GB2447644A - An apparatus for enhancing proprioception in the foot of a subject - Google Patents

An apparatus for enhancing proprioception in the foot of a subject Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2447644A
GB2447644A GB0705092A GB0705092A GB2447644A GB 2447644 A GB2447644 A GB 2447644A GB 0705092 A GB0705092 A GB 0705092A GB 0705092 A GB0705092 A GB 0705092A GB 2447644 A GB2447644 A GB 2447644A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
foot
structures
subject
plantar
disposed
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB0705092A
Other versions
GB0705092D0 (en
GB2447644B (en
Inventor
Emma Cowley
Anthony Achilles
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Plymouth University
Original Assignee
Plymouth University
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Plymouth University filed Critical Plymouth University
Priority to GB0705092A priority Critical patent/GB2447644B/en
Publication of GB0705092D0 publication Critical patent/GB0705092D0/en
Publication of GB2447644A publication Critical patent/GB2447644A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2447644B publication Critical patent/GB2447644B/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B17/00Insoles for insertion, e.g. footbeds or inlays, for attachment to the shoe after the upper has been joined
    • A43B17/02Insoles for insertion, e.g. footbeds or inlays, for attachment to the shoe after the upper has been joined wedge-like or resilient
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B13/00Soles; Sole and heel units
    • A43B13/14Soles; Sole and heel units characterised by the constructive form
    • A43B13/18Resilient soles
    • A43B13/181Resiliency achieved by the structure of the sole
    • A43B13/186Differential cushioning region, e.g. cushioning located under the ball of the foot
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B13/00Soles; Sole and heel units
    • A43B13/14Soles; Sole and heel units characterised by the constructive form
    • A43B13/18Resilient soles
    • A43B13/187Resiliency achieved by the features of the material, e.g. foam, non liquid materials
    • A43B13/188Differential cushioning regions
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B13/00Soles; Sole and heel units
    • A43B13/14Soles; Sole and heel units characterised by the constructive form
    • A43B13/18Resilient soles
    • A43B13/189Resilient soles filled with a non-compressible fluid, e.g. gel, water
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B7/00Footwear with health or hygienic arrangements
    • A43B7/14Footwear with foot-supporting parts
    • A43B7/1405Footwear with foot-supporting parts provided with pads or holes on one or more locations, or having an anatomical or curved form
    • A43B7/1455Footwear with foot-supporting parts provided with pads or holes on one or more locations, or having an anatomical or curved form with special properties
    • A43B7/146Footwear with foot-supporting parts provided with pads or holes on one or more locations, or having an anatomical or curved form with special properties provided with acupressure points or means for footmassage
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A43FOOTWEAR
    • A43BCHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF FOOTWEAR; PARTS OF FOOTWEAR
    • A43B7/00Footwear with health or hygienic arrangements
    • A43B7/14Footwear with foot-supporting parts
    • A43B7/24Insertions or cap supports preventing the foot canting to one side, preventing supination or pronation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F5/00Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints; Nursing devices; Anti-rape devices
    • A61F5/01Orthopaedic devices, e.g. splints, casts or braces
    • A61F5/14Special medical insertions for shoes for flat-feet, club-feet, or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H7/00Devices for suction-kneading massage; Devices for massaging the skin by rubbing or brushing not otherwise provided for
    • A61H7/001Devices for suction-kneading massage; Devices for massaging the skin by rubbing or brushing not otherwise provided for without substantial movement between the skin and the device
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61HPHYSICAL THERAPY APPARATUS, e.g. DEVICES FOR LOCATING OR STIMULATING REFLEX POINTS IN THE BODY; ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION; MASSAGE; BATHING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL THERAPEUTIC OR HYGIENIC PURPOSES OR SPECIFIC PARTS OF THE BODY
    • A61H2201/00Characteristics of apparatus not provided for in the preceding codes
    • A61H2201/16Physical interface with patient
    • A61H2201/1683Surface of interface
    • A61H2201/169Physical characteristics of the surface, e.g. material, relief, texture or indicia
    • A61H2201/1695Enhanced pressure effect, e.g. substantially sharp projections, needles or pyramids

Abstract

An apparatus 2 for enhancing proprioception in the foot of a subject comprising: a member having a surface for contacting the sole of the foot of the subject, and structures, e.g. cones, slabs, recesses or dimples, disposed on the surface of the member for applying increased pressure in the region corresponding to the saphenous zone 8, the medial plantar zone 9, and the sural dermatone 10 of the subjects foot whilst in use, thereby increasing the proprioception of the subject.

Description

FOOT ORTHOSIS APPARATUS
The present invention is directed towards an apparatus for enhancing proprioception in the foot of a subject.
Proprioception is a sense that informs the human body about the stability of individual joints and the body as a whole. Elderly people lose sufficient sense of proprioception which leads to loss of balance, stumbling, falls and accidents. Similar symptoms can be observed in the long-term ill and immobile. By increasing the proprioception of a subject, it has been shown that the number of falls experienced by the subject can be significantly reduced.
A key source of information for the body's proprioceptive sense is the plantar surface of the foot. The plantar surface is the surface of the foot that faces downwards when a subject is standing with both feet flat on the floor. The *.S.
body determines the position of the foot and the general orientation of the lower limbs based, in part, upon information received from the plantar surfaces of the feet. In the elderly or infirm, the ability of the body to properly process this information and maintain a proper orientation of the body is *..u'.. reduced. I. * * * * * **
As a result, there is a need to provide a means of enhancing the proprioception in subjects, in order to try and prevent trips and falls.
Pronation is the flattening out of the arch of the foot when the foot strikes the ground. Normally, the foot will pronate in order to absorb shock when the heel hits the ground, and to assist in balance during mid-stance. During pronation the ankle will tip towards the medial side.
Excessive pronatior, can be problematic because the shifting causes increased stress on the medial side of the foot. Excessive pronation pulls on the stabilising muscles in the lower leg and often causes the knee to shift to the inside. This may cause the body to overcompensate and shift the ankle towards the lateral side causing the ankle to roll over. This can result in a stumble or a fall, possibly with resultant injuries to the subject.
It is also desirable to provide a means for preventing excessive pronation in a subject.
US 6, 237, 256 discloses a balance-enhancing insert for footwear. The document is concerned with treating the loss of cutaneous sensation in the sole of the feet, in particular as a result of old age. The document describes a shoe sole that stimulates a response in the perimeter of the subject's foot, as a shift in weight and balance occurs. This is achieved using ridges or protrusions in the sole of the shoe in order to stimulate the feeling in the foot of the subject. This device features ridges or protrusions only around the :. perimeter of the sole. The protrusions feature no differential of height, nor do they target specific areas of the foot. This leads to the problem that, should S...
the insert be worn often, the brain will adapt to the signals sent from the stimulated nerves in the foot and will no longer respond to the signals, so the * 20 propnoception of the subject will no longer be enhanced, thus over long periods of time, balance will not be improved. S... S. S
* It has been found that structures applying increased pressure to the sole of the foot of a subject can provide a long term increase in proprioception of the subject. Accordingly, the present invention provides an apparatus for enhancing proprioception in the plantar surface of the foot without causing the brain to adapt to, and thus ignore, the enhanced signal from the nerve endings of the plaritar surface.
According to the present invention, there is provided an apparatus for enhancing proprioception in the foot of a subject comprising: a member having a surface for contacting the sole of the foot of the subject; and structures disposed on the surface of the member for applying increased pressure to a region of the subjects foot whilst in use, thereby increasing the proprioception of the subject.
The apparatus may be Incorporated into a form of footwear, for example, the apparatus may be used to form the actual sole of the footwear, or be incorporated into the sole of the footwear in some way. The apparatus may also be in the form of an insole, for insertion into the chosen footwear of the subject. l0
The apparatus is manufactured from a suitable material that is flexible enough so as to allow a large area of contact with the plantar surface, whilst maintaining the ability to support the plantar surface. The material may be a gel-type material, preferably of the silicone gel variety, or may be manufactured from a polyurethane (PU), which may, or may not be filled in :. order to provide the flexibility required, so as to not cause aggravation to any area of the plantar surface. **S. S. **
: * s The apparatus further comprises a fascial groove. The groove features on the * 20 apparatus where the fascial tendon meets the upper surface of the apparatus.
The groove allows the soft tissues of the plantar surface to move during normal motion of the foot, so that the orthosis does not impede the normal * S. walking action of the subject.
The enhanced proprioception claimed by the current invention is achieved by specific placing of the aforementioned structures. The structures are placed within various dermatomes of the plantar surface. A derrnatome is an area of skin innervated by sensory fibres from a single spinal nerve. By targeting certain nerve endings in the plantar surface in this way, it is possible to enhance the proprioception of the subject. The dermatomes this apparatus is concerned with include, but are not limited to, the saphenous/medial plantar, this is located on the inner area of the plantar surface, near the big toe, the sural/lateral plantar, this is located on the outer area of the plantar surface, near the little toe, and the calcaneal, this if the area surrounding the bottom of the heel. The structures may take the form of pyramids of differential height, may be in the form of random slabs, or a single line.
The proprioception of the subject will be enhanced by the structures mentioned above. The structures will feature at different heights over the surface of the member within the previously specified dermatomes in order to stimulate the various nerve endings with the purpose of enhancing proprioception of the subject. The different heights provide a variable surface for contact with the foot. The structures will provide an overall uniform effect, and the proprioception of the subject will be enhanced because of the differential in height of the structures. The structures will have the effect of feeling different depending on whether the foot is undergoing pronation (the inward roll of the foot), supination (the opposite of pronation, where the foot doesn't roll inwards enough), inversion (turning the foot laterally, so the :. plantar surface faces inwards), or eversion (turning the foot laterally, so the plantar surface faces outwards). This will prevent the brain from becoming insensitive to the nerve stimulation caused by the structures, and therefore S. : * ** prevent the brain ignoring signals from the nerve endings in the specific 20 dermatomes.
The apparatus extends under the calcaneus of the foot; this is the * quadrangular bone at the back of the tarsus, also known as the heel bone.
The apparatus fits under the calcanetjs and provides support for this bone by filling the space beneath it. The calcaneus is covered with a fat pad, commonly referred to as the heel. In the area of the apparatus below the calcaneus, there is a hole which is filled with a material that is softer than that of the body of the apparatus, so as to provide cushioning for the padded surface of the calcaneus.
Embodiments of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only, having reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Figure 1 is a representation of the apparatus for use with the left foot.
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus in use.
Figures 3a, 3b and 3c are representations of the apparatus for use with the left foot showing the cones randomly angled slab protrusions and circular recesses respectively.
Embodiments of the present invention wiU be described with regard to an insert for footwear. However, it is to be understood that the invention applies to the case where the apparatus forms the sole of a shoe or is combined with the sole of a shoe in some way as hereinbefore described.
Referring to Figure 1, there is shown an embodiment of the apparatus for enhancing proprioception of a subject, generally indicated as 2. There is :. shown the big toe 4, and the little toe 6, shown so as to give an indication of where the dermatomes lie on the plantar surface of the foot. It is to be SIS.
understood that the present invention does not extend under the toes. The *. S. : * * area 8 under the big toe 6 is the saphenous zone. The area adjacent to this is the medial plantar dermatome 9. The area 10, under the little toe 6, is the sural dennatome. The lateral plantar dermatome 11 is adjacent to both the S...
. : medial plantar and sural dermatomes. The area 12, between areas 8 and 9, is * the plantar fascial groove. The area 14 is the calcaneal dermatome. The hole 16 features beneath the calcaneus, which is filled with a softer material than that that makes up the body of the apparatus.
Referring to Figure 2, there is shown a cross-sectional representation of the bones of the foot and lower leg. The tibia 102 and fibula 104 connect with the talus 106. The talus 106 then connects with the calcaneus 108. The edge of the calcaneus is supported by the apparatus 110, as shown in the diagram.
The apparatus 110 fills the gap that would otherwise feature at the side of the calcaneus, thus the apparatus provides the calcaneus with support.
Referring to each of Figures 3a, 3b and 3c, there is shown an embodiment of the apparatus for enhancing proprioception of a subject, generafly indicated as 2. The protrusions in Figure 3a are in the form of cones, disposed in the region of the apparatus corresponding to the saphenous zone 8, the medial plantar dermatome 9, and the sural dermatome 10 of the foot of the subject.
The cones are shown as being of substantially the same height and dimensions. However, it is to be understood that the cones may differ in size, in particular height, across one or more of the zones.
Figure 3b shows a similar arrangement to that of Figure 3a, with the cones replaced by randomly angled slabs in the aforementioned regions. Again, the size and height of the slabs may be varied across the apparatus to achieve the desired enhancement of proprioception in the subject.
Finally, Figure 3c shows a similar arrangement to that of Figures 3a and 3b, :*. with the cones and slabs being replaced by recesses or dimples in the surface of the member. The size and depth of the recesses may be varied within one **S.
region or zone, or across several different zones, as required. *. * * S * I
In use, the apparatus will be flexible enough so as to easily mould to the sole of the shoe of the subject, and also the plantar surface of the foot. The ::::; apparatus may come in different sizes in order to fit the foot of the subject, or * it may be manufactured in a limited number of sizes, or even only one size, which can then by trimmed to fit the foot of the subject as desired.

Claims (29)

1 An apparatus for enhancing proprioception in the foot of a subject comprising: a member having a surface for contacting the sole of the foot of the subject; and structures disposed on the surface of the member for applying increased pressure to a region of the subjects foot whilst in use, thereby increasing the proprioception of the subject.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1, which forms the sole of an item of footwear to be worn by the subject.
3. An apparatus according to claim 1, which may be incorporated into an item of footwear. *S.. * * S..
4. An apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the apparatus is an insole. **.
*
5. An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the member is . flexible. *.I* S. * * . S * .*
6. An apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the member comprises a gel-type material.
7. An apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the gel-type material is a silicone gel.
8. An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the member comprises polyurethane.
9. An apparatus according to claim 8, where the polyurethane comprises one or more fillers.
10. An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the member further comprises a fascial groove in the surface
11 An apparatus according to any preceding claim, where the structures are disposed on the surface of the member so as to contact one or more dermatomes of the foot of the user, when the apparatus is in use.
12. An apparatus according to claim 11, wherein the structures are disposed to contact the sural dermatome of the plantar surface of the foot.
13.An apparatus according to either of claims 11 or 12, wherein the structures are disposed to contact the lateral plantar dermatome of the plantar surface of the foot. ***. * S S...
14.An apparatus according to any of claims 11 to 13, where the structures are disposed to contact the sapherious dermatome of the plantar surface of the foot. *..*
15.An apparatus according to any one of claims 11 to 14, wherein the * structures are disposed to contact the medial plantar dermatome of the plantar surface of the foot.
16.An apparatus according to any of claim 11 to 15, where the structures are disposed to contact the calcaneal dermatome of the plantar surface of the foot.
17.An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the structures for applying increased pressure comprise recesses in the surface of the member
18.An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the structures for applying increased pressure comprise protrusions extending from the surface of the member.
19.An apparatus according to claim 18, wherein the protrusions for applying increased pressure are in the form of a pyramid, a cone, a dome, or a combination thereof
20.An apparatus according to claim 18, wherein the protrusions for applying increased pressure are in the form of randomly angled slabs.
21.An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein some or all of the structures are arranged in a single line.
22.An apparatus according to any of claim I to 20, wherein some or all of :. the structures are arranged in a plurality of lines. * us. * I *.I.
23.An apparatus according to any of claims 1 to 20, wherein some or all of S. ** : * ,* the structures are arranged randomly on the surface. 20
24.Ari apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein a portion of the member extends beneath the calcaneus bone of the foot of the subject, * filling the space beneath the calcaneus bone and supporting the bone when in use.
25.An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the portion of the member that underlies the calcaneus bone of the foot of the user when in use has a lower resistance to impact than the remaining portion of the member.
26.An apparatus according to claim 25, wherein the lower resistance to impact is provided by the said portion of the member comprising a material of lower resistance to impact.
27.An apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the member is adapted to be trimmed to fit the foot of the subject.
28.An apparatus for enhancing proprioception substantially as hereinbefore described having reference to any of Figures 1, 2, 3a or 3b..
29. An item of footwear comprising an apparatus according to any preceding claim. I. * S * *** **I. * * SI.. U. *5 * * S * I S. S... * I S... S. S * * I * ..
GB0705092A 2007-03-16 2007-03-16 Foot orthosis apparatus Expired - Fee Related GB2447644B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0705092A GB2447644B (en) 2007-03-16 2007-03-16 Foot orthosis apparatus

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0705092A GB2447644B (en) 2007-03-16 2007-03-16 Foot orthosis apparatus
EP08718760A EP2136761A1 (en) 2007-03-16 2008-03-14 Foot orthosis apparatus
PCT/GB2008/000920 WO2008113988A1 (en) 2007-03-16 2008-03-14 Foot orthosis apparatus

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB0705092D0 GB0705092D0 (en) 2007-04-25
GB2447644A true GB2447644A (en) 2008-09-24
GB2447644B GB2447644B (en) 2010-04-28

Family

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB0705092A Expired - Fee Related GB2447644B (en) 2007-03-16 2007-03-16 Foot orthosis apparatus

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP2136761A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2447644B (en)
WO (1) WO2008113988A1 (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2496186A (en) * 2011-11-07 2013-05-08 Terra Plana Internat Ltd An item of footwear to remind a wearer to walk with a correct loading pattern
GB2497373A (en) * 2011-12-08 2013-06-12 Footjacks Ltd Insole for footwear
GB2561449A (en) * 2017-02-24 2018-10-17 Naboso Tech Llc Proprioceptor stimulation material
DE102018009107A1 (en) * 2018-11-21 2020-05-28 Jörg Hefft Device for stimulating fascia

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4694831A (en) * 1984-01-04 1987-09-22 Seltzer Charles J Massage footwear
US4897937A (en) * 1987-09-23 1990-02-06 Colgate-Palmolive Company Non-slip insole base
US5704137A (en) * 1995-12-22 1998-01-06 Brooks Sports, Inc. Shoe having hydrodynamic pad
US6237256B1 (en) * 1998-08-12 2001-05-29 Sunnybrook And Women's College Health Sciences Centre Balance-enhanced insert for footwear
WO2006056931A1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2006-06-01 Ks Italia S.A.S. Di Ambrosone Mario & C. Plantar for vertical proprioceptive, exteroceptive, pressoceptive and/or reflexogen stimulation

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5551173A (en) * 1995-03-16 1996-09-03 Chambers; Mark D. Comfort insole
TR200400407T4 (en) * 2001-03-26 2004-03-22 Vitflex Mauch Gmbh Insole for shoes
US7250033B2 (en) * 2003-09-03 2007-07-31 Beiruti Ahmad M Flexing multiple function interactive massage and reflexology unit
US7584556B2 (en) * 2005-01-26 2009-09-08 Foot Techno, Inc. Footgear and insole
DE202006002484U1 (en) * 2006-02-15 2006-06-29 Ofa Bamberg Gmbh Insole and orthopedic shoe for this

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4694831A (en) * 1984-01-04 1987-09-22 Seltzer Charles J Massage footwear
US4897937A (en) * 1987-09-23 1990-02-06 Colgate-Palmolive Company Non-slip insole base
US5704137A (en) * 1995-12-22 1998-01-06 Brooks Sports, Inc. Shoe having hydrodynamic pad
US6237256B1 (en) * 1998-08-12 2001-05-29 Sunnybrook And Women's College Health Sciences Centre Balance-enhanced insert for footwear
WO2006056931A1 (en) * 2004-11-23 2006-06-01 Ks Italia S.A.S. Di Ambrosone Mario & C. Plantar for vertical proprioceptive, exteroceptive, pressoceptive and/or reflexogen stimulation

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2496186A (en) * 2011-11-07 2013-05-08 Terra Plana Internat Ltd An item of footwear to remind a wearer to walk with a correct loading pattern
GB2497373A (en) * 2011-12-08 2013-06-12 Footjacks Ltd Insole for footwear
GB2497373B (en) * 2011-12-08 2015-07-08 Footjacks Ltd Footwear/insole for footwear
GB2561449A (en) * 2017-02-24 2018-10-17 Naboso Tech Llc Proprioceptor stimulation material
DE102018009107A1 (en) * 2018-11-21 2020-05-28 Jörg Hefft Device for stimulating fascia

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB0705092D0 (en) 2007-04-25
WO2008113988A1 (en) 2008-09-25
EP2136761A1 (en) 2009-12-30
GB2447644B (en) 2010-04-28

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PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee

Effective date: 20160316