GB2401923A - Composite torque disc with circumferential reinforcement - Google Patents

Composite torque disc with circumferential reinforcement Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2401923A
GB2401923A GB0311620A GB0311620A GB2401923A GB 2401923 A GB2401923 A GB 2401923A GB 0311620 A GB0311620 A GB 0311620A GB 0311620 A GB0311620 A GB 0311620A GB 2401923 A GB2401923 A GB 2401923A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
artefact
disc
layers
planar
boltholes
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB0311620A
Other versions
GB2401923B (en
GB0311620D0 (en
Inventor
Edward Chace Allnutt
Michael James Dewhurst
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
CROMTON TECHNOLOGY GROUP Ltd
Original Assignee
CROMTON TECHNOLOGY GROUP Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date
Application filed by CROMTON TECHNOLOGY GROUP Ltd filed Critical CROMTON TECHNOLOGY GROUP Ltd
Priority to GB0311620A priority Critical patent/GB2401923B/en
Publication of GB0311620D0 publication Critical patent/GB0311620D0/en
Publication of GB2401923A publication Critical patent/GB2401923A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2401923B publication Critical patent/GB2401923B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D3/00Yielding couplings, i.e. with means permitting movement between the connected parts during the drive
    • F16D3/50Yielding couplings, i.e. with means permitting movement between the connected parts during the drive with the coupling parts connected by one or more intermediate members
    • F16D3/78Yielding couplings, i.e. with means permitting movement between the connected parts during the drive with the coupling parts connected by one or more intermediate members shaped as an elastic disc or flat ring, arranged perpendicular to the axis of the coupling parts, different sets of spots of the disc or ring being attached to each coupling part, e.g. Hardy couplings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D2250/00Manufacturing; Assembly

Abstract

A very lightweight moulded composite coupling, comprising a plurality of layers of fibrous material embedded in a solid polymer matrix material. The coupling has a circumferentially reinforced planar core layer 02 sandwiched between quasi-isotropic planar reinforcing layers 01 impregnated by and co-bonded together with a polymer matrix resin. The regions R1 around the bolthole B positions may be preferentially reinforced by the addition of shaped quasi-isotropic planar reinforcing layers 03 When moulded and machined into a disc form the component can be bolted through an even number of boltholes to a power transmission system able to accommodate a few millimeters of axial length compensation and able to transmit static and cyclic torque in angularly misaligned shafts.

Description

2401 923 - 1 COMPOS1TE TORQUE DISC This invention relates to a flexible
off set coupling for use in torque carrying, power transmission applications which may be static such as used in test equipment, or highly dynamic as in motor propshafts, industrial drive shafts, wind turbines and dynamometers.
Such couplings are well known but suffer the disadvantage of being heavy, relying on mechanical bearings or rubber doughnuts to accommodate shaft misalignments. Designs based on metal discs are generally are only able to accommodate very limited angular misalignments of typically 0.5 , owing to their susceptibility to fatigue failure in dynamic applications at larger angles of misalignment. Lightweight composite discs have been manufactured using traditional lamination techniques. These are found in service on highly stressed torsion shafts where early delaminations failures initiated from the boltholes are often observed such that this solution is unreliable in many applications.
Coupling elements used for connecting two shafts and suitable for very limited angles of misalignment between the shafts are known from DE3725957-C1, DE-4033596-C1, GB2342424 and GB2349844. Flange parts of the two shafts to be coupled are circumferentially bolted alternately to the fixing elements of the joint disc. To reduce load peaks the DE-3725957-CI proposes to provide the transition between the web regions and eye region with radii; in DE-4033596-C1, in order to reduce load peaks it is proposed to position the fixing holes radially with reference to the longitudinal centre lines of the web region. In GB2342424 a multiplicity of moulded planar layers of reinforcement are used to produce composite discs with larger moulded thickness in regions around the boltholes. To achieve this a large number of differently dimensioned pieces of woven material are cut and accurately assembled prior to moulding. In GB2349844 similar components are moulded but using a simplified planar lay-up of reinforcing fabric at least some of which are identical. - 2-
Our invention provides a torsional disc coupling which is lightweight, low profile with tailorable flexural stiffness able to accommodate angular misalignments of up to 5 in torsional fatigue whilst being strong enough to resist the toque applied to the associated shaft and having the ability to accommodate a few millimeters of axial length compensation. An essential feature of the disc design is the incorporation of at least one layer of circumferential reinforcement.
Accordingly the invention provides a composite disc with a controlled distribution of out of plane bending rigidity around the circumference. This feature is combined with high circumferential tension and compression strengths in the regions between adjacent boltholes. Localised thickening of the composite material around the boltholes may be used to give enhanced static and dynamic bolt bearing resistance. This combination allows high torsional loads to be transmitted through pairs of boltholes joining the shaft to the torsional drive mechanism whilst at the same time accommodating angular misalignment through out of plane flexure ofthe composite elements between adjacent boltholes.
The disc may be made of fibrous reinforcement in a polymer matrix. The fibres may be based on carbon, glass, ceramic or high stiffness polymer fibres or hybrid mixtures of these fibrous forms. The matrix may be based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester or for high temperature applications polyimide or bismaleimides. Alternatively advanced thermoplastic matrices such as PES, PEEK or polycarbonate may be used.
Production methods can be based on laying combinations of circumferential and planar reinforcement in a matched metal tool, impregnating with resin and press curing under heat. The in-plane reinforcing sheets may be prepared by stamping fabric or prepreg into a small number of very simple shapes which hold together well during handling in manufacture. After demoulding the disc external diameter is machined to size and the boltholes are drilled and reamed. Other methods of producing the moulding may be based on resin transfer moulding into a dry fibre preform or using resin infusion techniques with either thermoses polymers or thermoplastic films.
An essential feature of the invention is the use of one or more internal core layers which are orientated circumferentially with respect to the disc axis. These layers are sandwiched and in the case of multiple layers separated with planar layers with reinforcement arranged quasi isortopically (i.e. at relative angles of 0 , +120 when holes are multiples of 3; 0,+45, 90 when holes are a multiple of 4). The planar layers may be punched to shape from fabric or prepreg. These layers are stacked in such a way as to preferentially build up the thickness around the mechanical fixing points in the disc.
Flanged metal inserts may also be press fitted and or bonded at the boltholes via the flange faces to reduce the stress concentrations at the loaded holes. The thickness ratios in the composite disc are designed to accommodate the applied torques and angular offsets.
The inner circumferentially orientated reinforcement may be produced using filament winding techniques into thin slots held on mandrels with circular or even-sided polygonal sections. The winding may be dry, impregnated with liquid resin or produced using a prepreg tape. Stitching mechanisms may also be used to produce a circumferentially reinforced dry perform suitable for resin impregnation.
The planar reinforcing layers may be produced from quasi-isotropic woven or non- crimped fabric. This may have fibres oriented with relative angles of (0 , +120 ) or (0 , +90 , +45 ). The layers are punched out into simple shapes which may be easily handled and accurately stacked prior to moulding.
The operational advantage of such discs in automotive / autosport applications is that excessive overload situations any damage to the disc results in a fail-safe mechanism such that the vehicle may be driven back to the garage. The overstressed failure mode is non-catastrophic through bolthole elongation and progressive composite crushing leading - 4- to a fail-safe design. In normal operation the flexibility and high inherent damping capacity of the composite discs acts to cushion torsional vibrations. This has the effect of reducing the level of impulse loading seen by the torsion shafts and end fitting joints which extends the fatigue life of the shaft and transmission system and increases driver comfort by reducing noise and vibrations. Lighter weight drive transmission systems are achievable with the disc couplings and this both increases performance whilst at the same time can increases the fuel efficiency of the vehicle.
Embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings: FIGURE 1 is a plan and side view of the disc illustrating the reinforced triangular regions around the boltholes.
FIGURE 2 shows the distribution of the reinforcing layers through the thickness of the moulded disc.
FIGURE 3 shows the individual layers of reinforcement and stacking sequence prior to moulding. The hatching also illustrates the orientation of the reinforcing fibres in the layers.
FIGURE 4 shows an as-moulded component prior to machining.
FIGURE 5 shows the typical direction of loading in the reduced section spans during power transmission.
FIGURE 6 illustrate the fail-safe mode of damage in an overstressed disk.
FIGURE 7 shows the use of top hat inserts to increase the torque carrying capacity of the boltholes.
FIGURE 8 illustrates the deflections in the disc section under torsional and flexural load.
FIGURE 9 shows a circular embodiment of the disc and core reinforcement.
FIGURE 10 shows a multi-layered core structure for use on very high torque transmission applications.
Figure I is a plan and side view of the disc illustrating the reinforced triangular regions Rl) around the boltholes (B). Figure 2 illustrates a three dimensional schematic of the component illustrates the enhanced thickness (tl) around the boltholes compared to the web thickness (t2) in the rectangular region (R2) to give an increased bolt bearing capacity. Figure 3 illustrates the relative orientation of the reinforcement through the thickness of the disk. A balanced and symmetric lay-up is used to avoid out of plane bending in the as moulded component. Unsymmetrical and unbalanced lay-ups may be used if to produced curved webs when demoulded. The web regions consist of a central core (02) of circumferentially oriented fibre sandwiched between planar reinforcing layers produced from quasi-isotropic fabric (01) with fibres oriented at relative angles of (0 , +120 ). Triangular regions (R1) around the boltholes are reinforced with extra layers of quasi-isotropic fabric (03). The relative simplicity of the performs making up the disc is illustrated in Figure 3b. The planar QI fabric is punched using shaped tools into two simple shapes which hold together well during perform assembly and manufacture. One of the forms is an annular disc (01) with an hexagonal inner profile and circular outer profile. The second form (03) is a rectangular disc with a hexagonally shaped cruciform central cut out. A rectangular rather than square external profile means that the fabric axial directions can be easily maintained during in the lay-up in the tool. A circumferentially reinforced layer (02) produced on a hexagonal mandrel is also used in the core region. The as moulded component prior to machining is shown in Figure 4.
The stacking sequence in the tool is also illustrated in Figure 3.
Figure 5 shows the typical direction of loading in the reduced section spans during torque transmission. The three bolthole (B) defined as regions (X) are illustrated as being loaded in a clockwise sense relative to the three bolthole regions labelled (Y). The webs of adjacent reduced section spans are loaded in tension (T) and compression (C). In overstressed conditions, as may occur in operation if the mechanical bolts are loosened, the failure mode is non-catastrophic as illustrated in Figure 6. The boltholes supporting the slackened bolts elongate in the direction of compressive loading but this failure occurs in a progressive non-catastrophic manner. The design of the disc laminate structure allows the damaged disc to remain held together. This mode of progressive failure prevents the shaft from breaking free and restricts damage to the driver and the vehicle. This is particularly important in autosport vehicle applications where a self- drive back to the garage is highly advantageous. - 6-
Where increased torque carrying capacity of the boltholes is required metallic top hat stiffener inserts (TH) may be used as illustrated in Figure 7. The inserts consist of two parts (TH1 and TH2) which fit together through conical tapers which self lock during the bolt tightening operation. The under surfaces of the inserts may also be bonded to the faces of the composite disc using a structural adhesive. The use of metal inserts is effective in spreading the stresses applied to the composite disc by the bolt and thereby reducing the stress concentration at the loaded bolthole during torque transmission.
Figure 8 shows a schematic of the deflections occurring in a web section of the disc loaded in torsion with an angular misalignment of (a). As also illustrated is the small axial displacement (X) of a few millimetres that can be accommodated in the transmission system.
Figure 9 illustrates a further embodiment of the invention based on circular circumferentially oriented cores with a circular internal cutout. In a similar manner octagonal cut-outs with octagonally wound cores may be used where the torque is carried by two pairs of 4 boltholes. For larger diameter systems and larger torques any even number of boltholes may be used in the design.
Figure 10 shows a multi-layered core structure for use on very high torque transmission applications. A multiplicity of circumferentially wound cores (02) can be used each of which is sandwiched between planar QI layers (01).
As an example of an embodiment of the invention the properties of a moulded disc will now be illustrated based on sizes and ply orientations suitable for automotive propshaft applications. Here fatigue torques of up to 2kNm with rotation speeds of 1 Okrpm and angular misalignments of 2. 5 are typical. The typical performance of a moulded disc for the above application would have an outside diameter of 140mm, a web thickness (t2) of 2.5 mm and thickness ratio (t2/tl) of 1:2.8 is now given. The disk is made with glass fibre reinforcement with a bisphenol A type epoxy resin matrix moulded at 120 C. With a 4 angular misalignment the disc has a torsional strength of >4kNm and an out of plane bending stiffness of 68 Nm degas. In fatigue the system will support > 1 million fatigue cycles at 2.5+0.5 kNm working with an angular misalignment of 2.5 . Such a disc would typically weigh <200g yet be capable of supporting the transmission drive on the propshaft system on a 1000 BHP engine typical of a professional sports car. This is only a small fraction of the weight of alternative fatigue resistant solutions.
This invention is not restricted to the details of the foregoing example.

Claims (13)

  1. CLAIMS: 1. A fibre reinforced moulded artefact comprising, a
    circumferentially reinforced planar core layer (02) sandwiched between quasi isotropic planar reinforcing layers (01) impregnated by and co-bonded together with a polymer matrix resin, which when moulded and machined into a disc form can be bolted through an even number of boltholes to a power transmission system able to transmit static and cyclic torque in aligned and in angularly misaligned shafts.
  2. 2. An artefact according to claim 1 where the planar reinforcing core layer (02) is produced by winding a multiplicity of turns of one or more fibre tows onto an even numbered sided polygon mandrel.
  3. 3. An artefact according to claim 1 where the planar reinforcing core layer (02) is produced by winding a multiplicity of turns of one or more fibre tows onto a circular mandrel.
  4. 4. An artefact according to claim 1 where the resin matrix system is based on thermosetting epoxy, polyester, bismaleimides or cyanate ester.
  5. 5. An artefact according to claim 1 where the resin matrix system is based on thermoplastic polyeteretherketone, polyethersulphone, polycarbonate or polypropylene.
  6. 6. An artefact according to any proceeding claim in which quasi-isotropic layers (03) shaped so as to locally reinforce the disc regions around the boltholes are introduced in the reinforcing lay-up.
  7. 7. An artefact according to any proceeding claim in which the torque carrying capacity of the boltholes is increased by the use of metallic top hat stiffener inserts (TH) consisting of two parts (TH1 and TH2) which fit together through conical tapers -9 - which self lock during the bolt tightening operation spreading the forces applied to the composite disc by the bolt and thereby reducing the stress concentration.
  8. 8. An artefact as in claim 7 where the under surfaces of the inserts are bonded to the faces of the composite disc using a structural adhesive.
  9. 9. An artefact according to any proceeding claim where a multimplicity of circumferentially reinforced core layers (02) are interspersed with simple planar layers (03) and (01) punched from quasi isotropic reinforcing fabric.
  10. 10. A method of manufacturing the artefact in claim 1 using a number of simple rectangular planar layers; and a circumferentially reinforced core layer which can be easily aligned and stacked in a mould cavity; the matrix resin may be: - applied to the planar layers during the lay up stage, - infused into the mould cavity using the application of vacuum assisted resin transfer; the resin being cured by application of heat and pressure.
  11. 11. A method according to claim 10 whereby the reinforcement is a hybrid mixture of fibres.
  12. 12. A composite torque transmitting disc substantially as described and/or as illustrated in the accompanying drawings
  13. 13. A method substantially as described.
GB0311620A 2003-05-20 2003-05-20 Composite torque disc with circumferential reinforcement Active GB2401923B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0311620A GB2401923B (en) 2003-05-20 2003-05-20 Composite torque disc with circumferential reinforcement

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0311620A GB2401923B (en) 2003-05-20 2003-05-20 Composite torque disc with circumferential reinforcement

Publications (3)

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GB0311620D0 GB0311620D0 (en) 2003-06-25
GB2401923A true GB2401923A (en) 2004-11-24
GB2401923B GB2401923B (en) 2006-05-03

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2013064807A1 (en) 2011-11-01 2013-05-10 Crompton Technology Group Ltd Torque disc
CN105091808A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-11-25 湖南飞沃新能源科技有限公司 Wind power generation pre-embedded thread sleeve screw thread detection machine
CN111025456A (en) * 2019-12-27 2020-04-17 武汉光谷长盈通计量有限公司 Microstructure special-shaped core optical fiber and preparation method thereof

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DK170939B1 (en) * 1988-04-28 1996-03-18 Eastman Kodak Co Electrophoresis apparatus with removable buffer tank
JPH09210075A (en) * 1996-01-31 1997-08-12 Unisia Jecs Corp Torque transmission coupling and manufacture thereof
JPH11257366A (en) * 1998-03-16 1999-09-21 Unisia Jecs Corp Torque transmitting coupling

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DK173909B1 (en) * 1998-04-01 2002-02-11 Vestas Wind Sys As Axle coupling element of composite material and method for manufacturing said element

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DK170939B1 (en) * 1988-04-28 1996-03-18 Eastman Kodak Co Electrophoresis apparatus with removable buffer tank
JPH09210075A (en) * 1996-01-31 1997-08-12 Unisia Jecs Corp Torque transmission coupling and manufacture thereof
JPH11257366A (en) * 1998-03-16 1999-09-21 Unisia Jecs Corp Torque transmitting coupling

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2013064807A1 (en) 2011-11-01 2013-05-10 Crompton Technology Group Ltd Torque disc
US10030712B2 (en) 2011-11-01 2018-07-24 Crompton Technology Group Limited Torque disc
CN105091808A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-11-25 湖南飞沃新能源科技有限公司 Wind power generation pre-embedded thread sleeve screw thread detection machine
CN105091808B (en) * 2015-07-31 2016-11-30 湖南飞沃新能源科技股份有限公司 A kind of wind-power electricity generation built-in turnbuckle thread testing machine
CN111025456A (en) * 2019-12-27 2020-04-17 武汉光谷长盈通计量有限公司 Microstructure special-shaped core optical fiber and preparation method thereof

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Publication number Publication date
GB2401923B (en) 2006-05-03
GB0311620D0 (en) 2003-06-25

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