GB2453989A - Thermal Treatment Chamber with External Heat Source - Google Patents

Thermal Treatment Chamber with External Heat Source Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2453989A
GB2453989A GB0720929A GB0720929A GB2453989A GB 2453989 A GB2453989 A GB 2453989A GB 0720929 A GB0720929 A GB 0720929A GB 0720929 A GB0720929 A GB 0720929A GB 2453989 A GB2453989 A GB 2453989A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
heat
chamber
heat transfer
treated
heat source
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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Application number
GB0720929A
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GB0720929D0 (en
Inventor
Mr Steven Geoffrey Hunt
Original Assignee
Mr Steven Geoffrey Hunt
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Mr Steven Geoffrey Hunt filed Critical Mr Steven Geoffrey Hunt
Priority to GB0720929A priority Critical patent/GB2453989A/en
Publication of GB0720929D0 publication Critical patent/GB0720929D0/en
Publication of GB2453989A publication Critical patent/GB2453989A/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G1/00Furnaces for cremation of human or animal carcasses
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for incinerators
    • F23G2900/70Incinerating particular products or waste
    • F23G2900/7009Incinerating human or animal corpses or remains

Abstract

A thermal treatment apparatus 1 comprises a heat treatment chamber (4, figure 2), a heat source 5 external to the heat treatment chamber 4 and at least one heat transfer member 6 to transfer the heat from the heat source to the chamber. The heat source 5 may be a liquid petroleum gas (LPG), diesel or natural gas burner. The transfer member 6 may be a heat pipe having one end 6a proximate the heat source 5. The second end of the tube 6b may be cooled to remove excess heat from self-sustaining processes such as incinerating pig carcasses. Several tubes 6 may be arranged in parallel, less than 10cm apart defining a plane dividing the chamber 4 into two sections such that gasses released from the material to be treated must pass over the heat pipes 6, preferably reaching 850{C for at least 2 seconds before exiting the chamber 4. The chamber 4 may be designed to focus the heat from the transfer members 6 onto a point or line. Oxygen levels in the chamber can be accurately controlled for gasification, incineration or pyrolysis.

Description

THERMAL TREATMENT

This invention relates to apparatus and method for thermal treatment, typically but not necessarily of waste materials such as animal carcasses.

Thermal treatment is a well-known method of conversion of waste material, particularly organic material, into relatively inert material plus various gasses generally released into the atmosphere, using the action of heat. Throughout this document, thermal treatment should be read to include the processes of incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. The three processes mentioned differ in the amount of oxygen provided for the reaction, but have in common the application of heat to the waste materials. Pyrolysis involves no oxygen. Gasification involves a controlled amount of oxygen; enough to chemically reduce the waste, but insufficient for complete combustion of the organic matter. Incineration involves sufficient oxygen to result in complete combustion of any organic material. Typically, to ensure incineration an excess of combustion air is provided, by about 15% to 40%.

It is known to provide thermal treatment apparatus that comprise a chamber lined with heat-resistant material and burner arranged to inject a jet of burning fuel into the chamber. Waste material (commonly animal carcasses in this arrangement) is introduced into the chamber and the flame applied to the waste. Gasses given off the waste material exit via a flue. However, in order to achieve efficient combustion of the flame, a variable amount of oxygen will be drawn into the chamber with the fuel; this can lead to undesired reactions occurring if the desired level of oxygen cannot be maintained in the chamber. Also, due to the fact that oxygen is inherently introduced into the chamber, such apparatus are generally not suited to pyrolysis.

Aside from the residue left after thermal treatment, one notable output of thermal treatment processes is the gasses given off. These gasses often have particulate matter in train with them. For environmental reasons, certain jurisdictions apply Strict rules to the levels of certain gasses and particulate levels that can be emitted by thermal treatment apparatus. In the apparatus described above, a secondary burner must generally be provided at the flue; under European Union rules, the flue gasses must spend at least two seconds at at least 850°C after the last injection of oxygen -typically the secondary burner -in order that the flue gasses and particles be themselves thermally decomposed to a safe degree.

According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a thermal treatment apparatus comprising a chamber having an interior for receiving products to be thermally treated, a heat source external to the chamber and at least one heat transfer member extending from the heat source to the interior of the chamber.

Accordingly, as the heat source is outside the chamber and the heat transfer member(s) transfer the heat into the chamber, there no longer need be any flame being introduced into the chamber and so the level of oxygen in the chamber can be more accurately controlled.

Indeed, this arrangement may also have the benefit that the heat source is being applied to a heat transfer member rather than having to be applied directly to the material to be treated. This situation will then be much more akin to an industrial central heating boiler, where a heat source such as a gas or oil burner is applied to the tubes of a heat exchanger.

Accordingly, the heat source may be of the kind commonly used in such apparatus and therefore is likely to be much less of a niche product.

Typically, the heat source will comprise a petroleum gas or oil burner, such as a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas or diesel burner.

The burner may be arranged to heat the or each heat transfer member.

The or each heat transfer member may comprise a heat pipe. The heat pipe may comprise a tube having two ends and being closed at both ends, the tube containing a working substance, which is fluid in use. The working fluid may, in use, be in two phases, typically liquid and gas.

Typically, the interior of the tube will contain a majority amount of, or preferably substantially only the working fluid. By substantially, we may mean at least 95%, 97.5% or 99% of the material within the tube is the working fluid. The pressure within the tube may be less than atmospheric pressure.

The heat member may be arranged such the first end of the heat pipe is positioned to be heated by the heat source and that the heat member extends from the heat source into the chamber such that the second end of the heat pipe is higher than the first end.

In such a heat pipe, when the first end of the tube is heated, the effect is to cause the liquid phase to evaporate or boil such that more of the gas phase is created. This absorbs the latent heat of evaporation inherent in the liquid to gas phase change. The gaseous working fluid then rises up the tube, into the part of the tube within the chamber, by convection towards the higher second end. The walls of the tube in this portion are likely to be cooler than the gas phase, which then condenses on the tube walls, transferring the latent heat absorbed on evaporation to the walls of the tube. Once condensed, the working fluid runs down the walls of the tube by means of gravity until it reaches the first end and is heated once more.

Heat pipes as such are known in the prior art, but their application to the problem of thermal waste treatment is thought to represent an innovative leap forwards. A wide range of working fluids is possible, but given the temperature range in which it is desired to work (around 700 to 1200 degrees centigrade, possibly wider), the working fluid preferably comprises elemental sodium. Alternatively, it could comprise water or any other fluid that has a phase transition in the temperature region of interest.

In an alternative embodiment, the second end of the tube need not be higher than the first end; instead, wicking material may be placed on the inside of the tube to transfer working fluid back to the first end once it has condensed on the inside of the tube.

There may be a plurality of heat transfer members. Typically, the heat transfer members would be arranged parallel to one another. The heat transfer members may define a plane cutting through the interior of the chamber, and may be spaced regularly throughout that plane. Multiple such planes may be defined, such that an array of heat transfer members is provided.

The chamber may be divided into two sections by the plane of heat transfer members, such that gasses released from the material to be treated in use must pass over at least one heat transfer member in order to exit the chamber via a flue. Preferably, a first one of the sections, in which the material to be treated may be received, is positioned below a second one of the sections, in which the flue is positioned. To this end, the spacing of the heat transfer members may be less than 10 cm. In use, the gasses released from the material to be treated may be heated by the plane of heat transfer members as they pass thereover, and may take at least two seconds to exit the chamber. For a period of time not less than 2 seconds from when they pass over the plane of heat transfer members the gasses may be hotter than 850°C before they exit the chamber.

Indeed, the gasses may be at at least 850°C when they exit the chamber.

This therefore may do away with the need for a secondary burner in the flue.

An interior wall of the cavity may be shaped so that heat radiated from it is brought to a focus within the portion of the chamber in which the material to be treated is placed. The focus may be at a point, or may be a line. The focus may be in the first section. The wall may be shaped such that thermal radiation from the or each heat transfer member is reflected by the wall onto the focus. As such, the wall may be parabolic or part-circular in cross section.

A cooling apparatus for cooling the or each heat transfer member may also be provided. Accordingly, heat can be removed from the system as well as put in. This is useful when treating particularly calorific wastes, as the reactions with such wastes may be self-sustaining and notable exothermic. When treating wastes such as pig carcasses by incineration, the combustion reaction once started can be self-sustaining and has been known to reach temperatures that can melt the commonly concrete linings of the treatment apparatus. By removing some of the heat given off by the reaction, it may be possible to quench or at least slow down such reactions.

Accordingly, the or each heat transfer member may extend from the heat source through the chamber to the cooling apparatus. The cooling apparatus may comprise a fan arranged to blow air over the heat transfer members. Alternatively, it may comprise a heat exchanger, whereby heat from the or each heat transfer member is transferred to a cooling fluid.

The cooling apparatus may be at the second end of the or each heat transfer member.

The material to be treated may comprise a waste product, typically one that comprises a majority of organic compounds. The apparatus may be a waste treatment apparatus. The material to be treated may comprise animal matter, such as animal carcasses. The apparatus may be suitable for any or all of incineration, gasification or pyrolysis.

According to a second aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of thermal treatment, comprising use of a thermal treatment apparatus according to the first aspect of the invention, wherein the heat source applies heat to the or each heat transfer member, the heat being transferred by means of the heat transfer member to the interior of the chamber, thereby heating material to be treated by heat.

Where the chamber is divided into two sections by a plane of heat transfer members, gasses released from the material to be treated in use may pass over at least one heat transfer member in order to exit the chamber via a flue. Gasses released from the material to be treated may be heated by the plane of heat transfer members as they pass thereover, and may take at least two seconds to exit the chamber. For a period of time not less than 2 seconds from when they pass over the plane of heat transfer members the gasses may be hotter than 850°C before they exit the chamber. Indeed, the gasses may be at at least 850°C when they exit the chamber. This therefore may do away with the need for a secondary burner in the flue.

An interior wall of the cavity may be shaped so that heat radiated from it is brought to a focus within the portion of the chamber in which the material to be treated is placed. The focus may be at a point, or may be a line. The focus may be in the first section. The wall may be shaped such that thermal radiation from the or each heat transfer member is reflected by the wall onto the focus. As such, the wall may be parabolic or part-circular in cross section. The method may comprise the step of positioning material to be treated at the focus.

The method may also comprise cooling the or each heat transfer member.

Accordingly, heat can be removed from the system as well as put in.

This is useful when treating particularly calorific wastes, as the reactions with such wastes may be self-sustaining and notable exothermic. When treating wastes such as pig carcasses by incineration, the combustion reaction once started can be self-sustaining and has been known to reach temperatures that can melt the commonly concrete linings of the treatment apparatus. By removing some of the heat given off by the reaction, it may be possible to quench or at least slow down such reactions.

The material to be treated may comprise a waste product, typically one that comprises a majority of organic compounds. It may comprise animal matter, such as animal carcasses. The thermal treatment may comprise any or all of incineration, gasification or pyrolysis.

There now follows by way of example only description of several embodiments of the present invention, described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Figures 1 to 3 show perspective, side and plan views of a thermal treatment apparatus according to a first embodiment of the invention; and Figure 4 is a cross section side elevation of the heat transfer apparatus according to a second embodiment of the invention.

A thermal treatment apparatus 1 is shown in Figures 1 to 3 of the accompanying Figures. The apparatus comprises a body 2 with a sliding lid 3, which together define a chamber 4. The lid 2 can be slid on body 2 to allow access to the chamber, to allow waste materials to be heat treated to be introduced into the chamber 4.

The apparatus also comprises a heat source 5, of the form of a diesel, natural gas or Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) burner. This extends down one side of the body 2. In use, the burner 5 heats the first ends 6a of an array of heat pipes 6, which act as heat transfer members. The heat pipes, the function of which will be described below, extend from the heat source, through the chamber to exit at the far side.

The heat pipes 6 are an embodiment of the well-known heat pipe principle. They each comprise a closed metal (here, copper) tube containing a working fluid (here, sodium) in liquid and gaseous form.

The tube is partially evacuated, so that other substances are excluded from the inside of the tube and so that the sodium gas is at lower than atmospheric pressure. Whilst at room temperature and pressure sodium is a solid, at the temperatures (say 700 to 1200°C) and pressures used in the heat pipes of the present embodiment sodium will exist as a liquid.

The heat pipes 6 are mounted in the body such that the first ends 6a heated by the heat source 5 are lower than the other, second ends 6b.

This means that, as the heat pipes 6 are heated, the sodium in the tubes will evaporate, taking latent heat of evaporation with it. By convection, the sodium vapour will travel up the tube, until it loses sufficient heat to the walls of the tube to condense and return to the liquid phase, which then runs down the tube to the first end 6a by the effects of gravity.

This evaporation and condensation transfers the latent heat of evaporation from the first end of the tube further up the tube, and therefore represents a greater heat transfer up the tube than would be possible by simply relying on the conduction of heat through a metal member, for example.

Heat transfer of 10 kilowatts has been achieved in practice and it is believed that much more than this is achievable.

This transfer of heat up the tube heats the interior of the chamber.

Accordingly, the heat is applied to the contents of the chamber, including the material to be treated. A flue 7 is provided to allow the gasses emitted from the material as it is heat treated to be released; as is well-known, a secondary burner may be provided on the flue to combust any undesirable products in the flue gasses.

On the second ends 6b of the heat transfer members 6 is provided a cooling apparatus 8. This comprises a shell 9 passing over the second ends 6b and an input for cold air 10. In use, if it is desired to slow down any exothermic reactions occurring in the chamber 4 by extracting heat therefrom, cold air can be passed over the second ends 6b by applying a fan (not shown) to the input 10. This will take heat Out of the chamber, thereby possibly slowing down the reactions occurring in the chamber 4.

Given that no burners are introduced into the chamber 4, it is possible to control the level of oxygenation of the reactions occurring in the waste; a user can therefore decide whether to incinerate, gassify or pyrolyse the material to be treated. This allows many different types of waste, such as animal carcasses (especially pigs or cattle) or (other things) to be treated using this apparatus. A valve 11 may be provided in the walls of the body 2 in order to control how much air is allowed into the chamber.

A thermal treatment apparatus according to a second embodiment of the invention is shown in Figure 4 of the accompanying drawings. This functions in the same manner as that as the first embodiment; the heat transfer members 6 are not shown for clarity. The only change with respect to the first embodiment of the invention is that the roof 23 is curved such that its interior wall 24 defines a part-circular arc in cross Section.

When the heat pipes 6 heat the interior of the chamber, the wall 24 will heat up and re-radiate heat. Due to the wall's shape, this re-radiated heat will be brought to a focus 25 within the lower part of the chamber 4.

Given that the wall 24 is of constant cross-section along the length of the apparatus, the focus 25 will be a line focus.

Accordingly, the heat radiation will be focussed on the lower section of the chamber 4, where the material to be treated will be placed. This means that the re-radiated heat is concentrated on the material to be treated, improving the efficiency of the device.

A further embodiment of the invention is shown in Figure 5 of the accompanying drawings. Again, the embodiment works in a very similar fashion to that of Figures 1 to 3 of the accompanying drawings.

However, in this case, the chamber 34 is enlarged with respect to previous embodiments, such that there is a space above the heat pipes 6.

The flue 37 leads out from this new space 35. Waste can be placed in the chamber 34 below the heat pipes (in the zone marked as 36 in Figure 5), which could advantageously also contain the focus of the chamber wall as in Figure 4, but this feature is optional.

As the waste is heated by the heat pipes, it will emit gasses, which must pass over the heat pipes 6 (which cross the entire chamber) to reach the flue 37. In order to control emissions to the atmosphere, it was previously the case that a secondary burner was provided to ensure proper combustion of the waste products in these gasses. Standards in the European Union require that the flue gasses must spend at least two seconds at at least 850°C after the last injection of oxygen. However, the enlarged space 35 at the top of this apparatus means that the gasses emitted by the waste will be heated such that they spend at least two seconds reaching the flue, and will be at a temperature of at least 850°C when they reach the flue. A thermocouple 39 may be provided at the flue to ensure this fact. Accordingly, the European standard for combustion of waste gasses can be met without the provision of a secondary burner.

Claims (27)

1. A thermal treatment apparatus comprising a chamber having an interior for receiving products to be thermally treated, a heat source external to the chamber and at least one heat transfer member extending from the heat source to the interior of the chamber.
2. The apparatus of claim 1, in which the heat source comprises a burner arranged to heat the or each heat transfer member.
3. The apparatus of claim 1 or claim 2, in which the or each heat transfer member comprises a heat pipe.
4. The apparatus of claim 3, in which the heat pipe comprises a tube having two ends and being closed at both ends, the tube containing a working substance, which is fluid in use.
5. The apparatus of claim 4, in which the working fluid, in use, is in two phases.
6. The apparatus of claim 4 or claim 5, in which the working fluid is elemental sodium.
7. The apparatus of any of claims 3 to 6, in which the heat transfer member is arranged such a first end of the heat pipe is positioned to be heated by the heat source and that the heat transfer member extends from the heat source into the chamber such that a second end of the heat pipe is higher than the first end.
8. The apparatus of any preceding claim, in which there are a plurality of heat transfer members arranged parallel to one another.
9. The apparatus of claim 8, in which the heat transfer members define a plane cutting through the interior of the chamber.
10. The apparatus of claim 9, in which the chamber is divided into two sections by the plane of heat transfer members, such that gasses released from the material to be treated in use must pass over at least one heat transfer member in order to exit the chamber via a flue.
11. The apparatus of claim 10, in which in use, the gasses from the material to be treated are heated by the plane of heat transfer members as they pass thereover, and take not less than 2 seconds from then to exit the chamber.
12. The apparatus of any preceding claim, in which an interior wall of the cavity is shaped so that heat radiated from it is brought to a focus within the portion of the chamber in which the material to be treated is placed in use.
13. The apparatus of any preceding claim, in which a cooling apparatus for cooling the or each heat transfer member is provided.
14. The apparatus of claim 13, in which the or each heat transfer member extends from the heat source through the chamber to the cooling apparatus.
15. The apparatus off claim 13 or claim 14, in which the cooling apparatus comprises a fan arranged to blow air over the heat transfer members.
16. The apparatus of any preceding claim, in which the material to be treated comprises a waste product
17. The apparatus of any preceding claim, in which the apparatus is a waste treatment apparatus.
18. The apparatus of any preceding claim, in which the material to be treated comprises animal matter, such as animal carcasses.
19. The apparatus of any preceding claim, in which the apparatus is suitable for any or all of incineration, gasification or pyrolysis.
20. A method of thermal treatment, comprising use of a thermal treatment apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the heat source applies heat to the or each heat transfer member, the heat being transferred by means of the heat transfer member to the interior of the chamber, thereby heating material to be treated by heat.
21. The method of claim 20, in which the heat transfer apparatus is according to claim 11 and gasses released from the material to be treated in use pass over at least one heat transfer member in order to exit the chamber via a flue.
22. The method of claim 20 or claim 21, in which the heat transfer apparatus is according to claim 11 and in which gasses released from the material to be treated are heated by the plane of heat transfer members as they pass thereover, and take a period of time not less than 2 seconds from when they pass over the plane of heat transfer members to exit the chamber.
23. The method of any of claims 20 to 22, in which the heat transfer apparatus is according to claim 12 and in which the method comprises the step of positioning material to be treated at the focus.
24. The method of any of claims 20 to 23, in which the method may also comprise cooling the or each heat transfer member.
25. The method of any of claims 20 to 24, in which the material to be treated comprises a waste product, typically one that comprises a majority of organic compounds
26. The method of any of claims 20 to 25, in which the material to be treated comprises animal matter, such as animal carcasses.
27. The method of any of claims 20 to 26, in which the thermal treatment comprises any or all of incineration, gasification or pyrolysis.
GB0720929A 2007-10-25 2007-10-25 Thermal Treatment Chamber with External Heat Source Withdrawn GB2453989A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0720929A GB2453989A (en) 2007-10-25 2007-10-25 Thermal Treatment Chamber with External Heat Source

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0720929A GB2453989A (en) 2007-10-25 2007-10-25 Thermal Treatment Chamber with External Heat Source

Publications (2)

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GB0720929D0 GB0720929D0 (en) 2007-12-05
GB2453989A true GB2453989A (en) 2009-04-29

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2237054A (en) * 1937-11-13 1941-04-01 Donald G Jensen Heating equipment
US2705137A (en) * 1949-12-16 1955-03-29 Bayer Ag Belt drier heated by radiation
US3947244A (en) * 1971-10-05 1976-03-30 Thermo Electron Corporation Heap pipe vacuum furnace
US4131785A (en) * 1976-02-18 1978-12-26 Electro-Therm, Inc. Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2237054A (en) * 1937-11-13 1941-04-01 Donald G Jensen Heating equipment
US2705137A (en) * 1949-12-16 1955-03-29 Bayer Ag Belt drier heated by radiation
US3947244A (en) * 1971-10-05 1976-03-30 Thermo Electron Corporation Heap pipe vacuum furnace
US4131785A (en) * 1976-02-18 1978-12-26 Electro-Therm, Inc. Electrically heated liquid tank employing heat pipe heat transfer means

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Publication number Publication date
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