GB2329633A - Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes - Google Patents

Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2329633A
GB2329633A GB9820822A GB9820822A GB2329633A GB 2329633 A GB2329633 A GB 2329633A GB 9820822 A GB9820822 A GB 9820822A GB 9820822 A GB9820822 A GB 9820822A GB 2329633 A GB2329633 A GB 2329633A
Authority
GB
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
microorganisms
membrane
electrification
metal
system
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9820822A
Other versions
GB9820822D0 (en )
Inventor
Junji Arisawa
Kazuyuki Kimura
Masakatsu Sano
Nobuo Katsuura
Osamu Igarashi
Atsushi Nakayama
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Nikko Kogyo KK
Original Assignee
Nikko Kogyo KK
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/06Lysis of microorganisms
    • C12N1/066Lysis of microorganisms by physical methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2/00Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor
    • A61L2/02Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor using physical phenomena
    • A61L2/03Electric current
    • A61L2/035Electrolysis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/467Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis by electrochemical disinfection; by electrooxydation or by electroreduction
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N13/00Treatment of microorganisms or enzymes with electrical or wave energy, e.g. magnetism, sonic waves
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/10Processes for the isolation, preparation or purification of DNA or RNA
    • C12N15/1003Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples, e.g. pure separation or isolation methods; Conditions, buffers or apparatuses therefor
    • C12N15/1017Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples, e.g. pure separation or isolation methods; Conditions, buffers or apparatuses therefor by filtration, e.g. using filters, frits, membranes

Abstract

A sterilizing system comprises an electrode consisting of a metal membrane and a porous membrane, where the porous membrane coats or is coated with the metal membrane, and means for supplying electricity to the metal membrane so as to kill microorganisms by electrification. The porous membrane may be a porous resin, sintered metal or a hollow ceramic tube and preferably consists of hollow fibres formed into a flat membrane. In use, a solution containing microorganisms into introduced into the chamber containing the electrode and the microorganisms are preferably trapped in the porous membrane while electricity is supplied to the metal membrane. The microorganisms treated by this system include cryptosporidium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophilia and E. Coli. The system may be used for recovering genes whereby destruction of E. Coli cells using the electrode allows genes to be selectively extracted from the cellular contents thus produced.

Description

STERILIZING SYSTEM, AND SYSTEM FOR RECOVERING GENES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a sterilizing system, and a system for recovering genes from specific microorganisms.

2. Descripian of tbe Re1ated Art There has been much discussicn recently on the adverse effects of pathogenic microorganisms. A first problem is the presence of microorganisms that contaminate kuman drinking water.

Cryptosporidium, a protozoan that causes severe diarrhea and cramps in humans by infection through water and food, contaminates tap water sources and the like. Unfortunately, chorine-based sterilization is not effective against this protozoan. Chemicals with greater bactericidal effects than chlorine-based bactericides cannot be used in water sources.

A second problem is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which causes hospital infection or opportunistic infection. Psaudomonas aeruginosa is also a source of infection in building reservoirs, with the risk of infecting humans through air conditioning or building dr nking water. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is resistant to drugs.

A third problem is Legionella pneumophila, which is a source of infection in continuous household baths. Legionella pnewnophiia is a cause of pneumonia. Despite talk of the use cf ultraviolet rays to control the proliferation of this bacterium, it cannot be considered a satisfactory method of sterilization.

A fourth problem is pathogenic E. coli, particularly 0-157, which causes food poisoning. The identification of the source of infection in food poisoning is indispensable to its prevention.

Genetic analysis of 0-157 is essential to identifying the route of infection. Japanese Unexamined Patent Application 9-178752 is an example of genetic analysis.

Onlorine-based bactericides are primarily used to prevent microorganlsms which contaminate drinking water from adversely affecting humans. However, Cryptosporidium and the like are resistant to such bactericides.

Efforts have been made to kill Legionelia pneumophila using ultraviolet rays to avoid the adverse effects which the use of chemicals can have on humans. However, a problem is that the aforementioned microorganisms cannot be sufficiently eradicated without the use of chemicals having considerable bactericidal effects.

Because the detection of bacteria by genetic analysis is a method of chemical analysis using enzymes in the conventional examples noted above, the system of analysis can become contaminated, resuiting in poor analytical precision. C:nemical treatments are also time-consuming.

In Japanese Unexanined Patent Application 9-37763, the present applicant proposed recovering intracellular genes by destroying the cells of microorgacisms without the use of chemical components such as enzymes. However, this method is not considered a sufficiently quick and accurate method of genetic analysis for bacteria causing food poisoning, which require fast genetic identification, in order to rapidly ascertain the route of infection.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is te provide a system which allows the adverse effects of various pathogenic microorganisms to be eliminated by simple operations.

Specifically, the invention is intended te provide an effective system of sterilization against microorganisms that contaminate drinking water, without the use of chemicals. The invention is also intended to provide a system for killing Pseudoinonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila without the use of chemicals.

The invention is furthermore intended to provide a nucleic acid detecting system for the rapid and highly accurate genetic analysis of bacteria causing food poisoning.

To achieve these objects, the present invention is characterized by comprising electrification means having a metal membrane coated with a porous membrane, a power source for the electrification means, ar.d supply means for supplying microorganisms to the electrification means, the microorganisms being a source of contamination for drinking water, and the electrification means serving as an electrode to provide electricity from the power source to the microorganisms to kill the microorganisms.

The microorganisms are, in particular, the aforementioned Cryptosporidium, Pseudomonas aeruXinosa, Legionel lapnerumophila, and pathogenic Escharchi'a coli.

The porous membrane comprises commercially available hollow fibers, flat membranes of such hollow fibers made into the fcrm cf a flat membrane, particularly those made of porous resin, ceramic hollow tubes, sintered tubes, and the like. The method disclosed in the aforementioned Japanese Unexamined Patent Application 9-37763 should be used to coat the metal with a porous resin. As noted in this report, the porous resin and metal should be chemically bonded. This allows more metal to be coated with the porous resin.

Electrification is essential in the present invention. The bactericidal effects are believed to be greater than those o electrodes consisting only of a metal sheet because the electrification takes place as the microorganisms are trapped in fihe porous material. There is a considerable difference in the rate of sterilizationbetween cases with electrification and cases without electrification.

In this sterilization system, the membrane structure of the microorganisms is destroyed in the course cf electrification, allowing the nucleic acids which are the cellular contents tc be obtained. The use 0 such nucleic ac4d for genetic analysis allows .he genes of pathogenic E. ccli to be identified, and the route of infection to thus be analyzed. In the conventional Japanese Unexamined Patent Application 9-178752 described earlier, enzymes were used to destroy the membrane structure of the cells, and a resulting problem was that a long time was needed for analysis when the system of analysis became contaminated.

Examples of configurations for such electrificarlon include pulse electrification, direct current electrification, alternating current electrification, and impulse electrification.

The examples below will show that direct current electrificafion is effective. It has also been indicated in Japanese Unexamined Patent Application 9-37763 that pulse electrification effectively destroys bacterial cells.

GRIEF DESQIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Fig. 1 illustrates the steps for manufacturing the flat membrane coated with metal which is used in the present invention; Fig. 2 is a diagram of properties, showing the results of sterilization against Pseudomonas aerusincsai Fig. 3 illustrates the steps in Exat.ple 1; :ig. 4 is a diagram of properties, showing the test results for Legioneija pneumophila; Fig. 5 is a diagram of the properties of electrophoresis patterns based on the results of a test for recovering ger.es from pathogenic E. coli; and Fig. 6 is an illustration of steps for comparing the time needed in a method for the chemical extraction of genes and a method of extraction using the system of te present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A sterilization system for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a first embodiment of the present invention is described below.

System Structure: A flat membrane comprising porous polypropylene resin (p120UA-04F, by Tonen Pirusu) was coated with silver using the method in section [ 0043 ] in Japanese Unexamined Patent Application 9-37763. As indicatedin Fig. 1, this was cut to 4 cm2, and lead wires were secured to the conductive flat membrane With low melting point solder and epoxy resin. The membran2 was then washed for 10 min at 3000 rpm using 3 mL of distilled water.

The conductive flat membrane was washed for 1C min in ethyl alcohol and then for 10 min in 100 mL distilled water, it was then dried, and it was then affixed with a cap to the open end of a container. The conductive flat membrane had an electrical resistance of 0.3 n.

Microorganisms Used: Steri1ization tests were conducted using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tegicnella pneumophila serogroup 1. The Legionella pneumophila used in the test was isolated from cooling water in building air conditions, and was identified as serogroup 1 based cn the biochemical description and serclogical analysis.

Method of Sterilization: 1 mL of bacterial solution adjusted tc a constant cell cown was placed on the conductive flat membrane, and the bacteria were trapped in the membrane by centrifugation. Physiological saline was then added in the form of drops to prevent drying, and 1 A of current was applied for 1C min. Following the conclusion cf eletrification, the membrane was turned over, 1 m.L of physiological saline was placed on the reverse side, and the bacteria trapped in the membrane were forcibly removed from the membrane and recovered. As a control, membranes were prepared with only electrification, and the cells recovered from the membrane were counted rest Results: The test results are given in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the steps of the test procedure. The tables in Fig. 2 give the results of sterilization in terms of the level of current applied in each case. The expression "no current" means that only electrification was omitted after the bacterial cells had been trapped in the membrane, whereas the tables also give the various levels of electrification for those cases in which electrification treatment was carried out. The initial cell count is the cell count of the bacterial solutions placed on the membranes, the cell count of the filtrate is the cell count after the solution had been passed through the membrane, and the captured cell count is the difference of the cell count of the filtrate from the initial cell count. The effects of electrification can be calculated by the recovery cell ccunts in the tables. The recovery cell counts are the cell counts cf the solutions in which the cells in the membranes were forcibly removed by centrifugtion after the celis had been trapped In the membranes, the membranes had then been turned over, and physiological saline had been placed on the reverse.

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was adjusted in the following manner. Cells were pre-incubated overnight in ampules (3 mL).

They were washed twice using a centrifuge. The cells were resuspended in 3 mL physiological saline to prepare Pseudomonas aeuginosa suspensions (lO to 109 CFU/nL).

The results in Fig. 2 show that the effects of electrification on Pseudomonas aeruginosa using 750 mz DC resulted only in about a 258 reduction compared to groups with no electrification, whereas 1A current reduced the cell count to as low as .03 compared to the groups with no electrification. These results make it clear that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cannot be readily killed with conventional antibiotics or a variety of other chemicals such as chemotherapeutic agents, can be killed in a short Deriod of time without using such chemicals. Electrification of at least 750 mA is thus deslrable.

Embodiment 2 Sterilization tests against Legicnella pneumophila were carried out by the same method as in Embodiment 1.

Fig. 4 shows the results of the sterilization tests. Based on the test results, only about 107 cells could be recovered even when the cells were forcibly recovered by centrifugation after 1057 cells had been trapped, so the flat conductive membranes were highly effective in trapping the cells. lectrification is effective against bacterial cells because of the high trapping prcperties of the conductive flat membrane. It may thus be seen that Legionella pneumophila could be killed by electrification treatment because the recovered cell count was further reduced to about 1/100 by electrification treatment, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionelia pneumophila were difficult to eradicate in the past, but such cells can be effectively killed with this system.

embodiment 3 Genes were extracted from pathogenic E. coli (Escherichia coli serotype 0-157) according to sections [ 0043 ] through [ OC58 in Japanese Unexamned Patent ApplIcation 9-377E3 The genes that had been obtained were then amplified by PCs using Progene by Techno. The resulting genes were electrophoresed to obtain electrophoresis patterns. Fig. 5 shows the patterns.

In Fig. S, ((1)) isagenemarker (gene for findingverotoxin) ((2)) is the target gene (verotoxin-producing gene). ((3)) is the gene pattern obtained by chemical extraction with 109 cell/mL (using "Instagene, " a reagent for DNA purificaticn and recovery by Bio-Rad). ((4)) is a 1/10 chemical extraction methcd (10' cell/m > ). ((5)) is extraction without electrification. ((6)), ((r)), ((8)), and ((9)) are the results for genes extracted with electrification under conditions involving electrification of 100 mA, 100 mA, 300 mA, and 500 mA (103 cells/mL for both electriied and non-electried). Bands that appear white in the white lines are for the valerotoxin gene.

The details of the method for chemical extraction are given below. (1) Samples were washed with. phosphate-buffered physiological saline and concentrated. (2i The samples were resuspended in distilled water. (3) Instagene was added to the samples, and they were incubated for 30 minutes at 56 C. At this stage, the cell enzymes were destroyed and the genes aggregated.

(4) The samples were heated for 8 min at 100 C tc thermally denature the enzymes or other proteins and allow the genes to aggregate.

(5) The material was thoroughly mixed to produce PCR samples.

As is clear in Fig. 5, no bands showed up in samples that were not electrified, whereas bands did show up in those that were electrified, confirming the isolation of the 0-157 gene.

Patterns for contaminants showed up above and outside the bands (target gene) in the method of chemical extraction This did not show up in the electrified samples. Genes could thus be extracted in a curer state by electrification than by chemical extracticn.

Tig. 6 is an illustration of steps for comparing the time needed to recover genes in the method of gene extraction using electrification and the time needed to recover genes in the method of chemical extraction. The time needed tie complete gene recovery in the former was about half the time needed in the latter. That is, the cell pre-incubation and cell harvest took about the same amount of time in both, but the cells were completely destroyed in about 12 min in the former, whereas more than an hour was needed in the latter.

There were also considerable differences between the two in terms of the time needed in the pre-incubation for gene extraction.

That is, because the former is a method for the recovery and extraction of genes with high purity or high yields, the number of cells that are needed can be no more than 1/10 that of the latter.

Samples with a cell count of about 108 cells/mL are needed for 16 hours of pre-incubation in the latter method. Because the former method may have 1/10 or less cf that, the pre-incubation may be no more than l hour. That is, nearly 17 hours are needed from the pre-incubation of the cells to the extraction of the genes in the latter method, whereas no more than 2 hours are needed in the former method.

Ultimately, unlike the latter method of chemical extraction, the former method is a method of gene extraction that is siT.p1er and faster, with higher purity and yields. Since fewer chemical components are used than in the latter method, there is that much less opportunity for contunination, allowing genes of higher purity to be obtained.

Although flat membranes were used in Enbodments 1 and 2 above, membranes of hollow fibers coated with metal may also be used.

The structure of the apparatus used to realize the system of the present invention is described below using Fig, 7. In Fig.

7, the symbol 10 indicates 2 container housing hollow fibers coated wth metal. The symbol 12 indicates hollow fibers coated with metal. The symbol 12A indicates the space between the hollow fibers. Both ends of the hollow fibers are fixed to ametal support 14. The support serves as a contact when electricity is supclied to the metal coating of the hollow fibers. The symbol 16 is an adhesive for fixing the contact to the hous:ng.

The symbol 18 is a power source. Electricity is supplied from the power source to the aforementioned contact The symbol 2C is a voltmeter and the symbol 22 is an ampere meter. Openings for supplying the liquid to be treated in the container are provided at both ends of the container facing the aforementIoned contacts. The openings are indicated by 50 and 52. Similar openings 54 and 56 are provided on the sides of the container.

Openings 50 and 52 pass only through the two ends of the hollow fibers. Openings 54 and 56 pass through only the space between the hollow fibers.

Tubes forming passages thrcugh which liquids flow are conr.ected tc these openings. The tube structure is depicted in Fig. 7. The part where the tubes intersect shows that the liquid flows in both directions in the intersecting part.

Symbols 24, 26, 28, 30, and 40 each ir.dicate a valve. The valves are each placed in either an open or closed state. In the figure, "open" indicates that the corresponding valve is in an open state, allowing liquid te pass through. Conversely, "closed" indicates that the valve is in a closed state. A iegend indicating whether a valve is open or closed appears to the side of the valve. In the figure, the legends that are not in parentheses indicate whether or not the valves are open or closed when the liquid contra zing the microorgan-.sms is sent through the container for sterilization. The legends inparentheses indicate whether the valves are open or closed when the hollow fibers are washed following the conclusion of the sterilization treatment.

when a solution is to be sterilized, the solution that is to be treated is introduced from the location indicated by "IN" in the figure. The solution passes through valves 24 and 26 to openings 54 and 56, respectively. The solution supplied rom the openings passes through the side walls of the hollow fibers into the interior of the hollow fibers, and then through the opening 52 and the valve 40 into a recovery container 42. During ths step, the solution comes into contact with the metal coating the hollow fibers. The microorganisms in the solution are electrified by the metal at this tine. As z result, the undesirable microorganisms in the solution are killed or attenuated.

The porous material of the hollow fibers must be periodically washed because it becones clogged. In such cases, purified water is niroduced from IN as the valves are cut into the stated indicated in parentheses, The purified water at this time passes through the valve 2S, through the opening 50, from the top end cf the hollow fibers, into the intericr of the hollow fibers.

Because the opening 52 is closed at this time, the purified water passes from inside the hollow fibers, through the side walls of the hollow fibers, and into the opening 56, and it is then discharged through the valve 30.

As described abcve, the present invention makes it possible to provide a system that allows the adverse effects caused by various pathogenic nicroorganisms to be eliminated by simple operations. That is, the invention provides a sterilization system that is effective against microorganisms contaminating drinking water without the use of chemicals. The invention also provides a system for killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Leglor,ella pneumoshe ?2 without the use of chemicals. The invention furthermore provides a nucleic acid detecting system for the rapid and highly accurate genetic analysis o bacteria causing food poisoning.

Claims (1)

  1. What Is Claimed Is:
    1. A system comprising: electrification means having a metal membrane coated with a porous membrane; a power source for the electrification means; supply means for supplying microorganisms to said electrification means, said microorganIsms being a source of contamination for drinking water, and said electrification means serving as an electrode to provide eletricity from said power source to the microorganisms to kill the microorganisms.
    2. The system according to Claim. 1, wherein said mlcroorgarisms are at least one of Cryptosporidium, Pseudomonas aeruqinosa, Legionella pneurncphila, and pathogenic Escherichia coli.
    2. A system comprising: electrification means having a metal membrane coated with a porous membrane; a power source for the electrification means; supply means for supplying microorgan.sms to said electrification means, said microorganlsms being at least one bacterium from among Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and pathogenic Escherichia coli; and said electrification means serving as an electrode to provide electricity from said power source to the microorganisms to kill the microorganisms.
    4. The system according to Claim 1 or 3, wherein said electrification means provides direct current to said microorganisms.
    5. The system according to Claim 1 or 3, wherein said electrification means provides electricity while said microorganisms are trapped in the porcus membrane.
    6. The system according to Claim 1 or 3, wherein said metal is chemically bonded te the porous resin constituting said porous membrane.
    7. A system for recovering genes, ccnpsis~rg: electrification means having a metal membrane coated wih a porous membrane; a power source for the electrification means; and supply means for supplying pathogenic E. coli to said electrification means, said electrification means serving as an electrode to provide electricity from.sa-dpowersource to the microorganisms to destroy said E. coli cells, thereby allowing genes to be selectively extracted from The cellular contents thus produced.
    8. A method for applying microorganisms which are a source of contamination in drinking water to the porous membrane with which. the metal has been coated, and then providing electricity from the power source to said metal membrane, so as to kill said microorganisms.
    9. The method according to Claim 8, wherein said microorganisms are at least one of Cryptosporidium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella preuznobrlila, and pathogenic Escherichia coli.
    10. The system according to Claim 7, wherein said porous membrane is a porous resin membrane.
    11. The method according to Claim a, wherein said porous membrane is a porous resin membrane.
GB9820822A 1997-09-24 1998-09-24 Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes Withdrawn GB9820822D0 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP25881697A JPH1189567A (en) 1997-09-24 1997-09-24 System for sterilizing microorganism and gene recovery system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB9820822D0 GB9820822D0 (en) 1998-11-18
GB2329633A true true GB2329633A (en) 1999-03-31

Family

ID=17325448

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB9820822A Withdrawn GB9820822D0 (en) 1997-09-24 1998-09-24 Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes

Country Status (2)

Country Link
JP (1) JPH1189567A (en)
GB (1) GB9820822D0 (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002076589A1 (en) * 2001-03-23 2002-10-03 Fuma-Tech Gmbh Filter used in the provision of substantially germ-free water
WO2005083078A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2005-09-09 Thomsen Bioscience A/S Method, chip, device and system for extraction of biological materials
WO2006002769A2 (en) * 2004-06-30 2006-01-12 Scheller, Albert Hollow fibre and the use thereof
US7892794B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-02-22 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and integrated system for detection biological particles
US7932024B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-04-26 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and system for collection of biological particles

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP4549084B2 (en) * 2004-03-19 2010-09-22 功一 中山 Biological material collection plate
CN103951118B (en) * 2014-04-12 2016-01-13 大连双迪科技股份有限公司 Water Business

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2254340A (en) * 1991-03-01 1992-10-07 Nikko Kogyo Kk Metal coated porous resin membrane.
EP0577026A2 (en) * 1992-06-29 1994-01-05 Yoshiaki Nagaura Filtration method and filter device

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2254340A (en) * 1991-03-01 1992-10-07 Nikko Kogyo Kk Metal coated porous resin membrane.
EP0577026A2 (en) * 1992-06-29 1994-01-05 Yoshiaki Nagaura Filtration method and filter device

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
WPI Abstract Accession Number 95-018416 and JP06304454 *
WPI Abstract Accession Number 96-015617 and JP07289854 *
WPI Abstract Accession Number 96-459414 and JP08229110 *

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002076589A1 (en) * 2001-03-23 2002-10-03 Fuma-Tech Gmbh Filter used in the provision of substantially germ-free water
EP1747811A1 (en) * 2001-03-23 2007-01-31 FuMA-Tech Gesellschaft für funktionelle Membranen und Anlagetechnologie mbH Filter for the production of substantially germ-free water
WO2005083078A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2005-09-09 Thomsen Bioscience A/S Method, chip, device and system for extraction of biological materials
US7892794B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-02-22 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and integrated system for detection biological particles
US7932024B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-04-26 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and system for collection of biological particles
US7985540B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-07-26 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and system for extraction of biological materials
WO2006002769A2 (en) * 2004-06-30 2006-01-12 Scheller, Albert Hollow fibre and the use thereof
WO2006002769A3 (en) * 2004-06-30 2008-12-24 Scheller Albert Hollow fibre and the use thereof

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JPH1189567A (en) 1999-04-06 application
GB9820822D0 (en) 1998-11-18 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5705050A (en) Electrolytic process and apparatus for the controlled oxidation and reduction of inorganic and organic species in aqueous solutions
US5932171A (en) Sterilization apparatus utilizing catholyte and anolyte solutions produced by electrolysis of water
Puleo et al. Use of ultrasonic energy in assessing microbial contamination on surfaces
US7081225B1 (en) Methods and apparatus for disinfecting and sterilizing fluid using ultraviolet radiation
US20040234966A1 (en) Ionic liquid apparatus and method for biological samples
Rutala et al. New disinfection and sterilization methods.
US6117285A (en) System for carrying out sterilization of equipment
US5593554A (en) Electrolytic ionized water producing apparatus
US7144496B2 (en) Biological fluid analysis device
US4216185A (en) Method and apparatus for purging disinfecting high purity water distribution systems
Wood et al. Changes in DNA base sequence induced by targeted mutagenesis of lambda phage by ultraviolet light
US7147785B2 (en) Electrodeionization device and methods of use
US20070108056A1 (en) Electrochemical ion exchange treatment of fluids
Cserhalmi et al. Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus cereus by pulsed electric fields technology
US20070141434A1 (en) Sanitizing Device and Associated Method Using Electrochemically Produced Sanitizing Agents
US6007686A (en) System for elctrolyzing fluids for use as antimicrobial agents
Schulze-Röbbecke et al. Mycobacteria in biofilms.
US7135195B2 (en) Treatment of humans with colloidal silver composition
Nguyen et al. Inactivation of naturally occurring microorganisms in tomato juice using pulsed electric field (PEF) with and without antimicrobials
Choi et al. Analysis of sterilization effect by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge
US5741539A (en) Shelf-stable liquid egg
US20050121334A1 (en) Method and apparatus for producting negative and positive oxidative reductive potential (orp) water
Barbosa‐Canovas et al. Pulsed electric fields
JP2002355074A (en) Nucleic acid molecule and polypeptide specific to enteropathogenic escherichia coli o157:h7 and method for using the same
US20020056634A1 (en) Capacitive electrostatic process for inhibiting the formation of biofilm deposits in membrane-separtion systems

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
WAP Application withdrawn, taken to be withdrawn or refused ** after publication under section 16(1)