened to merely hold location, until final cure. The tail end pull through tool is applied such that it is covered completely along its cable portion at an angle with the special head at the bottom, #70, and pulling eye, #69, at the top exposed. The circumferential locations of #60 & #61 are approximately 180 degrees apart to maintain balance. At the top, #9, the tape is wound 360 Degrees, under controlled tension until it crosses over the loose spiral, #68, and continues over the top of itself for a given distance. The tape, #67, then follows a tapered path downwards by either having butt or fractional laps, until all the surface is covered and pull through tool is fed with tape leaving a considerable tail to be pulled diagonally to the top under the existing wound tape. This ensures both ends are securely fastened and hidden, with considerable bonded length to resist movement under tension. During pull through operation when Tool #70, is pulled through by eye, #69, on plastic coated cable, #71.
Page 8 as in Drawing 3, temporary pin clamps, as in Drawing 4, are used at locations #62, #63, #64 & #65. These clamps are secured to the upper magnet array segments. The pins are long enough to maintain location of tape unidirectional fibres, such that on completion, wrapping tape covers 100% of the OD surface when clamps are removed.
Partial lapping of outer spiral may also assist when pulling through last end.
Drawing 3 shows the tool with pin, #73 either fixed or free to rotate. All parts are Teflon coated over polished surfaces to minimise friction. The front of the tool #75 is shaped to lift each tape cleanly from above the cable, #71. The cable, #71, is attached to pin #74. The tool is formed from steel plates, #76, making up the outer body.
The secured tape in final location is shown by #72 and adjacent arrow shows tape being pulled over pin, #73 as it is drawn through.
The bonding over the tails of the tape, shown by dotted lines on Drawing 1, which are placed under the wrap must exceed by a good factor of safety, the tensile stresses at full operating speed, on the wrap of tape prior to where it is placed under the outer wrap. It is preferable that this tape is continuous over the entire operation of final wrap. If not then shorter lengths may be used provided the bonding and relevant factors of safety are still OK, to partition the outer layer as necessary.
Drawing 4 shows a pin clamping tool, which would be placed at locations, #62, #63 #64 and #65. It is composed of pins #77, mounted in a block, #78, with an extension piece #79, with bolt holes #80 to fix clamping tool to OD of top magnet array and to temporary fixturing at top of flywheel.
Upon completion of outer layer all tooling is removed and final curing is commenced using existing methods to cure final layer application, including rolling the surface to exclude air entrapment.
Checks and processes to be carried out after winding 1. Air gaps at inner and outer rows with non magnetic feeler gauge or taper gauge.
2. Does flywheel rotate with only a small torsional effort? 3. Smooth rotation, no cogging.
4. Balance at slow speed using winding drive mechanism. If hydraulic, brake to stop, using hydraulic fluid, if electric use resistance load bank to brake.
5. Remove all temporary tooling etc. Finish construction 1. Set up and pour rest of concrete containment walls.
2. Concrete in situ bolting sealing flange on top.
3. Place fabricated lid in place 4. Place magnetic coupling and shaft top support in position.
5. Pull vacuum until all moisture / vapour is excluded. This may take some time and a vapour cold trap with auto discharge will be required before final vacuum pump. Pre vacuum is pulled with a roots type blower. Size of final vacuum pump system could be smaller than commissioning unit as maintenance of vacuum would be the primary requirement in service.
6. Vacuum leak detect and seal if vacuum does not get down to expected value, in a specified time.
Page 9 Note on dynamic balancing Fine damping dynamic balancing can take place in a circular closed ring, mounted in the spoke drive region which contains steel or other heavy metal balls in a viscous lubricating liquid, which will resist vacuum system. On commencement of any vibration, these balls which only fill a portion of the pipe will nathrally migrate to the opposite side to oppose the vibration and dampen the motion.
Commissioning The remainder of the installation I commissioning will be the result of further efforts, during which full speed will be attained and critical vibrations checked for.
When all is satisfactorily commissioned, circuits confirmed, software correct, remote interfaces confirmed, then grid runs can commence.

Claims (29)

  1. C LA I MS1. To erect and manufacture a large flywheel, which in normal circumstances, would be non transportable, due to its envelope and weight, on site, by means of a transportable, factory constructed mandrel / spool, which is wound on site with high strength fibre / resin composite, utilising a controlled methodology and environment, running within a vacuum or special gas containment system, to minimise windage losses, for the purpose of mechanical energy storage, which in turn is charged and discharged by an electrical motor / generator in combination with either an hydraulic or hydrodynamic variable speed drive or variable speed magnetic gearbox, to and from the electrical grid system, hence acting as an electrical storage system, being charged during low periods of grid usage and discharged when generating system is running at full capacity or alternatively being used as reserve power for intermittent green power such as wind energy and at the same time satisfying the goals of efficiency, competitive capital cost, durability and reliability and meeting the demands of the Grid Companies Low Voltage Ride Through requirements since the generator is synchronous running at synchronous speeds, by use of the hydraulic or hydrodynamic or magnetic gearbox variable speed drive system.
  2. 2. Claim I is achieved by using carbon fibre / epoxy or any other high tensile strength fibre and resin combination to create a composite structure for optimal storage density.
  3. 3. As per Claim 1, it is also possible to mount a vertical generator directly on top of the lid of the vessel and use power electronics (Inverter / Converter.), either wound pole or permanent magnet directly to the magnetic external coupling of the flywheel and at a lesser diameter than the flywheel inner diameter, which is surrounded by a stationary stator supported to the foundations and by this means a much larger MW output can be achieved, over a shorter period.
  4. 4. As per Claim 3, it is also possible to mount generator within the vacuum chamber on a special bearing system so that the only external connection is via power cables to power electronics outside the vacuum chamber and this would be best designed as a permanent magnet rotor and water cooled stator, but alternatives known to those skilled in the trade are possible.
  5. 5. To manufacture the flywheel as per Claim 1, a mandrel / spool from carbon fibre / epoxy or any other high strength fibre / resin combination, is constructed in a factory environment such that it is size maximised for road transport, circa 6m outer diameter and 5m tall.
  6. 6. To create taller flywheels as in Claim 5, factory manufactured spool / mandrcls can be stacked vertically on site.
  7. 7. As per Claim 5, the spool / mandrel is manufactured in a factory using special removable tooling, whose working surface is coated with a release agent, either film type or painted on.
  8. 8. As per Claim 5, the spool / mandrel is wound with unidirectional fibres to maximise density and resistance to hoop stresses and fibres are either prepreg or wetted or induced, with epoxy or other resin, in specified layer thicknesses.
  9. 9. As per Claim 5, the fibres are received in large reels, mounted in a magazine, with tension devices linked by control system to rotation drive of removable tooling.
  10. 10. Per Claim 5, the resin is selected to fully cure during one revolution, one layer thick, so that exotherming is eliminated, by heating and cooling appropriately.
  11. 11. As per Claim 10, the resin curing and subsequent cooling, during one revolution thickness, may be achieved using hot air, cold air, infrared heating, ultraviolet or similar curing process.
  12. 12. As per Claim 10, use of compressed air heat pipe technology for hot and cold air and waste heat from the air compressor is advantageous.
  13. 13. To achieve a homogeneous composition, as per Claim 5, the fibre tension is accurately controlled and the top side and outer diameter surfaces are rolled, prior to application of heat to eliminate air pockets.
  14. 14. To achieve Claims S through 13, a building is necessary for machining, environmental control and process control.
  15. 15. As per Claim 5, any final processing, such as precision drilling of flanges on ID or other finishing operations takes place before shipping.
  16. 16. As in Claim 1, the mandrel / spool for winding the flywheel is connected via special torque transmission spokes to a hollow shaft, via a circular damped coupling, rotating about a permanent, precisely machined shaft fixed solidly to the foundation, wherein the mandrel can be precisely rotated by means of bearings, either standard rolling element, oil film bearing metal type, (Plain or tilting pad, etc.), or air bearings between the central fixed shaft and rotating hollow shaft. A magnetic bearing solution will be the subject of a separate application.
  17. 17. As in Claim 16, the elevating magnet arrays are fitted in location to complete rotational capability. These arrays will be the subject of a separate application.
  18. 18. As in Claim 17, during winding, temporary bearings mounted like upside down castors may be needed to be fastened to the foundation.
  19. 19. As in Claim I there is a temporary driving system, hydraulic or electric on a ring gear or similar device to rotate the winding mandrel slowly and at a high level of controlled torque linked to fibre magazine tension control, to wind the composite fibre on to the mandrel.
  20. 20. As per Claim 16, the entire on site working environment is housed within a temporary or permanent building, which has a controlled environment for process control.
  21. 21. As per Claim 1, the on site winding process is identical to that described in Claims 8 through 13.
  22. 22. As per Claim 1, the outer and final layer of the flywheel has a different construction to prevent peeling of the fibres due to loss of epoxy at Mach 3 peripheral speeds and this is achieved by using prepreg unidirectional, continuous fibre tape, under tension, being spirally butt, fractional lap or half lap wound over the outer diameter, with the ends positioned under the spiral wrap for the full height of the flywheel, with the start and finish ends 180 degrees apart to maintain balance of flywheel.
  23. 23. As per Claim 22, the fibres selected may be higher tensile strength for the outer layer and may have a few weft fibres included in the tape construction to keep its shape.
  24. 24. As per Claim 22, the adhesive bonding of the end component of the final wrapping tape, placed under the final wrap tape, must exceed any hoop tension on the outer layer by a considerable factor of safety.
  25. 25. As per claim 22, the final tape should be continuous with no joints and provided Claim 24 can be achieved, shorter lengths can be permitted and surface could have two or more, shorter height sections of final wrap.
  26. 26. As in Claim 1, the rotating mass needs to be check balanced even though all rotating components are manufactured uniformly.
  27. 27. As in Claim 1, the mechanical properties and expansion of the flywheel and the top magnet array should be similar to prevent separation.
  28. 28. As in Claim 21, the top surface of the top magnet array, may have serrations or similar to assist in prevention of separation.
  29. 29. For safety SOLAS technology, will be used (Safety of Lives at Sea.) in the event of loss of vacuum or excessive vibration and utilises a sprinkler type system, which sprays a fog of water, which is vented through spring loaded or automatic doors in lid, thus expelling oxygen, slowing unit down and cooling.) Amended claims have been filed as follows:-C LAI MS1. A method of erecting and manufacturing a large flywheel, which in normal circumstances, would not be transportable, due to issues of bulk and weight, by means of a transportable, factory constructed mandrel / spool, which is wound on site with high strength fibre / resin composite and located within a vacuum containment system, for the purpose of mechanical energy storage, which in turn is charged and discharged by an electrical motor / generator to and from the electrical grid system and thus acting as an electrical storage system, being charged during low periods of grid usage and discharged when generating system is running at full capacity.2. Claim 1 is achieved by using carbon fibre / epoxy or any other high tensile strength fibre and resin combination to create a composite structure for optimal storage density.3. As per Claim 1, the preferred drive train arrangement is to have a variable speed mechanism, connected to a synchronous motor / generator, capable of meeting the demands of the Grid Companies Low Voltage Ride Through requirements since the generator is synchronous rumiing at synchronous speeds.3-4.As per Claim 1, it is also possible to mount a vertical generator directly on top of the lid of the vessel and use power electronics (Inverter / Converter.), either wound pole or permanent magnet directly to the magnetic external coupling of the flywheel and at a lesser diameter than the flywheel inner diameter, which is surrounded by a stationary stator supported to the foundations and by this means a much larger MW output can be achieved, over a shorter period.4rSAs per Claim 4, it is also possible to mount generator within the vacuum chamber on a special bearing system so that the only external connection is via power cables to power electronics outside the vacuum chamber and this would be best designed as a permanent magnet rotor and water cooled stator, but altematives known to those skilled in the trade are possible.5T6.To manufacture the flywheel as per Claim I, a mandrel I spool from carbon fibre / epoxy or any other high strength fibre I resin combination, is constructed in a factory environment such that it is size maximised for road transport, circa 6m outer diameter and 5m tall.&7.To create taller flywheels as in Claim 6, factory manufactured spool / : *: mandrels can be stacked vertically on site.78.As per Claim 6, the spool / mandrel is manufactured in a factory using *. : special removable tooling, whose working surface is coated with a release * agent, either film type or painted on.&9.As per Claim 6, the spool / mandrel is wound with unidirectional fibres to maximise density and resistance to hoop stresses and fibres are either * prepreg or wetted or induced, with epoxy or other resin, in specified layer thicknesses.* 9710. As per Claim 6, the fibres are received in large reels, mounted in a magazine, with tension devices linked by control system to rotation drive of removable tooling.1&l 1. Per Claim 6, the resin is selected to fully cure during one revolution, one layer thick, so that exotherming is eliminated, by heating and cooling appropriately.4-h12. As per Claim 11, the resin curing and subsequent cooling during one revolution thickness, may be achieved using hot air, cold air, infrared heating, ultraviolet or similar curing process.1-2713. As per Claim 12, use of compressed air heat pipe technology for hot and cold air and waste heat from the air compressor is advantageous.4&l4. To achieve a homogeneous composition, as per Claim 6, the fibre tension is accurately controlled and the top side and outer diameter surfaces are rolled, prior to application of heat to eliminate air pockets.4-4-A 5. To achieve Claims 6 through 14, a building is necessary for machining, environmental control and process control.4-5716. As per Claim 6, any fmal processing, such as precision drilling of flanges on ID or other fmishing operations takes place before shipping.4-&17. As in Claim 1, the mandrel / spool for winding the flywheel is connected via special torque transmission spokes to a hollow shaft, via a circular damped coupling, rotating about a permanent, precisely machined shaft fixed solidly to the foundation, wherein the mandrel can be precisely rotated by means of bearings, either standard rolling element, oil film bearing metal type, (Plain or tilling pad, etc.), or air bearings between the central fixed shaft and rotating hollow shaft. A magnetic bearing solution will be the subject of a separate application.4-7718. As in Claim 17, the elevating magnet arrays are fitted in location to complete rotational capability.4&l9. As in Claim 18, during winding, temporary bearings mounted like upside down castors may be needed to be fastened to the foundation.-1-9720. As in Claim 1 there is a temporary driving system, hydraulic or electric on a ring gear or similar device to rotate the winding mandrel slowly and at a high level of controlled torque linked to fibre magazine tension control, to wind the composite fibre on to the mandrel.2&2l. As per Claim 17, the entire on site working environment is housed within a temporary or permanent building, which has a controlled environment for process control.2-h22. As per Claim 1, the on site winding process is identical to that described in Claims 9 through 14.22723. As per Claim 1, the outer and fmal layer of the flywheel has a different * construction to prevent peeling of the fibres due to loss of epoxy at Mach 3 * peripheral speeds and this is achieved by using prepreg unidirectional, continuous fibre tape, under tension, being spirally butt, fractional lap or *S: half lap wound over the outer diameter, with the ends positioned under the * spiral wrap for the full height of the flywheel, with the start and finish ends degrees apart to maintain balance of flywheel.23r24. As per Claim 23, the fibres selected may be higher tensile strength for * the outer layer and may have a few weft fibres included in the tape * construction to keep its shape.I2'h25. As per Claim 23, the adhesive bonding of the end component of the final wrapping tape, placed under the fmal wrap tape, must exceed any hoop tension on the outer layer by a considerable factor of safety.2&26. As per claim 23, the final tape should be continuous with no joints and provided Claim 25 can be achieved, shorter lengths can be permitted and surface could have two or more, shorter height sections of final wrap.2&27. As in Claim 1, the rotating mass needs to be check balanced even though all rotating components are manufactured uniformly.2728. As in Claim I, the mechanical properties and expansion of the flywheel and the top magnet anay should be similar to prevent separation.2&29. As in Claim 22, the top surface of the top magnet array, may have serrations or similar to assist in prevention of separation.293O. For safety SOLAS technology, will be used (Safety of Lives at Sea.) in the event of loss of vacuum or excessive vibration and utilises a sprinkler type system, which sprays a fog of water, which is vented through spring loaded or automatic doors in lid, thus expelling oxygen, slowing unit down and cooling.)S*550*5 * * * * * S. * * S. * **S** SI * 1. * * *S sOI
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US4359912A (en) * 1979-04-27 1982-11-23 The Johns Hopkins University Superflywheel energy storage device
US20100083790A1 (en) * 2008-10-06 2010-04-08 Graney Jon P Flywheel device
WO2010148481A1 (en) * 2009-06-15 2010-12-29 Universite Laval High energy density flywheel

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GB1109724A (en) 1965-06-18 1968-04-10 Adamovske Strojirny Np Improvements in knocking-up devices particularly for paper sheets upon the supporting table of printing machines
US4077678A (en) * 1976-07-30 1978-03-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Energy storage apparatus
WO2003088278A2 (en) * 2002-04-11 2003-10-23 Magtube, Inc Shear force levitator and levitated ring energy storage device
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US4359912A (en) * 1979-04-27 1982-11-23 The Johns Hopkins University Superflywheel energy storage device
US20100083790A1 (en) * 2008-10-06 2010-04-08 Graney Jon P Flywheel device
WO2010148481A1 (en) * 2009-06-15 2010-12-29 Universite Laval High energy density flywheel

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