GB2340531A - Method of manufacturing pre-fabricated building construction elements - Google Patents

Method of manufacturing pre-fabricated building construction elements Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2340531A
GB2340531A GB9915079A GB9915079A GB2340531A GB 2340531 A GB2340531 A GB 2340531A GB 9915079 A GB9915079 A GB 9915079A GB 9915079 A GB9915079 A GB 9915079A GB 2340531 A GB2340531 A GB 2340531A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
manufacturing
components
method
manufacture
assembly
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GB9915079A
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GB2340531B (en
GB9915079D0 (en
Inventor
Brian Mccaughey
Gerard Mccaughey
Gary Mccaughey
James Mcbride
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WOODROE RESEARCH AND DEV LIMIT
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WOODROE RESEARCH AND DEV LIMIT
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Priority to GB9915079A priority Critical patent/GB2340531B/en
Publication of GB9915079D0 publication Critical patent/GB9915079D0/en
Publication of GB2340531A publication Critical patent/GB2340531A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2340531B publication Critical patent/GB2340531B/en
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/18Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons
    • E04B1/24Structures comprising elongated load-supporting parts, e.g. columns, girders, skeletons the supporting parts consisting of metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/35Extraordinary methods of construction, e.g. lift-slab, jack-block

Abstract

A method of manufacturing a pre-fabricated building construction kit (1) including manufacturing a building base ring beam from ring beam sections (2), manufacturing wall panels (4,5), intermediate floors (6), roof structures (8), spandrels and ladder assembly components. The components manufactured off site are assembled and organised together with the required building materials, completed construction elements and other components and materials to be transferred to a central storage collection area, where they are loaded in a co-ordinated manner onto a trailer or the like for transportation purposes.

Description

2340531 METHOD OF MANUFACTURING PRE-FABRICATED BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

ELEMENTS The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a prefabricated building construction kit.

The present invention provides a method of manufacturing a pre-fabricated building construction kit comprising the steps of.

manufacturing a building base ringbearn from ringbearn sections, comprising reinforcing the ringbeam sections with stiffening cleats at wall panel junctions, in a first stream of manufacture; manufacturing wall panels in a second stream of manufacture; manufacturing intermediate floors in a third stream of manufacture; manufacturing roof structures in a fourth stream of manufacture; manufacturing spandrels in a fifth stream of manufacture; manufacturing ladder assembly components in a sixth stream of manufacture; marshalling components manufactured off site, together with required building materials; transferring the completed elements manufactured and the other components and materials to a central storage collection area and loading the items in a co-ordinated manner onto a trailer or the like for transportation purposes.

2 Preferably, one or more of the construction elements are manufactured from light gauge structural steel.

Advantageously, the method of manufacturing comprises as a separate step in each of the streams of manufacture, marking the relationship of each element to one another, identifying the components and their relative position and location as part of the kit, transferring the marked components onto a separate manufacturing section stage, performing the manufacturing operations, conducting relevant checking procedure that ensures manufacturing compliance with requirements prior to the transfer to the central storage area.

Preferably the manufacture of the ring beam base comprises the steps of reinforcing lightweight galvanised steel ringbeam sections with stiffening cleats at wall panel junctions. The ringbeam is supplied to a site in sections and is positioned, levelled and fixed to the prepared foundations using site drilled fixing bolts through the centre of the stiffening cleat. The ringbeam becomes the jig for the remaining superstructure, therefore correct position and level installation are critical. Once the ringbeam has been fixed, the ground slab concrete can be poured so as to completely fill all ringbeam sections. The top of the ringbeam section provides a level former to assist pouring and shuttering and aids in ensuring a level finish.

Preferably, the method includes manufacturing the wall panels from light gauge structural steel thereby contributing to the overall load bearing capabilities of the kit, cutting galvanised channel track steel sections to form head and sill plates and 'C' sections to form vertical studs; transferring the marked head and sill plates to an assembly line. The head and bottom tracks are placed on an assembly jig so that the panel is constructed in a horizontal orientation. The head and sill plates are placed longitudinally on the assembly line, parallel to one another. The various stud components and lintel components are then attached to the head and sill plates in the pre-punched or counterformed locations and secured by bolting. Once the external wall panel has been assembled it is moved by a crane from the assembly jig and placed on an insulating jig. An insulation board is fitted over the outer face and cut closely to the panel edges and apertures. The external wall 3 panels are completed and checked, additional bracing is used where required and the stud/track connections are made using a fixing means, which provides a flush finish on both sides of the wall panels. Where appropriate, e.g. to facilitate single skin brickwork cladding, brick tie channels are provided and face fixed over the insulation board, to the 5 vertical stud at regular centres.

If the wall panels do not form part of the load bearing structure, wood can be substituted for steel and the method of manufacture comprises the steps of cutting head and sill plates and studs to the required lengths; transferring the marked head and sill plates to an assembly line; laying the studs and other horizontal and vertical components on the locations as indicated on the marked heads and sills; installing one or more lifting eyes on the heads; assembling the structure using nailing devices; securing wall panelling to the completed structure with the exception of door openings and window openings by nails, attaching breather paper on the outside wall surfaces by means of rows of staples aligned with studs position; and where required attaching damp proof courses to ground engaging surfaces and transferring to the central storage area.

Advantageously, the manufacture of the roof assembly trusses comprises the steps of cutting the components to the required length using a computer numerical control (CNC) multi blade saw, placing the components on a truss assembly bench, adjusting the bench to suit the particular truss, assembling the truss components using truss plates, placing the trusses into batches and strapping the batches together. The roof superstructure can use lightweight steel sections that can be finished using traditional pitched or flat roof materials. Alternatively, a timber wall plate to the top of the wall section allows the use of traditional timber roof trusses.

Preferably, the manufacture of spandrels comprises the steps of cutting the spandrel components to the required dimensions and the approximate angles, marking a soleplate to indicate the location and spacing of components, assembling the components by nailing, if C, required, covering one side of the spandrel with plywood, and also if required applying breather paper to an external surface.

0 4 Conveniently, the manufacture of the ladder assemblies comprises cutting the ladder components to the required dimensions to correspond with roof assembly trusses of the house, and assembling the ladder components by nailing.

Additionally, the method of manufacture includes manufacturing soffits in the sixth stream of manufacture, including cutting the components to the required size, applying vents to the soffits, staining the soffits and strapping with the assembled ladders for the particular house.

The invention will hereinafter be more particularly described with reference to the accompanying drawings which illustrate various components for constructing a building and details of the method according to the invention.

In the drawings:- Figure I is a perspective view of a partially assembled pre-fabricated building constructed using components made in accordance with the invention; Figure 2a is a perspective view of a portion of a ringbeam assembly; Figure 2b is a perspective view of a section of the ringbeam assembly of Figure 2a supporting a wall panel; Figure 3a is a perspective view of a wall panel; Figure 3b is a perspective view of a detail of the assembly of a horizontal track and a vertical stud in the wall panel of Figure 3a; Figure 3c is a perspective view of a detail view of a brick-tie channel fixed to a 30 vertical stud of the wall panel; Figure 4a is a perspective view of a portion of a composite metal deck floor; 0 Figure 4b is a perspective view of the composite metal deck floor of Figure 4a supported by a beam; Figure 4c is a perspective view of a portion of a timber floor supported by joists; Figure 5a is a perspective view of a portion of a steel roof; Figure 5b is a perspective view of a portion of a timber roof, Figure 5c is a perspective view of a portion of a parapet roof; Figure 6 is a flow chart illustrating the steps in the manufacturing method according to the invention; and 15 Figure 7a is a perspective view of a jig for the assembly of the wall panel of Figure 3 a; and Figure 7b is a perspective view of a jig for applying insulation to an assembled wall 20 panel.

Referring to the drawings and initially to Figure I there is shown a partially assembled prefabricated building constructed using components made in accordance with the invention referenced generally by the nurneral 1. The building I is manufactured in separate stages and begins with the installation of ringbeam sections 2 to provide the foundations. Concrete 3 is poured in the area enclosed by the ringbearn 2 in order to fill the area to a height level with the top surface of the ringbearn 2. Both the internal wall panels 4 and the external wall panels 5 are fixed to the ringbearn 2 using anchors or screws. Intermediate floors 6, if required, are then laid on supports 7 between the wall panels 4 and 5. Further external wall panels 5 and internal wall panels 4 are fixed to the first floor wall panels. In order to complete the pre-fabricated building a roof superstructure 8 is assembled and fixed accordingly.

0 6 Referring to the drawings and now to Figures 2a and 2b, there is illustrated a detailed view of the ringbeam assembly referenced generally by the numeral 20. The ringbearn 2 is provided in channel sections (CSections) 21 and is positioned, levelled and fixed to the prepared foundations 22 using fixing bolts 23 which are drilled through the centre of stiffening cleats 24 in the form of Z-Sections. The stiffening cleats 24 are provided at wall panel junctions. The concrete 25 can be poured once the ringbeam 2 has been installed. Referring now to Figure 2b, the wall panel 26 is fixed to the ringbeam 2 with self- drilling screws 27.

Referring now to Figures 3a to 3c and in particular to Figure 3a, an assembled wall panel 31 is illustrated. The wall panel 31 is manufactured to include all window openings 32 and door openings. C-section studs 33 are used to form vertical elements and channel track sections 34 are used to form horizontal members. Figure 3b illustrates a channel track section 34 connected to a C-section stud 33 in the manufacture of a wall panel 3 1. Figure 3c illustrates how the wall panels 31 are fixed to brick tie channels 35 using stand off screws 36.

Referring now to Figures 7a and 7b, the jig assembly 80 is used to support the wall panels during manufacture and comprises two longitudinal 1-section beams 81 to which an angle bracket 91 is secured. The two beams 81 are supported at their ends by transverse beams 82 and at their centres by vertical supports 83. The transverse beams 82 are supported in turn by two A shaped trestles 84. A number of the jig assemblies 80 are arranged in a line so that when one stage of the manufacture of a wall panel is completed, the wall panel is pushed along the beams 81 onto the next stage of manufacture.

Referring now to Figures 4a to 4c and initially to Figure 4a, there is shown a composite metal deck concrete floor 41 spanning between loadbearing wall panels 42. Panel-head ledger sections 43) provide supports for the floor 41. In Figure 4b, hot rolled beam sections 44 provide flirther support for the floor 41. A flirther embodiment is illustrated in Figure 4c where timber floors 45 supported by steel joists 46 are used.

0 7 Referring now to Figures Sa to 5c, a number of roof superstructures are illustrated. Figure 5a illustrates a lightweight steel truss roof 51 supported by a channel track section 52 of a wall panel 53. Figure 5b illustrates a timber truss roof 54 supported by a timber wall plate 55 mounted on the top of the wall panel 53. A finther embodiment is illustrated in Figure 5c, whereby the lightweight steel truss roof 51 is attached at a point below the top of the wall panel 53 to provide a parapet detail.

When designing a new building to be constructed from prefabricated building construction elements, complete drawings of the roof structure, ground floor structure and any upper floor structures are prepared in detail, listing the dimensions of each element and of the relative location of each element to the co-operating elements of the structure.

In accordance with the invention, these detailed drawings and manufacturing instructions are received by the manufacturing plant which then separates the drawings and manufacturing instructions and distributes them to six specific areas. As shown in Figure 6, the detailed drawings and manufacturing instructions are passed to each section dealing with the construction of the following items:- (a) wooden walls panels 2; (b) steel wall panels 11; (c) intermediate floor panels 2 1; (d) truss section 3 1; (e) spandrel section 41; (f) ladder assembly section 5 1; (g) central collection and co-ordination sections 67, 68 and 70.

0 8 The method of manufacturing in each section will now be considered in detail, after which the combination of the individual items made by the sub-methods will be discussed and the manner in which they are co-ordinated so as to achieve an efficiently manufactured kit at a low manufacturing cost.

The method of manufacture will now be discussed in relation to the flowchart shown in Figure 6. If the internal panel is required for load bearing purposes all the relevant drawings and manufacturing instructions will be sent to the external wall panel section 11. If the internal wall panel carries none of the load then it can be passed to the internal wall panel section 2 and be manufactured from timber as follows. The head and sill horizontal elements are marked at step 3 to indicate the location of the vertical studs and to identify particular internal wall panels. The location of any double stud and any cripple stud is also marked on the appropriate position on the head and sill plates as are the location of any lintels on the head plate. During the marking procedure, the studs are marked according to the production specification for the particular job as are also the positions of the door and window openings on the heads and sill plates. Each particular panel is marked so that they can be identified in relation to the name of the client, the positioning of the wall panel in the proposed building, the number of the wall panel and the length of the wall. This information is transferred onto the headpiece so that it can be readily identified at a later stage during production and construction of the house. Each head and sill is marked with an arrow indicating which side of the panel has to be covered with insulation board. The marked heads and sills are transferred to the assembly section 4. After manufacture, assembly and checking, the completed internal wall panels are transferred to the central location area 5.

At section 11, the drawings and instructions are passed to the external wall panel section.

The components that are used in the manufacture of the external wall panels (studs, tracks, Z-sections, angle sections, lintels and assembly cleats) arrive at the manufacturing area with pre-punched and counterformed holes. The other items required for the production of 0 9 the external wall panels (bracing straps, brickties) are also sent to section 11 and the panels are manufactured on a specially designed jig, section 12. The head and bottom tracks are placed on the assembly jig so that the panel is constructed in a horizontal orientation. The head and sill plates are placed longitudinally on the assembly line, parallel to one another.

The various stud components and lintel components are then attached to the head and sill plates in the pre-punched or counteformed locations and secured by bolting. Construction of the external wall panels is carried out at step 13. Once the external wall panel has been assembled it is moved by crane from the assembly jig and placed on the insulating jig, section 14. An insulation board is fitted over the outer face and cut closely to the panel edges and apertures. When the external wall panels are completed and checked, they are then moved to the central collection point 15.

As shown in section 2 1, the floor manufacturing section receives the drawings and manufacturing instructions for all the ringbeam sections and intermediate floors. For the installation of intermediate floors, panel-head ledger sections are bolted to the wall panels. If the loads are not excessive then metal deck flooring is sufficient and it is screw fixed to the ledgers, once centred between panel heads. Large spans or high floor loads may require additional beam supports. Hot rolled metal sections or lightweight lattice beams may be used depending on floor to ceiling depth restrictions. Timber floor construction can also be incorporated, supported on light gauge steel joists. Additional cleats may be required to close potential concrete spillage areas and overlapping metal deck floors can be stitched in order to prevent movement when pouring concrete at section 24.

Manufacture of the roof truss assembly will now be discussed. At step 3 1, the roof truss assembly section receives the drawings and manufacturing instructions for the components for the roof The stock required for each assembly is obtained from the central depot as shown at 32 and is cut to the required length at 33 using a CNC four blade saw. Each truss is manufactured by being set up on a truss assembly bench which is adjusted to suit the size required 34. The elements of the truss are assembled together using truss plates. Each finished truss is assembled and placed on a trolley. When a batch of trusses has been manufactured, the batch is strapped together and all identification marks are placed on the trusses. The batch of assembled trusses is then brought to the central collection area 35.

0 The spandrel manufacturing section receives the drawings and manufacturing instructions for the spandrels at 41. The spandrel panel may be for internal or external wall panels or, generally triangular in shape, when forming a gable wall. Wall components are cut to the required dimensions and at the appropriate angles 42. During the assembly process at 43, the soleplate of the spandrel is marked out and then the spandrel is assembled. The spandrel is covered with plywood if required and also with breather paper if in relation to an external wall. After the spandrel is checked for accuracy, it is then transferred at 44 to the central collection area. The ladder assembly section receives the detailed drawings and manufacturing instructions for all roof ladders and soffit ventings required in a particular house at 51. The ladder components are cut in accordance with the instructions to correspond with the truss instructions of the corresponding house 51. The ladder rafters are transferred from the truss assembly line 31 to 35 and the ladder is assembled to the ladder rafters in accordance with the instructions for the particular house, assembled and checked and transferred at 53 to the central collection area. The required soffits are also manufactured in this section, 52 and are cut to the required size, vented and stained and strapped together with the assembled ladders.

The required drawings, component lists, co-ordinate instructions and loading instructions are transferred from section 100 to 67. The items not manufactured in the plant and required building materials are assembled at 68 and transferred to the central collection area 70.

At the central collection area 70, all the components for each individual kit are assembled together at one point and are prepared for loading on a truck. The components are all loaded in a safe manner and are loaded in accordance with the specific loading instructions on the basis that the first materials required on the site are last to be loaded on the truck.

Therefore, generally the first components which are loaded are the wall panels, both external and internal, for use in construction of the first floor, followed by the floor panels, followed by the ground floor wall units, followed by the roof trusses and followed by any other components such as felting, stairs, and building materials. The kit is then ready for transportation to the site of construction of the house or building.

0 11 It will of course be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific details described herein, which are given by way of example only, and that various modifications and alterations are possible without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in 5 the appended claims.

(D 12

Claims (15)

CLAIMS:
1. A method of manufacturing a pre-fabricated building construction kit comprising the steps of.
manufacturing a building base ring beam from ring beam sections, comprising reinforcing the ringbeam sections with stiffening cleats at wall panel junctions, in a first stream of manufacture; manufacturing wall panels in a second stream of manufacture; manufacturing intermediate floors in a third stream of manufacture; manufacturing roof structures in a fourth stream of manufacture; manufacturing spandrels in a fifth stream of manufacture; manufacturing ladder assembly components in a sixth stream of manufacture; marshalling components manufactured off site, together with required building materials; transferring the completed construction elements manufactured and the other components and materials to a central storage collection area and loading the items in a co-ordinated manner onto a trailer or the like for transportation purposes.
2. A method of manufacturing a pre-fabricated construction kit according to claim 1, including manufacturing one or more of the construction elements from light gauge structural steel.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2 in which the method of manufacturing comprises as a separate step in each of the streams of manufacture, marking the 0 13 relationship of each element to one another, identifying the components and their relative position and location as part of the kit transferring the marked components onto a separate manufacturing section stage, performing the manufacturing operations, conducting relevant checking procedure that ensures manufacturing compliance with requirements prior to the transfer to the central storage area.
4. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, including manufacturing the wall panels from light gauge structural steel thereby contributing to the overall load bearing capabilities of the kit, cutting galvanised channel track steel sections to form head and sill plates and T' sections to form vertical studs; transferring the marked head and sill plates to an assembly line; placing the head and bottom tracks on a assembly jig so that the panel is constructed in a horizontal orientation; placing the head and sill plates longitudinally on the assembly line, parallel to one another; attaching the various stud components and lintel components to the head and sill plates in the pre-punched or counterformed locations and securing by fasteners.
5. A method as claimed in claim 4 in which the wall panel when assembled, is moved by a crane from the assembly jig and placed on an insulating jig, where an insulation board is fitted over the outer face and cut closely to the panel edges and apertures, the external wall panels are completed and checked.
6. A method as claimed in claim 5, in which additional bracing is used where required and the stud/track connections are made using a fixing means, which provides a flush finish on both sides of the wall panels, and optionally to facilitate single skin brickwork cladding, brick tie channels are provided and face fixed over the insulation board, to the vertical stud at regular centres.
7. A method as claimed in claim 1, in which the method of manufacture comprises the steps of cutting head and sill plates and studs to the required lengths from lengths of timber; transferring the marked head and sill plates to an assembly line; laying the studs and other horizontal and vertical components on the locations as indicated on the marked heads and sills; installing one or more lifting eyes on the heads; assembling 0 14 the structure using nailing devices; securing wall panelling to the completed structure with the exception of door openings and window openings by nails, attaching breather paper on the outside wall surfaces by means of rows of staples aligned with studs position; and where required attaching damp proof courses to ground engaging surfaces and transferring to the central storage area.
8. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the manufacture of the roof assembly trusses comprises the steps of cutting the components to the required length using a computer numerical control (CNC) multi blade saw, placing the components on a truss assembly bench, adjusting the bench to suit the particular truss, assembling the truss components using truss plates, placing the trusses into batches and strapping the batches together.
9. A method as claimed in claim 8, including fitting a timber wall plate to the top of the wall section to allow the use of traditional timber roof trusses.
10. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the manufacture of spandrels comprises the steps of cutting the spandrel components to the required dimensions and the approximate angles, marking a soleplate to indicate the location and spacing of components, assembling the components by nailing, optionally, covering one side of the spandrel with plywood, and also optionally applying breather paper to an extemal surface.
11. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the manufacture of the ladder assemblies comprises cutting the ladder components to the required dimensions to correspond with roof assembly trusses of the house, and assembling the ladder components by nailing.
12. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims in which the method of manufacture includes manufacturing soffits in the sixth stream of manufacture, 0 including cutting the components to the required size, applying vents to the soffits, staining the soffits and strapping with the assembled ladders for the particular house.
13. A method as claimed in claim 3 in which the assembly jig comprises a pair of parallel rails for supporting the wall panel during manufacture and which is adjusted to allow ease of transfer along the rails to a similar jig for a subsequent stage in the manufacturing process.
14. A method of manufacturing pre-fabricated building construction elements substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
15. Pre-fabricated building construction elements whenever manufactured in accordance with the method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims.
GB9915079A 1999-06-29 1999-06-29 Method of manufacturing pre-fabricated building construction elements Expired - Lifetime GB2340531B (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9915079A GB2340531B (en) 1999-06-29 1999-06-29 Method of manufacturing pre-fabricated building construction elements

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9915079A GB2340531B (en) 1999-06-29 1999-06-29 Method of manufacturing pre-fabricated building construction elements

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GB2340531A true GB2340531A (en) 2000-02-23
GB2340531B GB2340531B (en) 2002-10-02

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL1026358C2 (en) * 2004-06-08 2005-12-09 Comfort Villa Nederland B V Method is for constructing a building and involves creation of a foundation and construction of floors, walls and/or roof
CN103114732A (en) * 2013-02-06 2013-05-22 陕西建工集团机械施工有限公司 Cast steel penetration pipe node space positioning method

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102535851A (en) * 2012-03-26 2012-07-04 郑州大学 Board integrated construction process of prefabricated floor board of masonry house
CN103821362B (en) * 2014-03-07 2015-10-28 中化二建集团有限公司 Outstanding beam-and-rail and roofing construction method for synchronously constructing

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL1026358C2 (en) * 2004-06-08 2005-12-09 Comfort Villa Nederland B V Method is for constructing a building and involves creation of a foundation and construction of floors, walls and/or roof
CN103114732A (en) * 2013-02-06 2013-05-22 陕西建工集团机械施工有限公司 Cast steel penetration pipe node space positioning method
CN103114732B (en) * 2013-02-06 2014-12-24 陕西建工集团机械施工有限公司 Cast steel penetration pipe node space positioning method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB9915079D0 (en) 1999-08-25
GB2340531B (en) 2002-10-02

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Expiry date: 20190628