GB2405546A - Dual view directional display providing images having different angular extent. - Google Patents

Dual view directional display providing images having different angular extent. Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2405546A
GB2405546A GB0320365A GB0320365A GB2405546A GB 2405546 A GB2405546 A GB 2405546A GB 0320365 A GB0320365 A GB 0320365A GB 0320365 A GB0320365 A GB 0320365A GB 2405546 A GB2405546 A GB 2405546A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
image
display
pixels
passenger
different
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB0320365A
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GB0320365D0 (en
Inventor
David James Montgomery
Jonathan Mather
Grant Bourhill
Graham Roger Jones
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Sharp Corp
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Sharp Corp
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Priority to GB0320365A priority Critical patent/GB2405546A/en
Publication of GB0320365D0 publication Critical patent/GB0320365D0/en
Publication of GB2405546A publication Critical patent/GB2405546A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K37/00Dashboards
    • B60K37/02Arrangement of instruments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K35/00Arrangement of adaptations of instruments
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/302Image reproducers for viewing without the aid of special glasses, i.e. using autostereoscopic displays
    • H04N13/31Image reproducers for viewing without the aid of special glasses, i.e. using autostereoscopic displays using parallax barriers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/356Image reproducers having separate monoscopic and stereoscopic modes
    • H04N13/359Switching between monoscopic and stereoscopic modes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/398Synchronisation thereof; Control thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K2370/00Details of arrangements or adaptations of instruments specially adapted for vehicles, not covered by groups B60K35/00, B60K37/00
    • B60K2370/15Output devices or features thereof
    • B60K2370/152Displays
    • B60K2370/1526Dual-view displays
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K2370/00Details of arrangements or adaptations of instruments specially adapted for vehicles, not covered by groups B60K35/00, B60K37/00
    • B60K2370/15Output devices or features thereof
    • B60K2370/155Virtual instruments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K2370/00Details of arrangements or adaptations of instruments specially adapted for vehicles, not covered by groups B60K35/00, B60K37/00
    • B60K2370/70Arrangements of instruments in the vehicle
    • B60K2370/73Arrangements of instruments in the vehicle with special adaptation to the user or to the vehicle
    • B60K2370/736Arrangements of instruments in the vehicle with special adaptation to the user or to the vehicle the user being the driver
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K2370/00Details of arrangements or adaptations of instruments specially adapted for vehicles, not covered by groups B60K35/00, B60K37/00
    • B60K2370/70Arrangements of instruments in the vehicle
    • B60K2370/73Arrangements of instruments in the vehicle with special adaptation to the user or to the vehicle
    • B60K2370/739Arrangements of instruments in the vehicle with special adaptation to the user or to the vehicle the user being the passenger
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/30Image reproducers
    • H04N13/361Reproducing mixed stereoscopic images; Reproducing mixed monoscopic and stereoscopic images, e.g. a stereoscopic image overlay window on a monoscopic image background

Abstract

A multiple view directional display 17 operates to display a first image in a first direction and a second image in a second direction, via a parallax optic (Figures 5A(1) and 5A(2); the display is adapted such that the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image. The width of the display area associated with the first image direction may be different from that associated with the second image. The display may interlace the first and second images. The parallax barrier may have different properties with respect to the plural imaging directions: different transmitting aperture areas or portions, or diffusers. The display may be embodied in a automobile, displaying different views - such as GPS map data or a film or movie - to the vehicle driver 22 and car passengers 19, 20, 21 respectively.

Description

A multiple-view directional display The present invention relates to a

multiple-view directional display. Such a display is able to display a plurality of images simultaneously, with each image being visible when the display is viewed from a different direction. An observer looking at the display from one direction will see one image and an observer looking at the display from a different direction will see another, different image. The invention also relates to a dual-view display and an autostereoscopic display that incorporates a multiple-view directional display.

Figure I is a schematic plan view of a conventional multiple view directional display.

The display 1 of figure 1 comprises an image display device 2 and a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3. The image display device 2 comprises a pixellated image display layer 4, in this case a liquid crystal layer, disposed between first and second substrates 5, 6. The pixels are arranged in rowsand columns in the conventional manner, with the columns of pixels extending perpendicular to the plane of the paper in Figure 1. The pixellated display layer 4 is addressable by any conventional technique to display two or more interlaced images, and may be, for example, an active matrix TFT liquid crystal display. Figure 1 shows two images displayed on the image display layer 4, with the images being displayed on every other columns of pixels so that one image is displayed on pixel columns Cl, C3, C5 and a second image is displayed on pixel columns C2, C4, C6. The image display device is illuminated by light 7 from a light source (not shown). Components 8, 9 are linear polarisers.

The barrier 3 of the multiple-view directional display 1 comprises a plurality of transparent slits 10 separated by opaque regions 11. The barrier is mounted on a transparent substrate 12, to provide physical support. Because of the presence of the barrier 3, the images displayed on the pixellated display layer 4 are each visible only along a specific direction. Thus, as shown in figure 1, two viewing windows 13, 14 are set up. In the first viewing window, the image displayed on pixel columns C1, C3, C5 is visible but the image displayed on the pixel columns C2, C4, C6 is blocked by the barrier and is not visible; conversely, in the second viewing window 14, the image displayed on pixel columns C2, C4, C6 is visible but the image displayed on pixel I columns C 1, C3, C5 is blocked by the opaque regions l 1 of the barrier 3.

Figure I illustrates a multiple view directional display incorporated in an auto- stereoscopic display. In use, an observer would position themselves so that their right eye was coincident with one viewing window 13 and so that that their left eye was coincident with the other viewing window 14 - and the viewing windows 13, 14 are therefore referred to as a "right-eye viewing window" and a "left-eye viewing window" in figure 1. A stereoscopic image pair would be displayed on the image display device 1, with a left-eye image being displayed on pixel columns C2,C4,C6 and a right-eye image being displayed on pixel columns Cl,C3,CS. An observer positioned with their right and left eyes coincident with the right-eye and left-eye viewing windows 13, 14 respectively would therefore see a three-dimensional image.

The parallax optic 3 is shown in figure I as a parallax barrier, consisting of transparent strips separated by opaque regions. The opaque regions prevent the images displayed on the pixellated display layer 4 from being viewed from certain directions, and this provides the directional effect shown in figure 1. Other types of parallax optic are I known -- for example it is also known to use a lenticular barrier instead of a parallax barrier - a lenticular barrier typically comprises columnar lenses, which act to direct images from different regions of the pixellated display in different directions and thereby obtain the directional effect.

A multiple view directional display may also be incorporated in a "dualview" display apparatus. A dual-view display is similar in principle to an autostereoscopic display, in that it simultaneously displays two or more images, with each image being displayed in a different direction. Whereas in an autostereoscopic display the two images are the; two components of a stereoscopic image pair and are displayed so that a single observer can see each image in a respective eye, in a dual-view display the images are displayed so as to be visible to different observers and the images may be unconnected with one another. The viewing windows created by a dual-view display are wide enough for I both eyes ol an observer to sit comfortably in a viewing window. An example of a dual view display is shown in figure 2, which shows a dual-view display installed in a motor vehicle. The dual-view display 15 is installed in the dashboard 16 of a motor vehicle.

One image displayed on the dual-view display is a map, which may also show the position of the vehicle if the vehicle is fitted with a GPS location system. This view is made visible to the driver of the vehicle. The other image displayed by the dual-view display 15 is an entertainment programme, such as a film, and this is made visible to, for example, the front seat passenger in the vehicle. Use in motor vehicles, particularly in motor cars, is an increasingly important application of dual-view displays.

A first aspect of the present invention provides a multiple-view display apparatus adapted to display first and second images such that the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image.

All convcutional multiple-view directional displays display images such that the regions in space from which the two or more separate images can be seen (such as the left viewing window and right viewing window in an auto-stereoscopic display) are made to be the same size and to be at the same longitudinal distance from the display. The viewing windows therefore have the same angular extent. Furthermore, the viewing windows are symmetrically positioned. In the case of a display that creates two viewing windows, the two viewing windows are generally symmetrically positioned about the central axis of the display apparatus - that is, about the axis that is perpendicular to the centre of the display. In the case of a tracked system in which the directions in which the images are displayed is varied as an observer moves relative to the display, however, the two viewing windows will be symmetric in angular extent, and the tracking is generally symmetric to the left and right of the display.

The inventors have, however, realised that a symmetrical multiple view directional display is not suitable for all applications. In a motor car fitted with a dual view display as shown in figure 2, for example, there will in general be rear-seat passengers of the vehicle. If a symmetrical dual-view display apparatus is used a rear-seat passenger sitting directly behind the front seat passenger will see the same image as will the front seat passenger -- and so will be able to see the film being watched by the front seat passenger. However, a passenger sitting directly behind the driver wild see the same display as the driver- and so will have to see the GPS/map display and will not be able to watch the film. Furthermore, if a fifth, central rear-seat passenger were present, they would see a mixture of the two images and this would be neither desirable nor comfortable. The present invention, however, provides a multiple view display in which the one image is displayed with a smaller angular extent than an other image, as shown in Figure 3. Where a display of the invention was incorporated in a dual-view display in a motor car, it would be possible for all passengers to see the film, and for the GPS/map display to be restricted to the driver.

The display may comprise an image display device for displaying the first image and the second image; and a parallax optic for directing the first image along the first direction and for directing the second image along the second direction.

The width of an area of the image display device associated with display of the first image may be different from the width of an area of the image display device associated with display of the second image. This is a straightforward way of achieving different angular extents.

The display may comprise interlace driving means for displaying the first and second images on the image display device as interlaced images. The image display device may comprise a pixellated image display device, and the first image may be displayed as one or more first columns of pixels and the second image may be displayed as one or more second columns of pixels.

The display width of a pixel from a first pixel column may be different from the display width of a pixel from a second pixel column. The aspect ratio of a pixel from a first pixel column may be different from the width of a corresponding pixel from a second pixel column.

Ihc first image may be displayed as M first pixels and the second image may be displayed as N second pixel columns, where N M. A pixel from a first pixel column may have substantially the same display width as a pixel from a second pixel column.

This allows the two images to be displayed with different widths while still using a standard pixellated image display device.

The parallax optic may be a parallax barrier and an area of a region of the barrier that is transmissive to the first image may be different to the area of a region of the barrier that is transmissive to the second image.

The barrier may have one or more apertures for transmitting the first and second images, and a transmissive area of the or each aperture for the first image may be different from a transmissive area of the or each aperture for the second image. One part of the or each aperture may have a transmission spectrum different from the transmission spectrum of another part of the or each aperture. One part of the or each aperture may transmit both the first image and the second image and another part of the or each aperture may substantially block one of the first and second images and transmits the other of the first and second images.

1 he display may further comprise at least one diffuser, the diffuser diffusing, in use, the first image by an amount different to the amount by which it diffuses the second image whereby the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image. This is another straightforward way of achieving different angular extents.

The diffuser may comprise one or more first diffusive regions for diffusing the first image and one or more second diffusive regions for diffusing the second image, the diffusive strength of the first region(s) being greater than the diffusive strength of the second region(s).

Alternatively, the parallax optic may be a parallax barrier and a region of the barrier that is transrnissive to the first image may have a different diffusive strength from a region of the barrier that is transmissive to the second image.

The parallax barrier may be laterally mix-aligned with the image display layer, to such an extent that the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image. This is another straightforward way of achieving different angular extents.

Alternatively, the display may comprise imaging means for forming an image of one of the parallax optic or the image display device that is laterally offset from the other of the parallax optic or the image display device whereby the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent ofthe second image.

The first image displayed by the apparatus may not overlap the second image displayed by the apparatus, and the first image displayed by the apparatus may be separated from the second image displayed by the apparatus. I The display may be adapted to display a third image along a third direction that does not lie in the plane defined by the first and second directions. It is possible to display three images in directions that lie in a common plane, as shown in figure 13, but by vertically separating one of the images from the other two it is possible to increase the angular extents, in the horizontal direction, of the images.

The parallax optic may comprise an addressable spatial light modulator.

The parallax optic may be movable relative to the image display means.

The parallax optic may be disableable. This allows the display to operate in a conventional two-dimensional display mode. i The image display device may be a liquid crystal display device.

The invention also provides an autostereoscopic display apparatus comprising a multiple-view directional display as defined above and a dual view display apparatus comprising a multiple-view directional display as defined above. ! 7

Preferred embodiments of the present invention will now be described by way of illustrative example with reference to the accompanying figures in which: Figure 1 is a schematic plan view of a conventional multiple-view directional display apparatus; Figure 2 illustrates a conventional dualview apparatus installed in a motor car; Figure 3 is a schematic illustration showing the principle of the present invention; Figure 4(a) is a front view of a conventional parallax barrier; Figure 4(b) is a front view of an example of a non-standard parallax barrier; Figures 5A(I) to 5A(2) show a display according to a first embodiment of the present invention; Figures 5B(1) to 5B(2) show a display according to a second embodiment of the present I invention; Figures 5C(1) to 5C(3) show a display according to a third embodiment of the present invention; Figures 6A(1) to 6A(3) show a display according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention; Figures 6B(1) to 6B(4) show a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figures 6C(1) and 6C(2) show a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figures 7A and 7B show a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figures 8A and 8B show a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figure 9 shows a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figure I () shows a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figure 1 I shows a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figure 12 shows a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figure 13A shows a display according to the present invention that can display three separate images; Figure 13B shows a display according to the invention that can display three separate images; Figure 14 shows a display according to the embodiment in which the displayed views are vertically separated; Figures 15(a) and 15(b) show the pixel arrangement and parallax optic, respectively, of a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; Figures 1 6(a) and 16(b) illustrate the display as seen by a rear seat passenger and a front seat passenger or driver, respectively; Figure 17 shows a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention; and Figure 18 shows a display according to a further embodiment of the present invention.

Like reference numerals refer to like components throughout the description and drawings.

The invention will be described with reference to directional displays that can display two images. The invention may however, be applied to directional displays that can display three or more images.

The invention will be described with reference to directional displays that are installed in a motor vehicles and that display images intended to be seen by a driver or by one or more passengers and, accordingly, terms such as "driver image", and 'passenger image" will be used in the description of the embodiments. However, these terms are used for convenience of description only, and the invention is not limited to a display that displays views intended for viewing by a driver or passenger of a vehicle. Displays of the present invention may be used in many other situations including, for example, aircraft (for passenger or pilot use), computer games or security screens.

Figure SA(2) is a schematic plan view of a multiple view directional display apparatus according to a first embodiment of the invention. I he apparatus 17 comprises an image display device and a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3 disposed in front of the image display device. Only the pixellated image display layer 4 of the image display device is shown in figure 5A(2), and the substrates, polarisers, electrodes for addressing the pixellated display layer etc have been omitted from figure SA(2) for clarity. Similarly, the support substrate for the barrier 3 is also not shown in figure SA(2).

The pixellated display layer 4 of the multiple-view directional display 17 of figure SA(2) is shown in front view in figure SA(I). As is conventional, the pixellated display comprises a matrix of pixels arranged in rows and columns. In use, the pixellated display 4 is driven by a drive circuit (not shown) to display two interlaced images.

Figure 5A(1) shows the images being driven with an interlace ratio of 1:1 so that one image is displayed on every other pixel column C1,C3,C5... and a second image is displayed on the remaining pixel columns C2,C4,C6... . The display apparatus of figure 5A(2) is shown in use in a motor vehicle, so the pixel columns are referred to either as "driver pixel" columns or "passenger pixel" columns, depending on whether they display an image intended for view by the driver of the vehicle or by a passenger. As explained above, these terms are used for convenience of description only, and the invention is not limited to a display that displays views intended for viewing by a driver or passenger of a vehicle.

In the display apparatus of figure 5A(2), the angular extent of one image - the image intended for viewing by a passenger or the "passenger image" is made greater than the angular extent of a second image - the image intended for viewing by the driver or the "driver image" - by making the width (in the horizontal direction, when the display is oriented as shown in figure 2 or in figure 5A(1)) of a portion of the pixellated display layer 4 that displays the passenger image greater than the width of a portion of the display layer that displays the driver image. In this embodiment, the "passenger pixels" are made wider than the "driver pixels" while keeping the depth of the passenger pixels approximately equal to the depth of the driver pixels. In the specific embodiment illustrated in figure 5A(l), the width Wp of a passenger pixel is approximately double the width We of a driver pixel. The greater width of the passenger pixels means that the angular extent of the passenger image is greater than the angular extent of the driver image.

In the display of figures SA(I) and 5A(2) the passenger pixels are arranged in columns C2,C4,C6 and the driver pixels are also arranged in columns C1,C3,C5. The pixels columns are arranged so that an column of passenger pixels alternates, across the display, with a column of passenger pixels. This minimises the barrier pitch, and so minimises visibility of the barrier to an observer. In principle, however, two (or more) columns of passenger pixels could alternate with two (or more) columns of driver pixels. A full-colour display could be obtained by arranging the pixel columns as red driver, red passenger, green driver, green passenger, blue driver, etc. although other arrangements are possible.

Figure 4(a) shows a front view of the parallax optic 3 of the display 17. As can be seen, the parallax optic 3 is a conventional parallax barrier, having vertically extending transparent slits 10 separated by opaque regions 11. (It should be noted that the terms "vertical" and "horizontal" as used herein denote the directions of columns of pixels and rows of pixels, as is conventional in the description of pixellated displays. The use of these terms does not imply that the display apparatus of the invention is limited to use in the specific orientation suggested in figure 5A(1) - 5A(2). As shown in figure 5A(l), the parallax barrier is arranged so that the transmissive slits 10 of the parallax barrier are opposite to, and extend parallel to, the columns of passenger pixels of the image display layer.

The advantage achieved by the present invention is illustrated schematically in figure 3 which is a schematic plan view of a multiple view directional display 17 of the present invention incorporated in the dashboard 16 of a motor car. The angular extent al of the passenger image is greater than the angular extent a2 of the driver image. Furthermore, the viewing windows are arranged such that the front seat passenger 18 and all rear seat passengers l9, 20, 21 are in the viewing window of the passenger image. All passengers 18-2 l in the car therefore see the same image, which may be, for example, a film. Only the driver 21 is located in the viewing window ofthe driver image.

Figures 5B(I) and 5B(2) show a multiple view directional display 18 according to a second embodiment of the present invention. Figure 5B(2) is a schematic plan view of this display, which consists of an image display device 4' and a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3' disposed in front of the image display device. As in Figure 5A(2), only the image display layer 4' of the image display device and the parallax barrier 3 is shown. The substrates of the image display device and the parallax barrier, the polarisers, addressing means, etc., have been omitted from figure 5B(2) for clarity.

Figure 5B(1) is a front view of the image display layer 4 of the directional display of Figure 5B(2). As in the previous embodiment, pixels of the pixellated image display layer 4' vary in width with the width w2 of pixels on which one image (the passenger image) is to be displayed being greater than the width wit of pixels on which a second image (the driver image) is to be displayed. The pixels are arranged in rows with, in each row, a pixel for displaying the driver image P',Pi3,Ps; P22,P24P26 alternating with pixels P'2,P,P,;P2,P23,P25 for displaying the passenger image. However, each row of pixels is offset with respect to adjacent rows. In figure 5B(1) adjacent rows are offset by approximately half the pixel pitch so that each column of pixels comprises a passenger pixel, a driver pixel, a passenger pixel, etc., but the embodiment is not limited to this specific offset between rows.

The parallax barrier 3' of the display device 18 is shown in front view in figure 4(b).

The transparent portions 10' of the parallax barrier are not arranged as vertical slits as in the parallax barrier of figure 4(a). Instead, the transparent areas 10' of the barrier have a width W3 that is less than the width of the passenger pixels, and have a depth that is substantially equal to the depth of the passenger pixels. The transparent portions 10 are arranged so as to alternate with opaque portions l l in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The parallax barrier 3' may be thought of as comprising rows of transparent portions alternating with opaque portions, with each row being offset laterally compared to adjacent rows by approximately one half of the spacing between the centre of one transparent portion and the centre of an immediately adjacent transparent portion in the same row. Manufacture of such a parallax barrier is described in co-pending UK patent application Nos. 0228644. 1, 03065 l 6.6 and 03 l 5170. l. When the multiple view directional display is assembled, the parallax barrier 3' is arranged so that each transparent portion 10' is opposite to one of the passenger pixels Pit, PA SPA, P23... of the pixellated image display layer 4'. The greater width of the passenger pixels, compared to the driver pixels, again leads to the angular extent of the passenger image being greater than the angular extent of the driver image.

The display of figures 5B(1)-(2) is particularly suitable where a display that is operable either as a multiple-view directional display or as a conventional 2-dimensional display (by disabling the parallax barrier) is desired. The pixel arrangement shown in figure SB(I) provides improved display quality when operating in a 2-dimensional mode.

Figure 5C(1) to 5C(3) show a multiple-view directional display apparatus according to a third embodiment of the present invention. Figure 5C(3) is a schematic plan view showing just the parallax optic 3 and the image display layer 4, figure 5C(1) is a front view of the image display layer 4 and figure 5C(2) is a front view of the parallax optic 3. This embodiment corresponds generally to the embodiment of figure 5A(1) and 5A(2), except that the pixels of the image display layer 4 are such that their width (in the horizontal direction) is significantly greater than their depth (in the vertical direction). The principle of operation of this embodiment is the same as the principle of operation of the embodiment of figures 5A(1) and 5A(2), and will not be further described here.

The multiple-view displays described above require pixellated image display devices having pixels of two different sizes. While such image display devices are available, it would be preferable if a conventional pixellated display device in which all pixels are the same size and are the same shape could be used. Figures 6A(1) - 6A(3) show a multiple view directional display 19 of the invention that incorporates a conventional pixellated image display layer 4' in which all pixels have the same size and shape.

Figure 6A(3) is a schematic plan view of the display 19 of this embodiment. It again consists of an image display device and a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3 disposed in front of the image display device. As with earlier embodiments, only the pixellatcd display layer 4' of the image display device and the parallax barrier 3 are shown in figure 6A(3) for clarity.

The pixellated display layer 4" is shown in front view in figure 6A(I). As can be seen, the display layer 4' contains a matrix of pixels arranged in rows and columns. The pixels have the same size and shape as one another. In this embodiment, and the greater width of a portion of the image display layer that displays the passenger image (compared to the width of a portion of the image display layer that displays the driver image) is obtained by use of asymmetric interlacing of the passenger image and the driver image when the two images are displayed on the display layer. Figure 6A(1) shows as an example, the image display layer driven (by a suitable drive circuit, not shown) at an interlace ratio of 2:1, in which the passenger image is displayed using two adjacent columns of pixels C1, C2; C4, C5. Each pair of columns of pixels used to display the passenger image are interlaced by a single column of pixels C3, C6 used to display the driver image. The width of a portion of image display layer used to display the passenger image (two adjacent pixel columns) is therefore greater than the width of a portion of image display layer used to display the driver image (one pixel columns) the driver image, so that the passenger image thereby has a greater angular extent than the driver image. A full-colour image may be displayed by, for example, red, green and blue pixels arranged one above another, or by arranging the pixels columns as red driver, 2 x red passenger, green driver etc. although other pixel arrangements for a fullOcolour display are possible.

The display 19 of figures 6A( I)-6A(3) may, as noted above, be used with any conventional pixellated display device in which pixels have the same size and same shape as one another. The invention is not limited to a display element having pixels of the particular aspect ratio shown in figure 6A(1), nor is it limited to use with the specific 2:1 interlace ratio shown in figure 6A(1). he multiple-view directional display of this embodiment requires a

standard parallax barrier 3, as indicated in front view figure 6A(2).

Another advantage of the display 19 of figure 6A(3) is that it may be driven in either a symmetric display mode in which the two windows corresponding to the two images have the same angular extent or an asymmetric display mode in which the two windows have different angular extents to one another. This is illustrated in figures 6B(I) to 6B(4).

Figures 6B(3) and 6B(4) correspond generally to figures 6A(1) and 6A(3) respectively, except that they shows the pixellated image display layer 4 being driven with an interlace ratio of 4:2 - so that the passenger image is displayed on four adjacent columns of pixels interlaced with the driver image displayed on two adjacent columns of pixels.

If, however, the pixellatcd display element is driven at an equal interlace ratio (that is, an interlace ratio of 1:1, 2:2 etc. as shown in figure 6B(I), the width of the driver image on the display layer 4" is equal to the width of the passenger image on the display layer 4". figure 6B(2) is a schematic plan view of the display apparatus 19 when driven at an equal interlace ratio, and it will be seen that the angular extent of the driver window is equal to the angular extent of the passenger window. (Figures 6B(1) and 6B(3) show an interlace ratio of 3:3, but a symmetric display mode is obtained for any equal interlace ratio.) In addition to switching the display 19 between a symmetric dual-view display mode and an asymmetric dual-view display mode, it is also possible to vary the relative angular extent of the passenger window and the driver window in the asymmetric dual- view display mode. This may be done by varying the interlace ratio (while still keeping the width al the passenger image greater than the width of the driver image). For example, moving from the 4:2 interlace ratio shown in figure 6B(3) to a 5:1 interlace ratio would still result in an asymmetric dual-display mode, but the angular extent of the passenger window would be increased. Being able to vary the relative angular extent of the driver window and the passenger window, while retaining the asymmetric dual-view mode, allows a single display to be configured to suit more than one application, for example to suit more than one model motor vehicle. (In this embodiment it may be preferable to vary the interlace ratio in such a way that the overall pitch of the display does not change, such as the change from 4:2 to 5:1 mentioned above, since this allows a fixed parallax optic to be used. If the interlace ratio is changed in a way that changes the overall pitch of the displayed images (e.g. a change from 4:2 to 3:2, which would change the pitch from 6 to 5), a switchable parallax optic is required.) Switching from a symmetric dual-view mode to an asymmetric dual-view display mode may be done depending on, for example, the number of people in the motor car in which the display is installed. If the car contains only a driver and a front seat passenger, the symmetrical dual-view display mode can be used and there is no need to operate the display device l9 in the asymmetric dual- view display mode. Use of the symmetric display mode where only a driver and front seat passenger are present provides the largest viewing window possible for the driver and minimises cross-talk.

The display device l9 of this embodiment may also be driven to provide a non-display area that separates one viewing window from the other viewing window. This is illustrated in figure 6C(1) and 6C(2) which correspond generally to Figures 6B(3) and 6B(4) respectively. As shown in figure 6C(l), which is a front view of the pixellated image display layer 4", the image display layer is controlled by any suitable drive means (not shown) to display the passenger image on three adjacent columns of pixels, C5,C6,C7; Cll,Cl2, Cl3, and to display the driver image on two adjacent columns of pixels C3, C4; C9,ClO. The width of a portion of the image display layer 4" that displays the passenger image is therefore different from the width of a portion of the image display layer 4" that displays the driver image, so that the angular extent of the viewing window of the driver image will be smaller than the angular extent of the viewing window of the passenger image.

The pixellated display element 4" is further driven to provide one or more columns of black pixels C8 between a displayed passenger image and a displayed driver image. In figure 6C(I) one column of black pixels is shown but, in principle, two or more adjacent columns of pixels could be driven to provide a black display. As is shown in figuec 6C(2), the black pixels provide a black viewing window 20 in which no image is seen between the viewing window of the driver image 21 and the viewing window 22 of the passenger image. The presence of the no-image window 20 reduces cross-talk between the passenger image and the driver image, and also reduces the chance of a user inadvertently seeing an image not intended to be seen by that user if they turn or move their head. The black, no-image window also allows the display to be 'off' for one or more observers so that, for example, a passenger who does not wish to watch the entertainment programme could sit in a position within the black viewing window.

The presence of a black window in which no image is visible may also be advantageous where the invention is applied to a dual-view display for use in an application where it is desired that one of the views is seen only by one person. An example of this is in the use of an automatic teller machine (ATM), where it is desirable that the screen for entering a PIN number is seen only by the person making the transaction and is not seen by other people.

A black viewing window may also be created by leaving columns of the image display layer black in manufacture, by not providing pixels in those columns.

Figures 7A and 7B show a multiple view directional display 23 according to a further embodiment of the present invention. Figure 7B shows the display 23 in plan view, and figure 7A is a front view of the pixellated image layer 4"'. The display apparatus 23 again consists of a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3 disposed in front of an image display element. As with previous embodiments, only the pixellated display layer 4"' of the image display device and the parallax barrier 3 are shown in figure 7B, and other components have been omitted for simplicity of description.

In this embodiment, the width of a portion of the image display layer 4"' that displays the passenger image is again different from the width of a portion of the image display layer 4"' that displays the driver image, so that the angular extent of the viewing window ol the driver image will be smaller than the angular extent of the viewing window of the passenger image. In this embodiment the pixels P2, P3, PS, P6, P8, P9 that display the second image (passenger image) extentl generally horizontally and have a width in the horizontal direction that is much greater than their depth in the vertical direction. The pixels Pl, P4, P7 that display the first image (driver image) extend generally vertically and have a width in the horizontal direction that is much less than their depth in the vertical direction. Thus, the width wit of pixels P1, P4, P7 that display the first image (driver image) is less than the width w2 of pixels P2, P3, P5, P6, P8, P9 that display the second image (passenger image), so that the viewing window for the passenger image has a greater angular extent than the viewing window for the driver image.

In the embodiment, the pixels of the image display may all have the same size and shape, but with the driver pixels being oriented with their long axis arranged vertically and with the passenger pixels being oriented with their long axis horizontal. Making all pixels the same size and shape preserves the 2-D image quality when this embodiment is applied to a display having a disableable parallax barrier and that can be operated in either a 2-D or a 3-D mode.

Figure 7A indicates one possible scheme for generating full colour driver and passenger images - the letters "R", "B" and "G" in each pixel denote that that pixel would be driven to display the red, blue or green component, respectively, of the image.

Figure 8A is a schematic plan view of a multiple view directional display 24 according to a further embodiment of the present invention. The display apparatus 24 again consists of a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier disposed in front of an image display device. Only the parallax barrier 3 and the pixellated image display layer 4" of the image display device are shown in figure 8A for convenience of description.

The pixellated display layer of this embodiment is a conventional display layer in which pixels have the same size and shape as one another, and so corresponds generally to the pixellated display layer 4" shown in figure 6A(I). In this embodiment, however, the asymmetric dual display mode is not obtained by driving the pixellated display layer with an asymmetric interlace ratio between the two images. Instead, the display clement 4" is driven so that the two images arc displayed with equal interlacing. In figure 8A the display element 4" is shown as being driven with an interlace ratio of 1:1 but it could be driven with any equal interlace ratio such as 2:2, 3:3 etc. The parallax barrier of this embodiment is a standard parallax barrier 3 as shown in figure 4(a). However, the parallax barrier is positioned so that the transparent slits 10 are misaligned with respect to the columns of pixels of the pixellated display layer 4".

The effect of this misalignment is to provide an asymmetric display mode in which the angular extent of the viewing window of one image (the driver image in figure 8A) is smaller than the angular extent of the viewing window of the other image (the passenger image in figure 8A).

The embodiment of figure 8A may also be applied using a non-standard parallax barrier.

It is known to make the pitch of the parallax barrier to be slightly less than the pitch of a pixellated image display panel, in order to provide "viewpoint correction", and in such a display there will be some small misalignment between the apertures of the parallax barrier and the pixels (or pixel columns) of the image display panel. In the embodiment of figure 8A, however, the misalignment between the parallax barrier 3 and the image display layer 4" is significantly greater than in known displays. For example, in the centre of the display, an aperture of the parallax barrier could typically be displaced by around 20 from the fully-aligned position. The effect of this misalignment is to make one viewing window geometrically small, and hence produce viewing windows having different angular extents to one another.

Figure 8B shows a modification of the embodiment of Figure 8A. In this embodiment, the lateral position of the barrier 3 may be controlled by means of a controller 25. The controller 25 is able to cause the barrier 3 to move parallel to the pixellated display layer 4", in the direction indicated by the arrow A in figure 3B. By moving the barrier parallel to the pixellated display element 4", it is possible to adjust the degree of misalignment between the transparent slits 10 of the barrier 3 and the columns of pixels of the pixellated display layer 4", and thereby change the angular extent of the viewing window of one image relative to the angular extent of the viewing window of the other image. By suitably positioning the barrier, a symmetric display mode may also be obtained, in which the two viewing windows have the same angular extent. As explained above with reference to the embodiment of figure 8A, the movement of the parallax barrier 3 between a position in which it provides a symmetric display mode and a position in which it provides an asymmetric display mode could typically lead to a misalignment of around 20 in the centre of the display. While observer tracking displays are known in which the parallax barrier is movable relative to an image display layer, so that the viewing windows can "track" the position of an observer who is moving laterally with respect to the display, the degree of relative movement of the parallax barrier and image display layer in such observer tracking displays is small. The relative movement of the parallax barrier and the image display layer in these prior devices does not provide sufficient misalignment to produce asymmetric viewing windows.

The embodiment of figure 8B may be put into effect using a barrier 3 that is physically moveable relative to the pixellated display layer 4". The controller 25 would, in this embodiment, control an actuator that would move the barrier 3 to its desired position.

The display apparatus (24') of figure 8B may alternatively be embodied by using an addressable spatial light modulator as the parallax barrier 3. In this case, the parallax barrier would not itself move physically relative to the display element 4"; rather, the opaque and transmissive regions of the SLM would be "moved" to different locations on the SLM by suitably re-addressing the SLM.

Figure 9 is a schematic plan view of another directional display 25 of the invention, which is a modification of the embodiment of figures 6A(1) to 6A(3). The parallax barrier 3 and pixellated display layer 4" of figure 9 are, in all essential respects, identical to those of the display apparatus 19 of figure 6A(3) and will not be further described here. The display apparatus 25 of figure 9 further comprises a tracking/identification device 26 that can track the position of a user's eyes and/or identify a user. For example, the device 26 may comprise an iris sensor and/or a fingerprint sensor that contains information about the iris or fingerprint pattern of authorised users ol the display 25. When a person attempts to activate the apparatus, the device 26 will determine whether the person is an authorised user of the system, and will only allow the system to be activated by an authorised user. The device 26 may further store information about the display mode most often used by each authorised user- and when the system is activated, the device 26 would preferably instruct the interlace controller 27 to drive the display layer 4" with the interlace ratio that provides the user's favourite display mode.

The tracking/identification device 26 may additionally or alternatively determine or estimate the number of users of a display apparatus. Where the display apparatus is incorporated in a motor car, for example, the identification/tracking device 26 may identify the number of passengers in the vehicle. If it determines that only a driver is present, the identification/tracking device 26 would instruct the interlace controller 27 to drive the display layer 4" to provide maximum display resolution for the driver. If it is determined that only a driver and a front seat passenger are present, the interlace controller 27 may be instructed by the tracking device 26 to drive the display element 4" to provide a symmetric display mode as in figure 6B(l). If it is determined that the car is full, the interlace controller 27 may be instructed to drive the display layer 4" at an interlace ratio that provides asymmetric display mode as shown in figure 6B(3).

The identification/tracking device 26 may additionally or alternatively be provided with active eye tracking detectors or motion detectors. If the device 26 detects that the driver's head, for example, has moved, it may then instruct the interlace controller 27 to vary the interlace ratio and so vary the angular extent of the viewing window of the driver image to ensure that the driver sees only the driver image and does not see the passenger image. This embodiment therefore allows the asymmetry of the display mode of the display 25 to be adapted in real-time to the movement of users, such as driver and/or passengers.

Figure 10 shows a multiple view directional display 28 according to a further embodiment of the present invention. The display 28 of figure lO again consists of a parallax optic in the forth ol a parallax barrier 29 disposed in front of an image display device. Only the parallax optic 3 and the pixellated display layer 4" of the image display device are shown in figure 1O, for clarity of description.

In this embodiment, the pixellated display element has pixels that are the same size and same shape as one another, as shown in figure 6A(I). The asymmetric dual-view display mode in this embodiment is obtained by making the transparent apertures 30, 31, 32 of the barrier 29 with a greater width for one image (in figure 10 this is the passenger image) than for the other image (the driver image in figure 10). In the embodiment of figure 10, the difference in width of the transmissive apertures 30, 31, 32 between the two images is obtained by making one region of the aperture with a transmission spectrum that is different from the transmission spectrum of another region of the aperture. The first aperture 30 for example, is formed of a first region 30G that transmits only green light and a second region 30GR that transmits both red and green light but blocks blue light. Similarly, a second aperture 31 is formed of a first region 31R that transmits only red light and a second region 31RB that transmits red and blue light but that blocks green light. A third aperture 32 is formed of a first region 32B that transmits only blue light and a second region 32GB that transmits both green and blue light but that blocks red light.

The second aperture 31 of the parallax barrier 29 is placed opposite two pixel columns C3, C4 of the display element 4". Pixel column C3 displays the blue component of one image (the driver image) whereas pixel column C4 displays the red component of the second image (the passenger image). The blue component of the driver image displayed on pixel column C3 is able to pass through one region 31RB of the aperture 31 since one region 31RB is transmissive to blue light. It is, however, not able to pass through the other region 31R of the aperture 31, since this region transmits only red light. The effective transmissive aperture for blue light emitted by pixel column C3 is therefore only one region - the region 31RB of the second aperture 31.

Pixel column C4 displays the red component of the second image. Light emitted by this pixel can pass through the whole area of the aperture 31 since both regions SIR, 31RB of the aperture 31 both transmit red light. The transmissive area of the aperture 31 for red light is therefore the entire area of the aperture 31. Thus, the transmissive area of the aperture 31 is greater for light emitted by one pixel column C4 - which forms part of the passenger image - than it is for light emitted by another pixel column C3 - which forms part of the driver image.

A similar effect occurs for the other apertures 30 and 32. The first aperture 30 is adjacent to pixel columns Cl, C2 which are, respectively a red pixel column for the driver image and a green pixel column for the passenger image. The red light from the pixel column Cl of the driver image cannot pass through one region 30G of the first aperture 30, so that the effective area of the first aperture 30 for the driver image is less than the actual width of the aperture. However, green light from the pixel column C2 of the passenger image can pass through the entire aperture, since both regions JOG, 30GR transmit green light.

Similarly, the third aperture 32 is opposite pixel columns C5, C6 which display, respectively, the green component of the driver image and the blue component of the passenger image. One region 32B of the third aperture 32 will not transmit light from the pixel column C5 displaying the driver image, so that the effective transmissive area of the third aperture 32 for light emitted by the pixel column C5 is less than the actual area of the third aperture 32. Blue light emitted by the passenger pixel column C6 can, however, pass through the entire area of the third aperture 32.

The embodiment of figure 10 therefore provides an asymmetric dual-mode display in which the angular extent of the viewing window for one image is greater than the angular extent of the viewing window for another image. This is because the effective width of the apertures in the parallax barrier 29 are greater for one image than for the other image.

In the embodiment of Figure 10, the apertures of the parallax barrier extend in columns as in Figure 4(a). The embodiment of Figure 10 may also be applied to a display having a non-standard parallax barrier as in Figure 4(b), although the design of the apertures and the interlacing would be different for different rows of a non-standard barrier.

In a modification (not illustrated) of figure 10, the pixels displaying one image emit light having an orthogonal polarization state to light emitted by pixels displaying the other image. EP-A-O 887 692 describes image display devices that may display images in this way. In this embodiment one region of each aperture is formed of a polariser that transmits only one of the images (the passenger image for example) while blocking the other image. Another region of each aperture is transmissive to both polarizations.

Thus, the transmissive area of each aperture is greater for one image than for the other Image.

Figure 11 is a schematic plan view of a multiple-view directional display 30 according to a further embodiment of the present invention.

The display 30 again comprises a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3 disposed in front of an image display device that contains a pixellated display layer 4.

The pixellated display layer 4 is the only component of the image display device shown in figure 11, and the support substrate for the parallax barrier 3 has also been omitted from figure 11 for clarity.

The display 30 of figure 11 further comprises a patterned diffusing element 31 disposed in front of the parallax barrier 3. The patterned diffuser element contains regions 33 that produce strong diffusion of light alternating with regions 32 that produce weak or no diffusion. The regions 32, 33 are in the form of vertically extending strips. The parallax barrier is a standard parallax barrier 3 as shown in figure 4(a), and the pixe]lated display layer 4" is a display layer in which pixels have the same shape and size as shown in figure 6A(1).

In use, two images are displayed on the display layer 4" in an interlaced manner by any suitable drive means (not shown). The two images are displayed at an equal interlace ratio such as for example 1:1 as shown in figure 11. The transmissive apertures 10 of the parallax barrier 3 are aligned with the columns of pixels ol the display layer 4".

The asymmetry between the viewing windows of the two images arises in figure 11 because of the presence of the patterned diffuser element 31. The diffuser element is arranged such that light forming one image is incident predominantly, preferably exclusively, on regions 33 of strong diffusion, and so that light of the other image is incident predominantly, preferably exclusively on regions 32 of weak diffusion.

The angular extent of the viewing window of the image incident on the regions 32 of low diffusion will not be significantly altered by the diffuser element 31. The resultant viewing window will have an angular extent that is similar to the angle determined by the width of the transmissive slit 10 in the parallax barrier 3 and the distance between the display layer 4" and the parallax barrier 3.

The strongly-diffusing regions 33 of the diffuser element 31 will, however, increase the angular extent of the viewing window of the image that is incident on the strongly- diffusing regions 33. Thus, in the embodiment of figure 11, the angular extent of the viewing window of the second image will be increased by the strong-diffusing regions 33, and will so be significantly greater than the angle defined by the width of the transmissive slits 10 of the parallax barrier.

The embodiments of figure 10 and 11 above have been described with reference to a standard parallax barrier 3 of figure 4(a). These embodiments could alternatively be put into effect using a non-standard parallax bander such as that shown in figure 4(b), by appropriately addressing the pixels of the image display layer 4".

Figure 12 is a schematic sectional plan view of a multiple-view directional display 38 according to a further embodiment of the present invention. The display 38 again comprises a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3 disposed in front of an image display device that contains a pixellated display layer 4. The pixellated display layer 4 is the only component of the image display device shown in figure 12, and the support substrate of the parallax barrier 3 has also been omitted from figure 12.

The parallax barrier 3 of figure 12 further incorporates a plurality of patterned diffusive elements 31', each disposed in an optical path through a respective aperture of the parallax barrier. The patterned diffusive elements 31' are such that each aperture 10 of the parallax barrier is overlaid partially by a diffusive region 33 that provides high diffusion and partially by a region 32 (referred to as a "weakly- diffusive region" for convenience") that produces weak or no diffusion. In the case of a standard parallax barrier the diffusive regions 32, 33 are in the form of vertically extending strips (that is, they extend into the plane of the paper in figure 12), and the pixellated display layer 4 is a display layer in which pixels have the same shape and size as shown in figure 6A(1).

In use, two images are displayed on the display layer 4 in an interlaced manner by any suitable drive means (not shown). The two images are displayed at an equal interlace ratio such as, for example, 1:1 so that pixels that display the driver image ("driver pixels") alternate with pixels that display a passenger image ("passenger pixels") as shown in figure 12. The transmissive apertures 10 of the parallax barrier 3 are aligned with the columns of pixels of the display layer 4.

The asymmetry between the viewing windows of the two images arises in the display of figure 12 because of the presence of the patterned diffusive elements 31. The diffusive elements are arranged such that light forming one image is incident predominantly, preferably exclusively, on the diffusive regions 32 having strong diffusion and so that light of the other image is incident predominantly, preferably exclusive, on diffusive regions 32 of weak or no diffusion. The angular extent of the viewing window of the image that is incident on the diffusive regions 32 of low or no diffusion will not be significantly altered by the diffusive elements. The strongly- diffusing regions 33 will, however, increase the angular extent of the viewing window of the image that is incident on the strongly-diffusing regions 33. Thus, in the embodiment of figure 12, the angular extent of the viewing window of the image that is incident on the strongly- diffusive regions 32 will be significantly greater than the angular extent of the other image.

The display 35 of figure 12 is arranged so that light from one image - the passenger image in figure 12 - is incident predominantly on the stronglydiffusive regions 33 and such that light forming the other image - the driver image in figure 12 - is incident primarily, preferably exclusively, on the weakly-diffusive regions 32. In figure 12 this is arranged by providing colour filter elements JOG, FOR, 30B in the apertures 10 of the parallax barrier 3. Each aperture 10 of the parallax barrier contains two colour filters, one aligned with the strongly- diffusive region 33 of the diffuser element 31' and the other aligned with the weakly- diffusive region 32 of the diffusive element 31'. The two colour filters in one aperture have different transmission spectra to one another. The central aperture lO shown in figure 12 is disposed opposite a column

of blue driver pixels C3 and a column of red passenger pixels C4. The colour filter that is aligned with the strong- diffusive region 33 of the diffusive element 31' is a red transmission filter 30R, whereas the colour filter adjacent to the weakly-diffusing region 32 is a blue transmission filter. The column C4 of red pixels emits red light, and this is transmitted by the red colour filter 30R and so can pass through the strongly-diffusing region 33 of the diffusive element 31'; however, it is blocked by the blue colour filter 30B and so cannot pass through the weakly-diffusing region 32. Conversely, the column C3 of driver pixels emits blue light and this is transmitted through the blue colour filter 30B and so passes through the weakly-diffusive region 32 of the diffusive element 31' but is blocked from passing through the strongly- diffusing region 33 by the red colour filter 30R.

The other apertures 10 of the parallax barrier 3 are again provided with colour filters such that light from the corresponding column of passenger pixel is transmitted through the strongly-diffusing region 33 of the diffusive element adjacent to an aperture and is not transmitted through the weakly-diffusive region 32 adjacent to that aperture.

Conversely, light from the column of driver pixels corresponding to that aperture is transmitted through the weakly-diffusive region 32 of the diffusive element 31' adjacent to the aperture, but is not transmitted through the strongly-diffusing region 33 adjacent to the aperture.

The embodiment of Figure 12 may also be applied to a display having a nonstandard parallax barrier as in Figure 4(b), although the design of the apertures and the interlacing would be different for different rows of a non-standard barrier.

Figure 13A is a sectional plan view of a further multiple-view directional display 39 of the present invention. It again consists of an image display device and a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3 disposed in front of the image display device. As in earlier embodiments, only the pixellated display layer 4 of the image display device and the parallax barrier 3 are shown in figure 13A for clarity.

A display of the present invention is able to display three or more images. Figure 13A illustrates the display 39 in use in a motor vehicle, and displaying one image to a driver 22, a second image to a front-seat passenger 18, and a third image to rear-seat passengers 19, 20, 21.

In figure 13A, the pixellated image display layer 4 is a conventional image display layer in which all pixels have the same size and shape. The three images are displayed as interlaced images on the display layer 4, and each image is displayed using the same number of pixels. In figure 13, the driver image is displayed on two pixel columns C1, C2, the image for the rear-seat passengers is displayed on the next two columns of pixels C3, C4, and the image for the front-seat passenger is displayed on the next two columns of pixels CS, C6. The asymmetry between the angular extents of the viewing windows is obtained by mix-aligning the aperture 10 of the parallax barrier with respect to the image display layer. As a result, the viewing windows of the driver image and the front-seat passenger image are relatively narrow, whereas the rear-seat passenger image has a viewing window having a large angular extent so that all rearseat passengers 19, 20, 21 can sit comfortably in the viewing window for the rear-seat passenger Image.

The embodiment of figure 13A may be combined, if desired, with other embodiments described above. For example, asymmetric interlacing of the images on the image display layer 4 could be employed to further vary the relative angular extents of the three viewing windows. If desired, black viewing windows may be created between the driver image viewing window and the rear-seat passenger image viewing window, and/or between the front-seat passenger viewing window and the rear-seat passenger image viewing window as described with reference to figures 6C(1) and 6C(2) above.

Figure 13A illustrates the display 39 displaying three images, so that all rear-seat passengers 19, 20, 21 see the same image. The display 39 could alternatively display two or more images intended for display by different rear-seat passengers, by suitably addressing the image display layer 4.

Figure 13B is a sectional plan view of a further multiple-view directional display 39' of the present invention. The display 39 again consists of an image display device and a parallax optic in the form of a parallax barrier 3, disposed in front of the image display layer 4. As in earlier embodiments, only the pixellated image display layer 4 of the image display device and the parallax barrier 3 are shown in figure 13B for clarity.

The display 39' is again able to display three or more images. Figure 13B illustrates the display in a motor vehicle having three rows of seats, such as a so-called "people carrier". The display 39' is displaying one image to a driver 22, a second image to a front seat passenger 18, and a third image to passengers 41, 42 in the second row of passenger seats; this image is also visible to the central passenger 20 in the first row of passenger seats.

Figure 13B illustrates the display of only three images, with the left and right passengers 19, 21 in a first row of passenger seats not located in any viewing window.

It would, however, be possible for the viewing window of the rear seat passenger image to be made wide enough to include the left and right passengers 19, 21 in the front row of passenger seats as well as the passengers 41,42 in the second row of passenger seats.

Alternatively, the image display layer 4 could additionally display separate images intended to be visible to the left passenger 19 and the right-hand passenger 21 ol the first row of passenger seats.

In the display of figure 13B, the viewing window for the image intended for viewing by passengers 41, 42 in the second row of passengers also includes the central passenger 20 in the first row of passenger seats. If this is undesirable, a vertical separation technique such as that of figure 14 below may be used in the display of figure 13B. This would enable one image to be displayed to the central passenger 20 in the first row of passenger seats and a different image to be displayed to the passengers 41, 42 in the second row of passenger seats; it would also make it possible to display separate images to each of the passengers 41, 42 in the second row of passenger seats.

Figure 14 is a schematic side view of a further multiple-view directional display 36 according to the present invention. The display 40 is again able to display three different images as in the previous embodiment. In the embodiment of figure 14, however, the viewing window of one image separated from the viewing windows of the other images in the vertical direction, as illustrated in figure 14 so that the viewing directions of the three images do not lie in a common plane. Figure 14 shows the viewing windows for two displayed images, one intended for viewing by an observer 22 close to the display and one intended for viewing by an observer 20 further away from the display. The centres of the viewing windows of the two images are separated in the vertical direction, with the viewing window for the observer 22 close to the display being above the viewing window of the image intended for viewing by the distant observer 22. As a result, the head of each observer is approximately centred, in the vertical direction, in the viewing window of the image intended for display by that observer. Preferably, the vertical separation of the two viewing windows is such that the viewing windows do not overlap, as shown in figure 14.

It will be seen that the angular extent, in the vertical direction, of the driver image viewing window in figure 14 is greater than the angular extent, in the vertical direction of the passenger image viewing window. In principle, however, the two viewing windows could have similar angular extents in the vertical direction.

The embodiment of figure 14 may be applied to a display of a type shown in figures 13A or 13B which produces three separate viewing windows which do not overlap in the horizontal plane. However, since the display 40 of figure 14 provides vertical separation between different viewing windows, it is not necessary for all the viewing windows to be separated in the horizontal direction as in figures 13A and 13B. Viewing windows for images that are intended to be viewed at different distances from the display may overlap in the horizontal direction provided that they are separated in the vertical direction. Where the display 40 is used in a motor vehicle, for example, it would be possible for the front passenger image viewing window and/or the driver image viewing window to overlap the rear passenger image viewing window in the horizontal direction, provided that the rear passenger image window was separated from the front passenger image viewing window and the driver image viewing window in the vertical direction. This would allow the angular extent, in the horizontal direction, of the viewing windows of the front passenger image, driver image, and rear passenger image to be made greater than shown in figure 13A.

The embodiment of Figure 14 may also be applied to a display in which the angular extents of the images are controllable, as in the display of Figures 6B(1) to 6B(3). This would lead to a display that could operate in, for example, a symmetric display mode in which it displays a driver image and a single passenger image (as in figure 6B(1)), an asymmetric display mode in which it displays a driver image and a single passenger image (as in Figure 6B(2)), and a mode in which it displays a driver image and two passenger images with one passenger image being vertically separated from the other passenger image and the driver image.

Figure IS(a) and lS(b) are front views of, respectively, an image display layer 4 and a parallax barrier 3 suitable for use in the display 40 of figure 14.

Figure lS(a) shows three pixel columns C1, C2, C3 of the image display layer although, in practice, the image display layer 4 will contain many more columns of pixels. The first column C1 contains pairs of a pixel D for displaying a driver images and a pixel FP for displaying a front passenger image. The driver pixel D and the front passenger pixel FP are vertically aligned with, and laterally separated from, one another. The width of the pixels D tor displaying a driver image is less than the width of the pixels FP for displaying a front-seat passenger image, so as to provide asymmetric viewing windows.

(Alternatively, all pixels in column C1 could have the same width, with different angular extents of the image being obtained by the front passenger image being displayed on more pixels than the driver image, as in Figures 6A(1) - 6A(3). This would allows the angular extents of the front seat passenger image and the driver image to be controlled, as set out with reference to Figures 6B(1) to 6B(3) above.) The second column of pixels C2 contains pixels RP1, RP2, RP3 that display, in use, one or more images for the rear-seat passengers. In figure lS(a) the column C2 contains three horizontally separated pixels, but the invention is not limited to this.

The third column of pixels, C3 again contains pixels for displaying the driver image and pixels for displaying the front passenger image, and these are arranged in the same way as in the first pixel column C1.

In the first pixel column C1, adjacent pairs of the front passenger pixel and a driver pixel are separated by a vertical separation that is greater than the vertical depth of the rear passenger pixels RP in the second pixel column C2. Conversely, the vertical separation between rear passenger pixels in the second column C2 is greater than the vertical height of the front passenger pixels FP and the driver pixels D in the first pixel column C1 (the vertical height of the driver pixels D is preferably approximately the same as the vertical height of the front passenger pixels FP). Furthermore, the pixels in adjacent columns are "interlaced" in the vertical direction - so that there is no overlap, in the vertical direction, between pixels of one column and pixels of an adjacent column.

Figure 15(b) shows a parallax barrier 3 of the display 37. The parallax barrier 3 contains a matrix of transmissive apertures 10, with each aperture being separated from neighbouring apertures in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The pitch of the apertures in the vertical direction is approximately equal to the vertical pitch of the columns of pixels of the image display layer 4 (each pixel column in the image display layer 4 has approximately the same pitch as one another, regardless of whether it is a column of front passenger/driver pixels or a column of rear-passenger pixels). The horizontal pitch of the apertures of the parallax barrier is approximately equal to the horizontal pitch of the columns of pixels of the image display layer (although it is preferably not exactly equal to the pitch of the columns of the image display layer, to obtain the "viewpoint correction" effect mentioned above).

When the parallax barrier 3 and the image display layer 4 are incorporated into a display with the parallax barrier 3 disposed between the image display layer and an observer, the vertical alignment of the parallax barrier 3 and the image display layer 4 is such that, when the display is viewed by an observer whose head is at one height relative to the display, the apertures 10 of the parallax barrier are aligned in the vertical direction with the rear-passenger pixels RP; the apertures 10 of the parallax barrier are also aligned with the rear-passenger pixels RP of column C2 in the horizontal direction. The pixels that display the front passenger image or the driver image are, however, not aligned with apertures 10 of the parallax barrier but are aligned with opaque portions of the parallax barrier 3. This is shown in figure 16(a). Accordingly, an observer positioned at this height relative to the display will see an image displayed on the rear-passenger pixels RP, but will not see an image displayed on the front passenger pixels FP or the driver pixels D. When the display 37 is viewed by an observer at a whose head is at a second, lower height relative to the display, however, the front passenger pixels FP and the driver pixels D are, from the viewpoint of this observer, aligned with apertures 10 of the parallax barrier. The rear-passenger pixels RP are not aligned with the apertures 10 of the parallax barrier, but are aligned with opaque portions of the parallax barrier. This is shown in Figure 16(b). Thus, the observer whose head is at the second height sees either the driver image or the front passenger image, depending on their lateral position with respect to the display.

If the display is arranged such that the boundary between the two images is not horizontal but is at an angle to the horizontal (for example is angled upwards as shown in Figure 14), the two images will be visible to observers at different distances from the display (assuming a constant observer head height).

As indicated in figure 15(a), the horizontal width of the front passenger pixels FP is greater than the horizontal width of the driver pixels D. The angular extent of the front passenger image, in the horizontal direction, will therefore be greater than the angular extent in the horizontal direction of the driver image, as explained with reference to figure 5A(I) and 5A(2) above.

In the embodiment shown in figures 15(a) the column C2 of pixels that display the rear passenger image contains three horizontally separated pixels. The pixels are independently addressable, and may display three different images. Thus, three rear- seat passengers of a motor vehicle may each see a different image, since the apertures in the parallax barrier direct the three different images displayed on the pixels RP showing the rear passenger image in three separate directions. It should be noted that the embodiment of figure 15(a) to 16(b) is not limited to a display that can display three different rear passenger images. The display could in principle display a single image that is visible to all rear-seat passengers and this may be done by displaying the same image on all rear-passenger pixels RP1,RP2,RP3 or by replacing the three rearpassenger pixels RPl,RP2,RP3 with a single rear passenger pixel. It is, however, preferable for the display to display as many independent images as there are rear-seat passengers, so that each rear-seat passenger can independently choose a programme to watch (or can choose to watch no programme).

Figure 17 is a plan-view of a multiple-view directional display 34 according to a further embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment will be described with reference to an autostereoscopic display, but this embodiment may also be applied to dual-view display or, generally, to any multiple-view display.

The display 34 of figure 17 comprises an image display device 2 that corresponds generally to the image display device of the display 1 of figure 1 and so will not be described further.

The display 34 further comprises a parallax optic 3, which in this embodiment is a parallax barrier having transrnissive slits 10 separated by opaque portions 11. The parallax barrier 3 is placed behind the image display device 2 - that is, the parallax barrier 3 is disposed between the light source (not shown) and the image display device rather than between the image display device 2 and the observer. Devices of this type are known as a "rear barrier display", whereas the devices described above have been "front barrier displays". The parallax barrier 3 is sandwiched between a first substrate 12' and a second substrate 12.

The display 34 of figure 17 further comprises a lenticular lens array disposed between the parallax barrier 3 and the image display device 2. The lens array 35 forms an image 36 of the parallax barrier at a plane on the other side of the lens array 35 from the parallax barrier 3. In figure 17 the image 36 of the parallax barrier 3 is shown as within the display device 2 but the image 36 of the parallax barrier 3 could in principle be between the display device 2 and the observer.

Displays of the general type shown in figure 17 are described in more detail in co- pending patent application No. (Marks & Clerk reference: P52816GB). In brief, by forming an image of the parallax barrier such that the distance between the image 36 of the parallax barrier and the image display layer 4 of the image display device 2 is less than, or is greater than, the separation between the parallax barrier 3 and the image display layer 4, it is possible to increase, or decrease, the angular separation between the two viewing windows 13, 14. The image 36 of the parallax barrier 3 may or may not be magnified compared with the original parallax barrier 3.

Figure 17 shows a display 34 in which each lenticular lens of the array 35 is laterally positioned such that the transmissive apertures 37 of the image 36 of the parallax barrier array are substantially laterally aligned with pixels of the image display layer 4 so that symmetrical viewing windows are created. By suitable lateral positioning of the lens array it would, however, be possible to produce an image 36 of the parallax barrier array in which the apertures 37 were laterally offset with respect to the apertures 10 of the original parallax barrier. The image 36 of the parallax barrier would then be a misaligned barrier of the type described above with reference to figure SA, and so would give rise to viewing windows having different angular extent. The technique shown in figure 17 may therefore be used to carry out the present invention.

Alternatively, the embodiment of Figure 17 may be applied to a display in which two images are displayed with different display widths in the horizontal direction by using asymmetric interlacing or pixels of different widths as described above. In this case the lens array does need to generate a mix-aligned image of the parallax barrier.

A further advantage of this embodiment is that a misaligned barrier would be more geometrically asymmetric if the barrier were close to the image display layer. It is generally difficult to put a parallax barrier close to the image display layer - however, the reimaging method of Figure 17 may be used to put the image of the parallax barrier close to the image display layer and thereby reduce the effective separation between the parallax barrier and the image display layer.

The technique of figure 17 may also be applied to a front-barrier display of the general type shown in figure 1. In this case, a lenticular lens array will be provided to create an image of the pixellated image display layer 4 and, by using an array of asymmetric lenses it would again be possible to generate misalignment between the image of the pixellated image display layer and the parallax barrier thereby giving rise to viewing windows having different angular extents. (Where the technique of figure 17 is used to obtain asymmetric viewing windows, the distance between the image of the parallax barrier and the image display layer (or between the parallax barrier and the image of the image display layer) may be made different to the distance between the parallax barrier and the image display layer in order to change view angle separation, but it is alternatively possible for the distance between the image of the parallax barrier and the image display layer (or between the parallax barrier and the image of the image display layer) to be equal to the distance betwocn the parallax barrier and the image display layer so that no change in view angle separation occurs.

Figure 18 shows a multiple-view directional display 34' of the present invention that can produce asymmetric viewing windows. The display 34' corresponds generally to the display 34 of figure 17, and only the differences between figure 18 and figure 17 will be described here.

In the display 34' of figure 18, the imaging means is asymmetric, in that the imaging power is not constant over each element of the imaging means. In the specific imaging means shown in figure 18, the imaging means is a lens array 35 having asymmetric lenses. Each lens contains a portion 35a having a long focal length and a portion 35b having a short focal length. As a consequence, the lens array 35 produces two images of the parallax banter. A first image 36a of the parallax barrier is produced by the portions 35a of the lenses of the lens affray that have a long focal length. The second image 36b of the parallax banter is formed by the portions 35b of the lenses of the lens array that have a short focal length, and the second image 36b of the parallax battier therefore lies between the first image 36a of the parallax barrier and the lens array 35.

The two images 36a, 36b of the parallax battier are laterally aligned with respect to one another. Furthermore, the two images have substantially the same size as one another.

Two images are displayed in interlaced manner on the image display layer, and Figure 18 shows the left eye image displayed on pixel columns Cl,C3,C5 and the right eye image displayed on pixel columns C2,C4,C6. A pixel column that displays the left-eye image is illuminated with light that has passed through the short focal length regions 35b of the lenses, whereas a pixel column that displays the right-eye image is illuminated with light that has passed through the long focal length regions 35a of the lenses. The separation between the image display layer 4 and the image of the parallax battier therefore differs between the left eye image and the right eye image. The separation for the left eye image (SL) iS equal to the separation between the short focal length image 36b of the parallax barrier and the image display layer 4, but the separation (SR) for the right eye image is the separation between the long focal length image 36a of the parallax barrier and the image display layer 4, so that SL > SR. The viewing window 13 for the right eye image therefore has a greater angular extent than the viewing window 14 for the left eye image.

The embodiments described with reference to figures 5A(1) to 16(b) have been front- barrier displays in which the parallax optic 3 is disposed between the image display layer 4 and the observer. The embodiments of figures SA(1) to 16(b) could alternatively be applied to rear-barrier displays in which the parallax optic is disposed between the light source and the image display layer 4.

ln the embodiments described above, the parallax optic has been formed by a parallax barrier having transmissive slits 10 separated by opaque regions 11. The invention is not, however, limited to this particular parallax optic. For example, a lenticular barrier may be used in place of the parallax barriers shown in the preferred embodiments.

In the displays described above, the parallax barrier 3, 3' may be embodied as a passive barrier - that is, as a component having fixed transparent portions and fixed opaque portions. It may alternatively be embodied as an addressable spatial light modulator, for example a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, with portions of the spatial light modulator being addressed so as to be transparent or opaque in order to provide the desired parallax barrier. Use of an addressable spatial light modulator allows the parallax barrier to be disabled by making the spatial light modulator transparent over its entire area. Disabling the parallax barrier allows the display to operate in a conventional 2- dimensional display mode, with a single image being displayed on the image display layer.

In the embodiments described above the image display device 2 in which the image display layer 4 is a liquid crystal layer. The invention is not, however, limited to this specific image display device. In principle, any transmissive pixellated display device may be used as the image display device 2 in both front-barrier and rear-barrier displays. Moreover in the case of a front-barrier display an emissive display device such as an organic light-emitting device (OLED), a plasma display, or other similar display may be used.

Claims (27)

  1. CLAIMS: 1. A multiple-view directional display for displaying a first
    image along a first direction and for displaying a second image along a second direction different from the first direction wherein the display is adapted to display the first and second images such that the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image.
  2. 2. A display as claimed in claim 1 and comprising: an image display device for displaying the first image and the second image; and a parallax optic for directing the first image along the first direction and for directing the second image along the second direction.
  3. 3. A display as claimed in claim 2 wherein the width of an area of the image display device associated with display of the first image is dit't'erent from the width of an area of the image display device associated with display of the second image.
  4. 4. A display as claimed in claim 2 or 3 and comprising interlace driving means for displaying the first and second images on the image display device as interlaced images.
  5. 5. A display as claimed in claim 2 3 or 4 wherein the image display device comprises a pixellated image display device and wherein the t'irst image is displayed as one or more first columns of pixels and the second image is displayed as one or more second columns of pixels.
  6. 6. A display as claimed in claim 5 wherein the display width of a pixel from a first pixel column is different from the display width of a pixel from a second pixel column.
  7. 7. A display as claimed in claim 5 or 6 wherein the aspect ratio of a pixel from a first pixel column is different from the width of a corresponding pixel from a second pixel column.
  8. 8. A display as claimed in claim 5 wherein the first image is displayed as M first pixels and the second image is displayed as N second pixel columns, where N M.
  9. 9. A display as claimed in claim 8 wherein a pixel from a first pixel column has substantially the same display width as a pixel from a second pixel column.
  10. 10. A display as claimed in claim 2 wherein the parallax optic is a parallax barrier and an area of a region of the barrier that is transmissive to the first image is different to the area of a region of the barrier that is transmissive to the second image.
  11. 11. A display as claimed in claim 10 wherein the barrier has one or more apertures for transmitting the first and second images, a transmissive area of the or each aperture for the first image being different from a transmissive area of the or each aperture for the second image.
  12. 12. A display as claimed in claim 11 wherein one part of the or each aperture has a transmission spectrum different from the transmission spectrum of another part of the or each aperture
  13. 13. A display as claimed in claim 12 wherein one part of the or each aperture transmits both the first image and the second image and wherein another part of the or each aperture substantially blocks one of the first and second images and transmits the other of the first and second images.
  14. 14. A display as claimed in claim 2 and further comprising at least one diffuser, the diffuser diffusing, in use, the first image by an amount different to the amount by which it diffuses the second image whereby the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image.
  15. 15. A display as claimed in claim 14 wherein the diffuser comprises one or more first diffusive regions for diffusing the first image and one or more second diffusive regions for diffusing the second image, the diffusive strength of the first region(s) being greater than the diffusive strength of the second region(s).
  16. 16. A display as claimed in claim 2 wherein the parallax optic is a parallax barrier and a region of the barrier that is transmissive to the first image has a different diffusive strength from a region of the barrier that is transmissive to the second image.
  17. 17. A display as claimed in claim 2 wherein the parallax optic is laterally mis- i aligned with the image display layer whereby the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image.
  18. 18. A display as claimed in any of claims 2 to 17 and having imaging means for forming an image of one of the parallax optic or the image display device that is laterally offset from the other of the parallax optic or the image display device whereby the angular extent of the first image is different from the angular extent of the second image.
  19. 19. A display as claimed in any preceding claim wherein, in use, the first image displayed by the apparatus does not overlap the second image displayed by the apparatus. !
  20. 20. A display as claimed in any preceding claim wherein, in use, the first image: displayed by the apparatus is separated from the second image displayed by the apparatus.
  21. 21. A display as claimed in any preceding claim and further adapted to display a third image along a third direction, the third direction not lying in the plane defined by the first and second directions. ;
  22. 22. A display as claimed in any of claims 2 to 21 wherein the barrier comprises an addressable spatial light modulator.
  23. 23. A display as claimed in any of claims 2 to 21 wherein the barrier is movable relative to the image display means.
  24. 24. A display as claimed in any of claims 2 to 23 wherein the parallax optic is disableable.
  25. 25. A display as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the image display device is I a liquid crystal display device.
  26. 26. An autostereoscopic display apparatus comprising a multiple-view directional display as defined in any of claims 1 to 25. i
  27. 27. A dual view display apparatus comprising a multiple-view directional display as defined in any of claims l to 25.
GB0320365A 2003-08-30 2003-08-30 Dual view directional display providing images having different angular extent. Withdrawn GB2405546A (en)

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GB0320365A GB2405546A (en) 2003-08-30 2003-08-30 Dual view directional display providing images having different angular extent.
JP2004241719A JP4530408B2 (en) 2003-08-30 2004-08-20 Multiple view direction display
CNB2004100900321A CN1289940C (en) 2003-08-30 2004-08-30 Directional display with multiple form
KR1020040068576A KR100687149B1 (en) 2003-08-30 2004-08-30 A multiple-view directional display

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KR (1) KR100687149B1 (en)
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