GB2477166A - Transport responsive load system - Google Patents

Transport responsive load system Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2477166A
GB2477166A GB1001286A GB201001286A GB2477166A GB 2477166 A GB2477166 A GB 2477166A GB 1001286 A GB1001286 A GB 1001286A GB 201001286 A GB201001286 A GB 201001286A GB 2477166 A GB2477166 A GB 2477166A
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GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
power
vehicles
network
transport
arrangement
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB1001286A
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GB201001286D0 (en
Inventor
Andrew Howe
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Responsiveload Ltd
Original Assignee
Responsiveload Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Responsiveload Ltd filed Critical Responsiveload Ltd
Priority to GB1001286A priority Critical patent/GB2477166A/en
Publication of GB201001286D0 publication Critical patent/GB201001286D0/en
Publication of GB2477166A publication Critical patent/GB2477166A/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/53Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells in combination with an external power supply, e.g. from overhead contact lines
    • B60L11/1801
    • B60L11/1824
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L15/00Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
    • B60L15/20Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed
    • B60L15/2045Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles for control of the vehicle or its driving motor to achieve a desired performance, e.g. speed, torque, programmed variation of speed for optimising the use of energy
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/60Monitoring or controlling charging stations
    • B60L53/63Monitoring or controlling charging stations in response to network capacity
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/10Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/40Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using two or more transmitting or receiving devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/40Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using two or more transmitting or receiving devices
    • H02J50/402Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using two or more transmitting or receiving devices the two or more transmitting or the two or more receiving devices being integrated in the same unit, e.g. power mats with several coils or antennas with several sub-antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0027Stations for charging mobile units, e.g. of electric vehicles, of mobile telephones
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/02Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters
    • H02J7/022Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter
    • H02J7/025Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter using non-contact coupling, e.g. inductive, capacitive
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2200/00Type of vehicles
    • B60L2200/26Rail vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L9/00Electric propulsion with power supply external to the vehicle
    • B60L9/02Electric propulsion with power supply external to the vehicle using dc motors
    • B60L9/08Electric propulsion with power supply external to the vehicle using dc motors fed from ac supply lines
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L9/00Electric propulsion with power supply external to the vehicle
    • B60L9/16Electric propulsion with power supply external to the vehicle using ac induction motors
    • B60L9/24Electric propulsion with power supply external to the vehicle using ac induction motors fed from ac supply lines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/12Monitoring or controlling equipment for energy generation units, e.g. distributed energy generation [DER] or load-side generation
    • Y04S10/126Monitoring or controlling equipment for energy generation units, e.g. distributed energy generation [DER] or load-side generation the energy generation units being or involving electric vehicles [EV] or hybrid vehicles [HEV], i.e. power aggregation of EV or HEV, vehicle to grid arrangements [V2G]

Abstract

A transport responsive load system includes a distribution network (fig 1, 30) connecting electrical power generators (fig 1, 20) to a power coupling 50, 200 of electrically-propelled vehicles 60. A controller (Fig 1, 100,120) controls power utilized by the vehicles 60 and provides a demand response to the electrical distribution network 30 to improve a match between power supplied to and consumed from the network 30. The vehicle can include an energy store 90 such as a battery or super capacitor to supply operating energy and store regenerative braking energy and a controller 80 to direct energy flow between the vehicle motor/generators 70, the energy store and the distribution network. The demand responsive service provided to the network can be monitored by a recorder 190 that determines the power transferred, either from the voltage and current or from the vehicle's mass and changes in speed. A speed indicator enables a user 110 to modify travelling speed to help balance the power supplied to and from the network. Power can be coupled to the vehicle by electrified rail, pantograph, inductive or direct contact transfer at a charging station (fig 3,310) where the vehicle can be parked and the battery charged from and/or supply power to the network in a demand responsive manner.

Description

TRANSPORT RESPONSIVE LOAD SYSTEM
Technical field of the invention
The present invention relates to transport responsive load systems for providing demand response to electricity distribution networks by way of regenerative braking and/or speed control; in other words, the transport responsive load systems are operable to consume and/or generate power in a manner which attempts to stabilize operation of electricity distribution networks to which the responsive load systems are coupled. Moreover, the present invention relates to methods of providing demand response in these responsive load systems by way of regenerative braking and/or speed control. Furthermore, the present invention concerns software products recorded on machine-readable data storage media, the software products being executable upon computing hardware for implementing these aforesaid methods.
Background to the invention
It is known to utilize regenerative braking for recovering kinetic energy in electric vehicles for storage back into batteries of such vehicles for subsequent use when re-accelerating the vehicles; this regenerative braking is capable of enhancing vehicle operating efficiency and/or extended its travelling range. However, regenerative braking increases vehicle complexity and potentially adds to vehicle weight, but is overall found to be of benefit for enhancing vehicle operation. Contemporary Prius hybrid vehicles manufactured by Toyota company employ such regenerative braking.
It has been known for many years to employ electric vehicles which receive their electrical power from overhead power lines and/or from electrified rails, for example trams, trolley buses and underground railway systems. These overhead power lines are often operated at potentials of several hundred to several thousand volts. Moreover, these electrified rails are often operated at potentials of several hundred volts. Furthermore, electrical vehicles often consume considerable power during acceleration, as well as generate considerable power during deceleration, which results in power flows which either involve considerable current at **** * moderate voltages or moderate current at considerable voltages. Directly measuring these *:*. power flows is complex and costly in respect of isolation and/or sensors. It has been * contemporary practice not to measure power flows occurring during regenerative braking, but rather merely to try to recover as much regenerative energy as possible for trying to achieve optimal energy efficiency and/or extended travelling range. A technical problem arising in * practice is that it is often beneficial to quantify an amount of energy recovered by regenerative braking processes; use of electrical power sensors, for example current transformers in combination with differential potential sensors, is a normal manner of measuring such electrical power flow. A product of sensed current and sensed voltage in respect of time provides an indication of cumulative regeneratively recovered energy (in Joules).
Summary of the invention
The present invention is concerned with a problem of using a regenerative braking and/or speed control in transport systems for providing demand response service for stabilizing electricity power distribution networks.
According to a first embodiment of the invention, there is described a transport responsive load system as claimed in appended claim 1: there is provided a transport responsive load system for providing demand response, characterized in that the system includes: (a) one or more generators for generating electrical power; (b) an electricity distribution network for coupling the one or more generators to a power coupling arrangement of one or more electrically-propelled vehicles; and (c) a control arrangement for controlling electrical power utilized within the one or more vehicles for providing demand response to the electrical distribution network for assisting to achieve an improved match between power supply to the network and power consumed from the network.
The invention is of advantage in that control of power flow to and/or from the one or more vehicles coupled in relation to the electricity supply network is capable of providing a better matched demand response for providing improved stabilization fro the electricity distribution network.
Optionally, the transport responsive load system is implemented so that the one or more vehicles include at least one of: automobiles, trains, trams, trolleybuses, mass transit, electric motorcycles and scooters, Maglev.
. Optionally, the transport responsive load system is implemented so that the one or more * *. *.* * vehicles include thereon an energy storage arrangement from which energy can be extracted in operation and regenerative braking energy can be stored in operation, wherein the one or more vehicles further include a controlling arrangement for selectively directing energy flows between one or more motors/generators of the one or more vehicles and at least one of the :" energy storage arrangement and the distribution network for improving the match between power supply to the network and power consumed from the network. More optionally, the energy storage arrangement includes at least one of: supercapacitors, rechargeable batteries.
Optionally, the transport responsive load system is implemented so that the one or more vehicles include a recording arrangement for monitoring demand response service provided by the one or more vehicles to the distribution network.
Optionally, the transport responsive load system is implemented to include one or more speed indicators for encouraging one or more users to modify their travelling speed in operation of the one or more vehicles for providing demand response to the distribution network for providing an improved match between power supply to the network and power consumed from the network. Use of such speed indicators does not hinder a driver of a vehicle determining a speed of their vehicle, for example during an overtaking manoeuvre, thereby not compromising safety, but allowing other drivers to drive in a manner which is beneficially assistive to operation of the distribution network. More optionally, the one or more speed indicators include at least one of: road signs, in-vehicle dashboard signs, tactile notification, audio notification.
Optionally, the transport system is capabie of being implemented in many different forms, namely the power coupling arrangement includes at least one of: electrified rail power transfer, pantograph power transfer, non-contact inductive power transfer, direct electrical contact power transfer, microwave power transfer, photon energy transfer.
Optionally, for example for invoicing purposes, the transport system is implemented so that the recording arrangement is operable to determine power transfers to and from the one or more vehicles by at least one of: (a) measuring voltage changes and/or current flows in relation to the one or more vehicles; (b) measuring changes in velocity of the one or more vehicles; and * .. 30 (C) measuring an instantaneous mass of the one or more vehicles. ***. *
* ** *** * Optionally, the system is implemented to include one or more charging stations whereat the *:*. one or more vehicles are susceptible to being at least temporarily parked for charging purposes, and wherein the charging of the one or more vehicles is performed in a manner capable of providing demand response for providing an improved match between power supply to the network and power consumed from the network. Such charging stations
I * *e *
beneficially include at least one of: domestic home parking, car park parking, bus-stops for rapidly charging buses, lay bys.
Optionally, to ensure that power switching components of the one or more vehicles are employed in a synergistically most beneficial manner, the transport system is implemented so that motor power control electronic components of the one or more vehicles employed to control motive power are synergistically employed for feeding power from the one or more vehicles to the network when the one or more vehicles are parked at the one or more charging stations and providing demand response service.
According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of providing demand response to an electricity distribution network by using a responsive transport responsive load system, characterized in that the method includes: (a) using one or more generators for generating electrical power; (b) using an electricity distribution network for coupling the one or more generators to a power coupling arrangement of one or more electrically-propelled vehicles; and (c) using a control arrangement for controlling electrical power utilization within the one or more vehicles for providing demand response to the electrical distribution network for assisting to achieve an improved match between power supply to the network and power consumed from the network.
According to a third aspect of the invention, there is provided a vehicle which is capable of being electrically propelled, the vehicle being adapted to operate with the system pursuant to the first aspect of the invention.
According to a fourth aspect of the invention, there is provided a transport network adapted to support electrical power transfer to and from one or more vehicles on the transport network, the network being controlled by a controlling arrangement for providing demand response to an electricity distribution network coupled to supply and/or receive energy from *,.30 the transport network.
S
*.. S..
* According to a fifth aspect of the invention, there is provided a software product recorded on machine readable data storage media, wherein the software product is executable on * computing hardware for implementing the method pursuant to the second aspect of the S..
invention.
S *SSS * .
S S..
S
Features of the invention are susceptible to being combined in any combination without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the accompanying claims.
Description of the drawings
Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the following diagrams wherein: FIG. 1 is an illustration of a transport responsive load system pursuant to the present invention; FIG. 2 is an illustration of an electric vehicle adapted for operating in conjunction with the system of FIG. 1; FIG. 3 is an illustration of a road network adapted for supporting the system of FIG. 1; and FIG. 4 is an illustration of a power coupling arrangement of the vehicle of FIG. 2.
In the accompanying diagrams, an underlined number is employed to represent an item over which the underlined number is positioned or an item to which the underlined number is adjacent. A non-underlined number relates to an item identified by a line linking the non-underlined number to the item. When a number is non-underlined and accompanied by an associated arrow, the non-underlined number is used to identify a general item at which the arrow is pointing.
Description of embodiments of the invention
The present invention concerns transport responsive load systems for providing demand response services to electricity distribution networks by employing regenerative braking and/or dynamically-alterable recommended speed control in vehicles. Moreover, the present invention envisages that widespread use of electric vehicles, for example personal electrically-propelled automobiles, will economically promote the use of smaller batteries included within such electric vehicles in combination with more frequent, or even continuous, * electrical couplings to electrical power supply networks along road networks. Furthermore, * e such an implementation favours feeding power derived from regenerative braking directly back into electrical supply networks rather than storing the energy in batteries and/or *:. supercapacitors which are spatially located onboard the vehicles. Additionally, such a manner of operation opens up a possibility of electric vehicles being capable of providing *:*.* demand response balancing for electrical power networks. For example, major cities have one or more ring roads therearound which are often completely saturated with traffic. When this traffic is propelled electrically and coupled to an electrical power network to return regenerative braking energy to the network, it will be appreciated that such vehicles travelling around one or more ring rounds are akin to a missive flywheel of a gigantic electrical machine. By modulating speed of such electrical vehicles around the one or more ring roads, for example by way of speed recommendations presented to drivers of the vehicles, regenerative braking can be used for assisting to stabilize electrical power networks against rapid fluctuations by providing responsive load characteristics using the vehicle. In an event that power from decelerating electric vehicles is not required for providing responsive load, kinetic energy can optionally be stored into rechargeable batteries and/or supercapacitors of the vehicles.
In other words there is envisaged a system as illustrated in FIG. 1. The system is indicated generally by 10 and comprises a one or more power generators 20, an electricity distribution network 30, and a road network 40 coupled via one or more types of energy coupling arrangements 50 to the electricity distribution network 30. The one or more types of energy coupling arrangements 50 enable electrical energy to be provided to one or more electric vehicles 60 operable to travel around within the road network 40. The one or more coupling arrangements 50 can, for example, include pantograph-type contact energy coupling apparatus and/or non-contact magnetic coupling arrangements. The electric vehicles 60 include one or more electric propulsion motors/generators 70, an electric power control arrangement 80 and an electrical energy storage arrangement 90. Optionally, the energy storage arrangement 90 includes a combination of rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors, although other configurations are possible based upon other storage systems such as flywheels, compressed air reservoirs and so forth. In operation, the power control arrangement 80 is coupled to user-operable controls of the vehicles 60 for enabling the users 110 to control power provided to the one or more propulsion motors/generators 70, for example for controlling their speed and/or acceleration. Additionally, the electricity distribution network 40 includes a balancing arrangement 100 which is operable to try to match instantaneous power generated by the one or more power generators 20 to power demand placed upon the electrical distribution network, for example from domestic S...
consumers, from industry and from the road network 40. When the one or more power 4*SS** * generators 20 include green renewable energy systems such a wind turbines, tidal energy schemes, ocean wave energy schemes, solar power generation facilities, nuclear power generation facilities, and hydroelectric power generation facilities, the balancing arrangement is operable to try to control power demand placed upon the electricity distribution *:ös. network 30. Optionally, the balancing arrangement 100 is at least in part autonomously implemented in power consuming devices and appliances, namely is implemented in a distributed manner. Optionally, the balancing arrangement 100 is at least in part implemented as a centralized facility operable to send instructions to energy consuming devices and appliances coupled to the distribution network 30 to reduce or increase their power consumption in temporal correlation with fluctuations in electricity supply from the one or more generators 20. By doing so, supply of electrical power and consumption of electrical power is better matched within the system 10, thereby enabling the network 30 to be maintained at substantially constant nominal operating alternating-current frequency and/or at a substantially nominal constant alternative voltage magnitude. For example, the balancing arrangement 100 is operable to provide information to speed indicators 120 disposed around one or more ring roads encircling around major cities and/or along one or more major highways which encourage drivers of the one or more vehicles 60 to modulate their vehicle speed according to the recommendations.
A problem arising is that certain conscientious users of the electric vehicles 60 will oblige the recommendations provided by the speed indicators 120, for example visual speed recommendation signs placed along roadsides and/or as presented on a graphical dashboard within the vehicles 60, by way of wireless communication to the vehicles 60, and/or by way of data communicated via the coupling arrangements 50. However, certain other users 110 of the vehicles 60 will not be able to respond to the speed recommendations and/or will not desire to be governed by the speed recommendations. The speed recommendations are able to reduce or increase power consumption as air drag forces on vehicles increases as a square-law function of their travelling velocity v. Moreover, rapid deceleration and acceleration of the vehicles 60 is capable of contributing and extracting respectively power from the electricity distribution network 30 in very prompt manner. An amount of energy E available as a consequence of a vehicle 60 having a mass m decelerating from a first speed v1 to a second speed v2 is defined by Equation 1 (Eq. 1): Eq.1 wherein is a conversion efficiency of kinetic energy of the vehicle 60 to electrical energy to feed onto the distribution network 30 to provide demand response thereto in a manner to try *..s to stabilize the network 30 against fluctuations; 11 has a value in a range of 0.0% to 100.0%.
* When there is excess power being generated by the generators 20, Equation I (Eq. 1) also * : describes an instantaneous load that the vehicle 60 can represent when accelerating from a *30 speed v1 to a second speed v2. When demand response for the network 30 is not required to be provided from the vehicle 60, the vehicle 60 can derive its power from the energy storage arrangement 90 for example. * **.
The mass m can be found by one or more characteristics: (a) determining a degree of average strain exhibited by a wheel suspension system of the vehicle 60, wherein the strain is directly related to the mass m by a spring constant pursuant to Hooke's Law; and/or (b) by determining a natural frequency f0 of oscillation of the vehicle 60 suspension when subject to impulse excitation in operation, wherein the natural resonant frequency f0 is approximately a square-root function of the mass m.
When assistance with stabilizing the network 30 by way of travelling speed v of the vehicles is not required, the vehicles 60 can store and/or extract energy from their energy storage arrangements 90. A problem arises regarding how to financially reward such conscientious users and how to financially penalize users who ignore aforementioned speed recommendations. This problem requires monitoring the following information: (a) time t; (b) power flow P to and from the vehicles 60 in operation from the distribution network 30; (c) velocity v of the vehicles 60; (d) mass m of the vehicles 60; and (e) power flow Q to and from the energy storage arrangement 90.
The power flow P can be monitored using current and voltage sensors included in the vehicles 60; however, such sensors for high voltages and/or high currents can be problematic to implement. The power flow P can be determined from a velocity/speed v of the vehicles 60 in combination with a measure of their mass m. Optionally, the velocity v is determined by integrating outputs from accelerometers and the mass m determined from aforementioned average deformation of suspension springs of the vehicles 60. Optionally, the velocity v is determined by wheel revolution sensors, but then is a least partially sensitive to degree of tyre inflation. Power storage Q in the energy storage arrangement 90 is beneficially monitored using current sensors and battery terminal potential sensors. S...
. Monitoring is beneficially achieved by data logging performing in a "black box" type data *.. S..
* recorder 190 included in each of the vehicles 60. Optionally, the black box" recorder 190 is also synergistically operable to perform a function of a crash recorder for recording key vehicle 60 trajectory data prior to an impact, for example for legal purposes when evaluating crash insurance claims. Optionally, the data recorder on each of the vehicles 60 is operable to communicate, for example as a periodic batch data transfer to reduce a need for frequent costly real-time data communication, its recorded data results for the balancing arrangement 100 to receive and store on its database. Those users 110 of the vehicles 60 who have been attentive to recommended speed indications and thereby have provided demand response service are beneficially remunerated or otherwise rewarded for assisting in providing responsive load by their actions to stabilize operation of the network 30. Those users 60 who have been less obliging to provide useful responsive load service are either not rewarded or even penalized by minor disbursements or fees. As aforementioned, the recorder 190 is beneficially operable to communicate its recorded data at intervals via batch data download, or in real time as a trickle of data, to the balancing arrangement 100 for computation of energy usage invoicing to the users 110. The system 10 is thus able to promote responsible driving by users 110, rewarding conformity to recommended speed limits by economies for users 110 whilst providing freedom to other users 110 who have compelling reasons to travel as rapidly as possible without placing efficiency of energy utilization as a first priority.
In FIG. 2, there is shown an example of an electric vehicle 60 suitable for use with the system 10. The vehicle 60 includes one or more electric propulsion motors/generators 70, for example implemented as in-hub motors which avoid a need for a mechanical gearbox for the vehicle 60. The one or more motors/generators 70 are coupled via a power control arrangement 80 to an electrical energy storage arrangement 90. The vehicle 60 is also equipped with a power coupling arrangement 200 for providing power to the vehicle 60 and/or for outputting power from the vehicle 60.
In operation, the power control arrangement 80 is operable to receive instructions from the users 110 regarding desired travelling speed v and braking required for their vehicles 60. In an event of braking being required, the power control arrangement 80 makes a decision whether conventional mechanical thermally-dissipative braking of the vehicles 60 should be employed or, alternatively, regenerative braking should be applied. In an event that regenerative braking is beneficial to employ, the power control arrangement 80 is operable to take a decision whether energy recovered from regenerative braking should be stored in the energy storage arrangement 90 or returned via the power coupling arrangement 200 to the electricity distribution network 30.
* In an event that the balancing arrangement indicates to users 110 that a speed reduction and/or speed increase is required for demand response services to balance the network 30, the power control arrangement 80 will attempt, where possible, to arrangement for power exchange to occur along a first path P1 from the power coupling arrangement 200 via the : power control arrangement 80 to the one or more motors/generators 70. In an event that a demand response service is not required to be performed by the vehicles 60, the power control arrangement 80 is operable to store regenerative braking and/or deceleration energy provided from the one or more motors/generators 70 via a second route P2 in the electrical energy storage arrangement 90, for example in supercapacitors thereof, for example Eestor-type proprietary supercapacitors, which are able to support potentially millions of charge/discharge cycles. For a given vehicle 60, choice of whether to employ the path P1 or the path P2, or a combination of both, in operation will depend upon providing the vehicle 60 with a large remaining range whilst also providing useful load response to the electricity distribution network 30. In operation, the user 110 determines whether or not to comply with a speed recommendation which is beneficial for providing responsive load to the network 30.
In an event that the user 110 is willing to comply with recommendations, the power control arrangement 80 has a "willingness to comply" Yin a range of 0% to 100% whether to employ the path P1 or the path P2. The "willingness to comply" itself depends upon one or more factors including: (a) a charge state of the energy storage arrangement 90, 8; (b) whether or not the vehicle 60 includes a reserve fossil fuel engine 280 as a backup in an event of its energy storage arrangement 90 becoming depleted of energy; (c) a quantity of fossil fuel F included in the vehicle 60 for supporting feature (b); (d) a residual distance that the vehicle 60 is required to travel as entered by the user 110 as input data into the power control arrangement 80, for example via a GPS route planner of the vehicle 60 into which the user 110 has declared his/her desired journey; for example, in an event that the vehicle 60 is approaching its destination, the power control arrangement 80 may elect to deplete the energy storage arrangement 90 to a greater extent for providing responsive load service in an expectation that the vehicle 60 will be recharged at its destination in comparison to a situation of the vehicle 60 having just commenced on its journey.
The power coupling arrangement 200 is susceptible to being implemented in several alternative manners. In a simple implementation, the power coupling arrangement 200 is a bidirectional power charger which is physically connected via a plug/socket arrangement to the network 30. In a more complex implementation, road networks denoted by 300 in FIG. 3 are provided with recharging stations 310 at spatial intervals whereat the vehicle 60 is *S..
capable of being recharged with energy. The recharging stations 310 beneficially employ one S....
* or more of following recharging approaches: **,3 (i) battery exchanges, for example robotic apparatus at battery exchange bays or parking locations exchange battery packs of the vehicle 60 whilst the vehicles 60 are parked at the bays; (ii) battery charging and/or supercapacitor charging by way of direct electrical connection to the network 30; and (iii) battery charging and/or supercapacitor charging by way of inductive coupling and or radiation coupling (e.g. microwave and/or optical) between the vehicles 60 and the electricity distribution network 30.
Optionally, the road network 300 is equipped with coil arrangements and/or pantograph and/or guided energy bea,m arrangements for the vehicles 60 to be coupled to the network for power exchange purposes whilst the vehicles 60 are in operation dynamically travelling around the road network 300. Such a dynamic implementation of the system 10 is capable of providing a higher degree of responsive load service to the network 30 in comparison to other responsive load services in view of large amounts of energy being used within transport. For example, a vehicle such as the proprietary Toyota "Prius" type of automobile includes motors having a power rating of at least 10 to 20 kW. Contemporary "muscle" hybrid automobiles, for example as manufactured by Lexus company, can have traction motors approaching 50 kW power ratings.
The present invention is also susceptible to being adapted for use in electric railway/railroad trains as a substitute or addition to the vehicles 60. In certain configurations, trains optionally do not include an energy storage arrangement 90 and may also be devoid of the aforementioned reserve fossil fuel engine 280. Trains are beneficial to employ for implementing the present invention because: (a) they are subject to frequent stop/start operations when employed in urban transport, thereby providing frequent opportunities for providing demand response services; (b) they employ large traction motors/generators, for example an electric locomotive can include traction motors having a rating of several MegaWatts (MW); (c) they are considerable mass and therefore can have considerable kinetic energy when in motion, for example in a case of freight trains hauling large numbers of contemporary transport containers; (d) pantograph and/or rail power coupling for coupling energy to/from the trains already exists as infrastructure.
Thus, the present invention enables train service operators to earn additional revenues by providing demand response services to the operator of the network 30. The present invention **.
is also capable of being used in connection with urban trolley-bus systems, urban tramway *.....
* systems, urban mass-transport systems as well as more advanced Maglev railway systems. **
:. Optionally, the power coupling arrangement 200 is operable to utilize power switching devices 400 as illustrated in FIG. 4, for example semiconductor power switching transistors and/or thyristors and/or silicon controlled rectifiers and/or hybrid bipolar/FET power devices, of the power control arrangement 80, wherein these devices 400 are primarily intended for controlling power to and from the one or more motors/generators 70. These power switching devices 400 can be used for providing energy coupling from the energy storage arrangement to the network 30 when the vehicles 60 are parked in parking facilities which enable the vehicles 60 to exchange energy bi-directionally with the network 30, namely for providing demand response to the network 30. The power control arrangement 80 is operable via its associated power switching devices 400 to synthesize power polyphase signals for driving the one or more motors/generators 70 when the vehicles 60 are in motion; the control arrangement 80 with its power switching devices is susceptible when the vehicles 60 are parked to synthesize a sinusoidal mains waveform for feeding energy back onto the network 30. Coupling energy via a saturable magnetic core 410 to the network 30 enables a magnitude of the generated synthesized signal to be varied for controlling a degree of power transferred to the network 30, as well as applying phase lead or phase lag in respect to a frequency of the synthesized. Such use of the devices 400 which are employed during driving of the vehicles 60 for controlling power to the one or more motors 70 synergistically for use in coupling energy in a bi-directional manner when the vehicles 60 are parked and providing responsive load service to the network 30 corresponds to high synergistic use of the devices 400. Similar considerations pertain also to trains, trolley-buses, trams and mass-transport systems and Maglev systems.
The present invention 80 is of benefit in that utilization of the power coupling arrangement enables smaller battery and/or supercapacitors capacities to be employed in the vehicles 60, thereby reducing their weight, their manufacturing cost and also reducing an amount of stored energy that needs to be stored therein which improves safety in crash and impact incidences. Additionally, the power coupling arrangement 200 enables dynamic responsive load stabilization services to be provided to the distribution network 30.
The aforementioned balancing arrangement 100 is beneficially operable to administer fees, revenues, financial compensation and generation of recommended speed limits for roads for providing responsive load service. Optionally, illuminated recommended speed limit signs are *....* arranged to monitor magnitude of mains alternating potential and/or frequency deviation from *I..
nominal frequency as an instantaneous indication of load placed locally upon the network 30, * and locally making a decision to recommend to users 110 of the vehicles 60 a reduction in *.3D speed or an increase in speed for causing electrical energy supply and increase energy ** absorption from the network 30 respectively. Thus, in practice, the balancing arrangement can be implemented in a spatially distributed manner. Optionally, when implemented as a spatially distributed configuration, units of the arrangement 100 are beneficially mutually coupled together via wireless, Internet or similar for coordinating their operation. The balancing arrangement 100 is beneficially coupled to a traffic flow control arrangement for identifying an optimal compromise between ensuring efficient traffic flow whilst simultaneously also provided dynamic load response service. Such traffic flow control can involve, for example, rerouting of traffic to increase power demand when the network 30 is dangerously overloaded without a manner of shedding load, for example when supplied from slowly-responsive nuclear base-load generation based upon conventional Uranium fission technologies.
Real-time presentation of savings being achieved by users 110 by way of responsive load service, namely demand response services, being provided by them to the network 30 is beneficially presented to the users 110 in real time on display panels and/or dashboard of their vehicles 60. Such feedback is beneficially capable of promoting energy efficient and safer driving practices. Moreover, with goods transport in the future transferring progressively from road haulage firms to railways as the cost of fossil fuels increases in real terms, the present invention becomes increasingly relevant on account of goods being transported having kinetic energy which can be temporally modulated for purposes of providing responsive load service to the distribution network 30, namely by way of one or more of: regenerative braking, selective acceleration, selective speed increase/decrease.
Beneficially, in relation to road transport, the coupling arrangement 200 is implemented in conjunction with one or more coils embedded along roadways, for example in a manner as proposed in published patent specification US 4, 635, 560 (Ballantyne) which is hereby incorporated by reference. However, the present invention is a considerable advance to what is disclosed in this published patent specification in that responsive load service is provided.
Modifications to embodiments of the invention described in the foregoing are possible without departing from the scope of the invention as defined by the accompanying claims.
Expressions such as "including", ucomprising "incorporating", "consisting or, "have", "is" used to describe and claim the present invention are intended to be construed in a non-exclusive manner, namely allowing for items, components or elements not explicitly S...
described also to be present. Reference to the singular is also to be construed to relate to S S. SS* * the plural. *S * S * SS
Numerals included within parentheses in the accompanying claims are intended to assist understanding of the claims and should not be construed in any way to limit subject matter : claimed by these claims.
S
S

Claims (14)

  1. -14 -CLAIMS1. A transport responsive load system (10) for providing demand response, characterized in that said system (10) includes: (a) one or more generators (20) for generating electrical power; (b) an electricity distribution network (30) for coupling said one or more generators (20) to a power coupling arrangement (50, 200) of one or more electrically-propelled vehicles (60); and (c) a control arrangement (100, 120) for controlling electrical power utilized within said one or more vehicles (60) for providing demand response to the electrical distribution network (30) for assisting to achieve an improved match between power supply to said network (30) and power consumed from said network (30).
  2. 2. A transport responsive load system (10) as claimed in claim 1, wherein said one or more vehicles include at least one of: automobiles, trains, trams, trolleybuses, mass transit, electric motorcycles and scooters, Maglev.
  3. 3. A transport responsive load system (10) as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein said one or more vehicles (60) include thereon an energy storage arrangement (90) from which energy can be extracted in operation and regenerative braking energy can be stored in operation, wherein said one or more vehicles (60) further include a controlling arrangement (80) for selectively directing energy flows between one or more motors/generators (70) of the one or more vehicles (60) and at least one of the energy storage arrangement (90) and the distribution network (30) for improving the match between power supply to said network (30) and power consumed from said network (30). s.. * * *e.
  4. 4. A transport responsive load system (10) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, *.*S..* wherein said one or more vehicles (60) include a recording arrangement (190) for monitoring *.3V demand response service provided by said one or more vehicles (60) to said distribution :. network (30).
    :"
  5. 5. A transport responsive load system (10) as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein said system (10) includes one or more speed indicators (10) for encouraging one or more users (110) to modify their travelling speed in operation of the one or more vehicles (60) for providing demand response to said distribution network (30) for providing an improved match between power supply to said network (30) and power consumed from said network (30).
  6. 6. A transport system (10) as claimed in claim 5, wherein said one or more speed indicators (10) include at least one of: road signs, in-vehicle dashboard signs, tactile notification, audio notification.
  7. 7. A transport system (10) as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein said power coupling arrangement (50, 200) includes at least one of: electrified rail power transfer, pantograph power transfer, non-contact inductive power transfer, direct electrical contact power transfer.
  8. 8. A transport system (10) as claimed in claim 4, wherein said recording arrangement (190) is operable to determine power transfers to and from the one or more vehicles (60) by at least one of: (a) measuring voltage changes and/or current flows in relation to the one or more vehicles (60); (b) measuring changes in velocity of the one or more vehicles (60); (c) measuring an instantaneous mass of the one or more vehicles (60).
  9. 9. A transport system (10) as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein said system (10) includes one or more charging stations (310) whereat the one or more vehicles (60) are susceptible to being at least temporarily parked for charging purposes, and wherein said charging of said one or more vehicles (60) is performed in a manner capable of providing demand response for providing an improved match between power supply to said network (30) and power consumed from said network (30). * S 5S5s*
  10. 10. A transport system (10) as claimed in claim 9, wherein motor power control electronic * components (400) of said one or more vehicles (60) employed to control motive power are ** synergistically employed for feeding power from the one or more vehicles (60) to the network (30) when said one or more vehicles (60) are parked at the one or more charging stations (310).S
    *s*s.. * I
  11. 11. A method of providing demand response to an electricity distribution network (30) by using a responsive transport responsive load system (10), characterized in that said methods includes: (a) using one or more generators (20) for generating electrical power; (b) using an electricity distribution network (30) for coupling said one or more generators (20) to a power coupling arrangement (50, 200) of one or more electrically-propelled vehicles (60); and (c) using a control arrangement (100, 120) for controlling electrical power utilization within said one or more vehicles (60) for providing demand response to the electrical distribution network (30) for assisting to achieve an improved match between power supply to said network (30) and power consumed from said network (30).
  12. 12. A vehicle (60) which is capable of being electrically propelled, said vehicle (60) being adapted to operate with the system (10) as claimed in claim 1.
  13. 13. A transport network (300) adapted to support electrical power transfer to and from one or more vehicles (60) on said transport network (300), said network (300) being controlled by a controlling arrangement for providing demand response to an electricity distribution network (30) coupled to supply and/or receive energy from said transport network (300).
  14. 14. A software product recorded on machine readable data storage media, wherein said software product is executable on computing hardware for implementing a method as claimed in claim 11. I... * * ****SS..... * . ** . * *. * *5S * * . 5*SS
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DE102011085776A1 (en) * 2011-11-04 2013-05-08 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft System for controlling the traffic of electrically driven vehicles in a road network
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WO2015091148A1 (en) * 2013-12-18 2015-06-25 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method and device for the energy billing of mobile energy consumers in an electrical energy supply network
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CN104410092B (en) * 2014-12-08 2017-01-25 国网新疆电力公司经济技术研究院 Energy coordinated optimization method for multi-element complementary new energy power generating system
WO2016206907A1 (en) * 2015-06-26 2016-12-29 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Method for controlling a power flow in a power network of a railway system, participants, guiding means, and power network
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