GB2425485A - Shape memory stent producing non planar, swirling flow - Google Patents

Shape memory stent producing non planar, swirling flow Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2425485A
GB2425485A GB0508859A GB0508859A GB2425485A GB 2425485 A GB2425485 A GB 2425485A GB 0508859 A GB0508859 A GB 0508859A GB 0508859 A GB0508859 A GB 0508859A GB 2425485 A GB2425485 A GB 2425485A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
shape
stent
hollow structure
method
structure
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB0508859A
Other versions
GB0508859D0 (en
Inventor
Professor Colin Caro
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Veryan Medical Ltd
Original Assignee
Veryan Medical Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Veryan Medical Ltd filed Critical Veryan Medical Ltd
Priority to GB0508859A priority Critical patent/GB2425485A/en
Publication of GB0508859D0 publication Critical patent/GB0508859D0/en
Publication of GB2425485A publication Critical patent/GB2425485A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/86Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/90Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure
    • A61F2/91Stents in a form characterised by the wire-like elements; Stents in the form characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure characterised by a net-like or mesh-like structure made from perforated sheet material or tubes, e.g. perforated by laser cuts or etched holes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/04Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi or bile ducts
    • A61F2/06Blood vessels
    • A61F2002/068Modifying the blood flow model, e.g. by diffuser or deflector
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2210/00Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2210/0014Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof using shape memory or superelastic materials, e.g. nitinol
    • A61F2210/0023Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof using shape memory or superelastic materials, e.g. nitinol operated at different temperatures whilst inside or touching the human body, heated or cooled by external energy source or cold supply
    • A61F2210/0028Particular material properties of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof using shape memory or superelastic materials, e.g. nitinol operated at different temperatures whilst inside or touching the human body, heated or cooled by external energy source or cold supply cooled
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2230/00Geometry of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2230/0063Three-dimensional shapes
    • A61F2230/0091Three-dimensional shapes helically-coiled or spirally-coiled, i.e. having a 2-D spiral cross-section

Abstract

A method of making a stent is described such that, when placed in the human body, it defines flow following a non-planar curve e.g. swirl or helical flow. The stent production method comprises providing a tubular, hollow shape memory material structure 6, modifying the structure such that it forms a non-planar curve (see Figure 3), heating the structure so that the shape is memorised, and cooling the resulting stent. Before heating, the shape of the shape memory structure may modified by winding it around a mandrel tool 2 having a helical groove 4. A sleeve 8 may serve to constraint the structure 6 before heating in an inert (argon) atmosphere to 500 degrees C, followed by rapid cooling at 20 degrees C; further cooling to below 5 degrees C allows the finished stent to be manipulated into a collapsed state for delivery.

Description

87485 626 Stent This invention relates to methods of manufacturing stents

for insertion in a fluid conduit of the human or animal body Stents are generally tubular devices used for providing physical support to biological conduits, including blood vessels, i e they can be used to help prevent kinking or occlusion of conduits such as veins or arteries and to prevent their collapse after dilatation or other treatment.

Stents can be broadly divided into two main categories balloon expandable stents and self-expanding stents. In the case of the former the material of the stent is plastically deformed through the inflation of a balloon, so that after the balloon is deflated the stent remains in the expanded shape Such stents are manufactured in the collapsed" condition, ready for delivery, and may be expanded to the expanded condition when inside the vessel or other fluid conduit Self-expanding stents are also designed to be delivered in the collapsed condition and when released from a constraining delivery system the stent expands to its expanded condition of a predetermined size. This effect is achieved by using the elasticity of the material and/or a shape-memory or superelastic effect In the case of shape-memory or superelastic stents a commonly used material is nitinol Many different designs of stents are available on the market They are made from a variety of materials providing corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, therapeutic opportunities such as the release of chemicals, ionizing radiation activity, and biodegradability. If metallic, they are made from sheet, round or flat wire or tubing. They are formed as a mesh and are generally cylindrical but also longitudinally flexible so as to conform to the curvature of the fluid conduit into which they are inserted The use of shape-memory alloys to make self-expanding stents is advantageous because a stent can be cooled for easy insertion into a restraining sleeve or other constraining delivery system. Once the stent is in position in the fluid conduit of the human or animal body the constraint is removed by the operator and the stent adopts the shape "programmed" into its memory at body temperatures, for example around 37 C for the human body The expanded shape of the stent at body temperatures is usually a cylinder having a straight longitudinal axis, but because of the resilience of the stent when deployed it is longitudinally flexible to conform to the curvature of the fluid conduit without kinking or collapsing.

We have previously proposed that the flow pattern in arteries including s the swirling pattern induced by their non-planar geometry operates to inhibit the development of vascular diseases such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia In WO 98/53764, there is disclosed a stent made of shape-memory alloy for supporting part of a blood vessel. The stent includes a supporting portion around which or within which part of a blood vessel intended for grafting can be placed so that the stent internally or externally supports that part The supporting portion of the stent is shaped so that flow between graft and host vessel is caused to follow a non-planar curve This generates a swirl flow, to provide a favourable blood flow velocity pattern which reduces the occurrence of vascular disease, particularly intimal hyperplasia In WO 00/32241, there is disclosed another type of stent, in this case including a supporting portion around which or within which part of an intact blood vessel other than a graft can be placed. This supporting portion can prevent failure of the vessel through blockage, kinking or collapse Again, the supporting portion of the stent is of a shape and/or orientation whereby flow within the vessel is caused to follow a non- planar curve Favorable blood flow velocity patterns can be achieved through generation therein of swirl flow within and beyond the stent Failures in blood vessels through diseases such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, intimal hyperplasia can thereby be significantly reduced.

Further aspects of how swirl flow is beneficial are explained in the above publications It is further explained in Caro et al (1998) J Physiol 5 l3P,2P how non-planar geometry of tubing inhibits flow instability Further information on this topic is given in (2005) J Roy Soc Interface.

We have now found a way of producing an internal stent which facilitates flow within the stent supported fluid conduit to follow a non-planar curve, i e to swirl We have realised that the shape-memory properties of a stent made from shape-memory material can be exploited to modify an existing cylindrical stent into one promoting swirl flow This means that existing cylindrical stents made from shape-memory material can be used as a starting point in the new method, thereby avoiding complex geometric, mechanical or structural modification of the wires or struts or other structural components forming the stent wall.

According to the invention there is provided a method of making a stent which, when the stent is inserted in a fluid conduit of the human or animal body defines a flow lumen following a non-planar curve, the method comprising providing a tubular hollow structure having a longitudinally extending cavity and made of a shape memory material, modifying the shape of the hollow structure into a shape in which its longitudinally extending cavity follows a non- planar curve, heating the modified hollow structure to a temperature such that the modified shape is memorised by the shape memory material, and cooling the hollow structure Such a stent may be held in a constraining delivery system and when in place in the fluid conduit it will expand and seek to adopt its shape at body temperature, e g 37 C It will thus define and impose a non-planar flow lumen therein. Flow within the fluid conduit supported by the stent can follow a non- planar curve, promoting swirl flow, the benefits of which are discussed above.

Thus, considering the flow lumen of the conduit, as this extends in the longitudinal direction (x-axis) it curves in more than one plane (i e in both the y-axis and the z-axis). In other words, the flow lumen extends generally helically in the longitudinal direction.

The shape memory property of the stent is used not just to facilitate insertion in a delivery system and expansion to a much wider shape, as is conventional, but also to provide a flow lumen modified from the conventional linear shape The shape of the hollow structure may be modified by placing it along a flexible rod and twisting both the hollow structure and the rod so that both adopt a generally helical shape Preferably, the shape of the hollow structure is modified by winding it round a tool, such as a mandrel The tool is preferably substantially rigid The tool may be a simple cylinder, but in order to provide control of the shape of the hollow structure (in particular the pitch and amplitude thereof) the tool may have a helical groove for receiving the hollow structure Thus the shape of the hollow structure may for example be modified by placing it along a machined groove in a rod shaped tool Advantageously, the hollow structure is constrained in contact with the tool, so that it does not return to the original cylindrical shape during heat treatment This can be done using a wire along the inside of the hollow structure and/or a sleeve placed externally of the hollow structure and rod Thus, the hollow structure and tool may be together inserted in a suitable sleeve Another way of modifying the shape of the hollow structure would be to insert a tool inside the structure Such a tool preferably has a helical shape, and may take the form of a helical rod This method will generally not require the use of a sleeve or other constraint around the hollow structure and therefore has the advantage that the heating and cooling of the hollow structure can be carried out with greater uniformity and more rapidly It is generally desirable to cool the hollow structure quickly, for example by quenching it in water, and this is facilitated by a method in which the rod or mandrel has a relatively small mass and the hollow structure is exposed directly to the cooling means This method also provides superior constraint and improved control over the new helical set shape.

Certain preferred embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 shows a mandrel for use in the method of the invention, Figure 2 shows a hollow structure inserted into a groove in the mandrel, Figure 3 shows the hollow structure after it has been removed from the mandrel; Figure 4 shows another form of mandrel, and Figure 5 shows a hollow structure with the mandrel of Figure 4 inserted therein A tool in the form of a mandrel 2 is made from stainless steel and is formed with a helical groove 4 extending along its length The groove 2 has a diameter suitable to receive a hollow structure 6, as seen in Figure 2 The hollow structure is a conventional cylindrical stent made of shape memory alloy, which is deformed from its usual linear shape to a shape following the helical groove of the mandrel Figure 4 shows another form of mandrel 8, in the form of a stainless steel rod having a helical shape This rod is designed to be inserted inside the hollow structure 6 of a conventional shape memory alloy stent, so as to modify the longitudinal cavity of the hollow structure to conform to the shape of the helical rod. This is seen in Figure 5

EXAMPLE!

A nitinol stent was used, having an outside diameter of 8 mm The stent was placed in the groove 4 of the mandrel 2 as shown in Figure 2 In order to prevent the stent from springing out of the groove it was restrained by a steel sleeve (8) It was placed in a hot furnace heated to 500 C in an inert (oxygen free) atmosphere (argon) for iS minutes The mandrel, hollow structure and sleeve were then immersed in water at a temperature of 20 C so as to be rapidly cooled The sleeve was removed and the stent was separated from the mandrel When the stent so made is cooled to below 5 C, for example by being placed in iced water, it is easily manipulated and so can be readily placed in a collapsed condition constrained by an appropriate delivery system When the stent is deployed in a fluid conduit of the human or animal body, it expands to a helical shape, so as to define a flow lumen following a non-planar curve It is expected that the modification process applied to the stent will have no adverse physiological effects

EXAMPLE 2

The mandrel of Figure 4 was inserted in a the same type of stent as 2o described in Example 1 The stent and mandrel were placed in a hot furnace heated to 500 C in an inert (oxygen free) atmosphere (argon) for 1 5 minutes.

They were then immersed in water at a temperature of 20 C so as to be rapidly cooled The stent and mandrel were separated and the stent had adopted a helical shape By cooling this stent to below 5 C it can be easily constrained in a delivery system When it is deployed in a fluid conduit of a human or animal body it defines a flow lumen following a nonplanar curve.

Claims (2)

  1. Claims I A method of making a stent which, when the stent is inserted in a
    fluid conduit of the human or animal body defines a flow lumen following a non- planar curve, the method comprising providing a tubular hollow structure having a longitudinally extending cavity and made of a shape memory material, modifying the shape of the hollow structure into a shape in which its longitudinally extending cavity follows a non-planar curve, heating the modified hollow structure to a temperature such that the modified shape is memorised by the shape memory material, and cooling the hollow structure.
  2. 2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the shape of the hollow structure is modified by winding it round a tool 3 A method as claimed in claim 2, where the tool has a helical groove for receiving the hollow structure.
    4 A method as claimed in claim 2 or 3, comprising constraining the hollow structure in contact with the tool.
    A method as claimed in claim 4, wherein a sleeve is used to constrain the hollow structure in contact with the tool.
    6 A method as claimed in claim 1, comprising inserting a tool inside the hollow structure to modify its shape
GB0508859A 2005-04-29 2005-04-29 Shape memory stent producing non planar, swirling flow Withdrawn GB2425485A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0508859A GB2425485A (en) 2005-04-29 2005-04-29 Shape memory stent producing non planar, swirling flow

Applications Claiming Priority (8)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0508859A GB2425485A (en) 2005-04-29 2005-04-29 Shape memory stent producing non planar, swirling flow
EP20060726977 EP1874124A1 (en) 2005-04-29 2006-05-02 Manufacturing method for a non- planar curved stent
BRPI0611022A BRPI0611022A2 (en) 2005-04-29 2006-05-02 Method of producing a stent
PCT/GB2006/001598 WO2006117545A1 (en) 2005-04-29 2006-05-02 Manufacturing method for a non- planar curved stent
CA 2605812 CA2605812A1 (en) 2005-04-29 2006-05-02 Manufacturing method for a non- planar curved stent
AU2006243061A AU2006243061A1 (en) 2005-04-29 2006-05-02 Manufacturing method for a non- planar curved stent
JP2008508309A JP2008538961A (en) 2005-04-29 2006-05-02 The method of manufacturing a non-planar curved stent
IL18654907A IL186549D0 (en) 2005-04-29 2007-10-10 Manufacturing method for a non-planar curved stent

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB0508859D0 GB0508859D0 (en) 2005-06-08
GB2425485A true GB2425485A (en) 2006-11-01

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB0508859A Withdrawn GB2425485A (en) 2005-04-29 2005-04-29 Shape memory stent producing non planar, swirling flow

Country Status (8)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1874124A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2008538961A (en)
AU (1) AU2006243061A1 (en)
BR (1) BRPI0611022A2 (en)
CA (1) CA2605812A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2425485A (en)
IL (1) IL186549D0 (en)
WO (1) WO2006117545A1 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009012146A1 (en) * 2007-07-16 2009-01-22 Medtronic Vascular Inc. Controlled alloy stent
WO2010041038A1 (en) * 2008-10-10 2010-04-15 Veryan Medical Limited A medical device
US20100286759A1 (en) * 2009-05-08 2010-11-11 Charles Taylor Medical device suitable for location in a body lumen
US8226704B2 (en) 2003-03-18 2012-07-24 Veryan Medical Limited Helical stent
US9539120B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2017-01-10 Veryan Medical Ltd. Medical device suitable for location in a body lumen
US9572694B2 (en) 2003-03-18 2017-02-21 Veryan Medical Limited Helical graft
US9597214B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2017-03-21 Kevin Heraty Medical device

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2344053A (en) * 1998-11-30 2000-05-31 Imperial College Stents for blood vessels

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020019660A1 (en) * 1998-09-05 2002-02-14 Marc Gianotti Methods and apparatus for a curved stent
GB9828696D0 (en) * 1998-12-29 1999-02-17 Houston J G Blood-flow tubing
US20030135268A1 (en) * 2000-04-11 2003-07-17 Ashvin Desai Secure stent for maintaining a lumenal opening
GB2379996B (en) * 2001-06-05 2004-05-19 Tayside Flow Technologies Ltd Flow means
JP2005514155A (en) * 2001-12-29 2005-05-19 グローバル メディカル サイエンシズ リミテッド The stent and its manufacturing method (variation)
BRPI0408418A (en) * 2003-03-18 2006-03-21 Veryan Medical Ltd stent

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2344053A (en) * 1998-11-30 2000-05-31 Imperial College Stents for blood vessels

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9572694B2 (en) 2003-03-18 2017-02-21 Veryan Medical Limited Helical graft
US8226704B2 (en) 2003-03-18 2012-07-24 Veryan Medical Limited Helical stent
US8784476B2 (en) 2003-03-18 2014-07-22 Veryan Medical Limited Helical stent
WO2009012146A1 (en) * 2007-07-16 2009-01-22 Medtronic Vascular Inc. Controlled alloy stent
US8205317B2 (en) 2007-07-16 2012-06-26 Medtronic Vascular, Inc. Method of manufacturing a controlled porosity stent
WO2010041038A1 (en) * 2008-10-10 2010-04-15 Veryan Medical Limited A medical device
JP2015037605A (en) * 2008-10-10 2015-02-26 ヴェリヤン・メディカル・リミテッド Medical device
US9539120B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2017-01-10 Veryan Medical Ltd. Medical device suitable for location in a body lumen
US9597214B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2017-03-21 Kevin Heraty Medical device
US9883961B2 (en) 2008-10-10 2018-02-06 Veryan Medical Limited Medical device
US20100286759A1 (en) * 2009-05-08 2010-11-11 Charles Taylor Medical device suitable for location in a body lumen

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
CA2605812A1 (en) 2006-11-09
AU2006243061A1 (en) 2006-11-09
BRPI0611022A2 (en) 2016-11-16
WO2006117545A1 (en) 2006-11-09
EP1874124A1 (en) 2008-01-09
GB0508859D0 (en) 2005-06-08
IL186549D0 (en) 2008-03-20
JP2008538961A (en) 2008-11-13

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