GB2329633A - Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes - Google Patents

Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2329633A
GB2329633A GB9820822A GB9820822A GB2329633A GB 2329633 A GB2329633 A GB 2329633A GB 9820822 A GB9820822 A GB 9820822A GB 9820822 A GB9820822 A GB 9820822A GB 2329633 A GB2329633 A GB 2329633A
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lt
rti
electrification
membrane
microorganisms
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GB9820822D0 (en )
Inventor
Junji Arisawa
Kazuyuki Kimura
Masakatsu Sano
Nobuo Katsuura
Osamu Igarashi
Atsushi Nakayama
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Nikko Kogyo KK
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Nikko Kogyo KK
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N1/00Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor
    • C12N1/06Lysis of microorganisms
    • C12N1/066Lysis of microorganisms by physical methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2/00Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor
    • A61L2/02Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor using physical phenomena
    • A61L2/03Electric current
    • A61L2/035Electrolysis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/467Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis by electrochemical disinfection; by electrooxydation or by electroreduction
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N13/00Treatment of microorganisms or enzymes with electrical or wave energy, e.g. magnetism, sonic waves
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12NMICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
    • C12N15/00Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor
    • C12N15/09Recombinant DNA-technology
    • C12N15/10Processes for the isolation, preparation or purification of DNA or RNA
    • C12N15/1003Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples, e.g. pure separation or isolation methods; Conditions, buffers or apparatuses therefor
    • C12N15/1017Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples, e.g. pure separation or isolation methods; Conditions, buffers or apparatuses therefor by filtration, e.g. using filters, frits, membranes

Abstract

A sterilizing system comprises an electrode consisting of a metal membrane and a porous membrane, where the porous membrane coats or is coated with the metal membrane, and means for supplying electricity to the metal membrane so as to kill microorganisms by electrification. The porous membrane may be a porous resin, sintered metal or a hollow ceramic tube and preferably consists of hollow fibres formed into a flat membrane. In use, a solution containing microorganisms into introduced into the chamber containing the electrode and the microorganisms are preferably trapped in the porous membrane while electricity is supplied to the metal membrane. The microorganisms treated by this system include cryptosporidium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophilia and E. Coli. The system may be used for recovering genes whereby destruction of E. Coli cells using the electrode allows genes to be selectively extracted from the cellular contents thus produced.

Description

STERILIZING SYSTEM, AND SYSTEM FOR RECOVERING GENES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a sterilizing system, and a system for recovering genes from specific microorganisms.

2. <RTI> Descripian of tbe Re1ated Art</RTI> There has been much <RTI>discussicn</RTI> recently on the adverse effects of pathogenic microorganisms. A first problem is the presence of microorganisms that <RTI>contaminate</RTI> kuman drinking water.

Cryptosporidium, a protozoan that causes severe <RTI>diarrhea</RTI> and cramps in humans by infection through water and food, contaminates tap water sources and the like. Unfortunately, chorine-based sterilization is not effective against <RTI>this protozoan.</RTI> Chemicals with greater bactericidal effects <RTI>than</RTI> chlorine-based bactericides cannot be used in water sources.

A second problem is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, <RTI>which</RTI> causes hospital infection or opportunistic infection. <RTI>Psaudomonas</RTI> aeruginosa is also a source of infection in building reservoirs, with the risk of infecting humans through air conditioning or building <RTI>dr nking water.</RTI> Pseudomonas <RTI>aeruginosa</RTI> is resistant to drugs.

A third problem is Legionella pneumophila, which is a source of infection in continuous <RTI>household</RTI> baths. Legionella <RTI>pnewnophiia</RTI> is a cause of pneumonia. Despite talk of the use <RTI>cf</RTI> ultraviolet rays to control the proliferation of this bacterium, it cannot be considered a satisfactory method of sterilization.

A fourth problem is pathogenic E. coli, particularly 0-157, which causes food poisoning. The identification of the source of infection in food poisoning is indispensable to its prevention.

Genetic analysis of 0-157 is essential to identifying the route of infection. Japanese Unexamined Patent Application 9-178752 is an example of genetic analysis.

<RTI>Onlorine-based</RTI> bactericides are primarily used to prevent <RTI>microorganlsms</RTI> which contaminate drinking water from adversely affecting humans. However, <RTI>Cryptosporidium</RTI> and the like are resistant to such <RTI>bactericides.</RTI>

Efforts have been made to kill <RTI>Legionelia</RTI> pneumophila using ultraviolet rays to avoid the adverse effects which the use of chemicals can have on humans. However, a problem is that the aforementioned microorganisms cannot be sufficiently eradicated without the use of chemicals having considerable bactericidal effects.

Because the detection of bacteria by genetic analysis is a method of chemical analysis using enzymes in the conventional <RTI>examples</RTI> noted above, the system of analysis can become contaminated, resuiting in poor analytical precision. <RTI>C:nemical</RTI> treatments are also <RTI>time-consuming.</RTI>

In Japanese <RTI>Unexanined</RTI> Patent Application <RTI>9-37763,</RTI> the present applicant proposed recovering intracellular genes by destroying the cells <RTI>of microorgacisms</RTI> without the use of chemical components such as enzymes. However, this method is not considered a sufficiently quick and accurate method of genetic analysis for bacteria causing <RTI>food poisoning,</RTI> which require fast genetic identification, in order to rapidly ascertain the route of infection.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is <RTI>te</RTI> provide a system <RTI>which</RTI> allows the adverse effects of various pathogenic microorganisms to be eliminated by simple operations.

Specifically, the invention is intended <RTI>te</RTI> provide an effective system of sterilization against <RTI>microorganisms</RTI> that contaminate drinking water, without the use of <RTI>chemicals.</RTI> The invention is also intended to provide a system for <RTI>killing</RTI> <RTI>Pseudoinonas</RTI> aeruginosa and Legionella <RTI>pneumophila</RTI> without the use of chemicals.

The invention is furthermore intended to provide a nucleic acid detecting system for the rapid and highly accurate genetic analysis of bacteria causing food poisoning.

To achieve these objects, the present invention is characterized by comprising electrification means having a metal membrane coated with a porous membrane, a power source for the electrification means, ar.d supply means for supplying microorganisms to the electrification means, the microorganisms being a source of contamination for drinking water, <RTI>and</RTI> the electrification means serving as an electrode to <RTI>provide</RTI> electricity from the power source to the <RTI>microorganisms</RTI> to kill the microorganisms.

The microorganisms are, in particular, the aforementioned <RTI>Cryptosporidium,</RTI> Pseudomonas <RTI>aeruXinosa,</RTI> <RTI>Legionel lapnerumophila,</RTI> and pathogenic <RTI>Escharchi'a</RTI> coli.

The porous membrane comprises commercially available hollow fibers, flat membranes of such hollow fibers made into the <RTI>fcrm</RTI> <RTI>cf</RTI> a flat membrane, particularly those made of porous resin, ceramic hollow tubes, sintered tubes, and the like. The method disclosed in the aforementioned Japanese <RTI>Unexamined</RTI> Patent Application 9-37763 should be used to coat the metal with a porous resin. As noted in this report, the porous resin and metal should be chemically bonded. This allows more metal to be coated with the porous resin.

<RTI>Electrification</RTI> is essential in the present invention. The bactericidal effects are believed to be greater than those o electrodes consisting only of a metal sheet because the electrification takes place as the microorganisms are trapped in <RTI>fihe</RTI> porous material. There is a considerable difference in the <RTI>rate of sterilizationbetween</RTI> cases with electrification and cases without electrification.

In this sterilization system, the membrane structure of the microorganisms is destroyed in the course <RTI>cf</RTI> electrification, allowing the nucleic acids which are the cellular contents tc be obtained. <RTI>The use 0 such nucleic ac4d for</RTI> genetic analysis allows <RTI>.he</RTI> genes of pathogenic E. ccli to be identified, and the route of infection to thus be analyzed. In the <RTI>conventional</RTI> Japanese Unexamined Patent Application <RTI>9-178752</RTI> described earlier, enzymes were used to destroy the membrane structure of the cells, and a resulting problem was that a long time was needed for analysis when the system of analysis became contaminated.

Examples of configurations for such <RTI>electrificarlon</RTI> include pulse electrification, direct current <RTI>electrification,</RTI> alternating current electrification, and impulse electrification.

The examples below will show that direct current <RTI>electrificafion</RTI> is effective. It has also been indicated in Japanese Unexamined Patent Application 9-37763 that pulse electrification effectively destroys bacterial cells.

GRIEF <RTI>DESQIPTION</RTI> OF THE DRAWINGS Fig. 1 illustrates the steps for <RTI>manufacturing</RTI> the flat membrane coated with metal which is used in the present invention; Fig. 2 is a diagram of properties, showing the results of sterilization against Pseudomonas <RTI>aerusincsai</RTI> Fig. 3 illustrates the steps in <RTI>Exat.ple</RTI> 1; <RTI>:ig.</RTI> 4 is a diagram of properties, showing the test results for <RTI>Legioneija</RTI> pneumophila; Fig. 5 is a diagram of the properties of <RTI>electrophoresis</RTI> patterns based on the results of a test for recovering ger.es from pathogenic E. coli; and Fig. 6 is an illustration of steps for comparing the time needed in a method for <RTI>the chemical extraction of genes</RTI> and a method of extraction using the system of <RTI>te</RTI> present invention.

<RTI>DESCRIPTION</RTI> OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A sterilization system for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a first embodiment of the present invention is described below.

System Structure: A flat membrane comprising porous polypropylene resin <RTI>(p120UA-04F,</RTI> by Tonen Pirusu) was coated with silver using the method in section [ 0043 ] in Japanese Unexamined Patent <RTI> Application 9-37763. As indicatedin Fig. 1, this was cut to 4 cm2,</RTI> and lead wires were secured to the conductive flat membrane With low melting point solder and epoxy resin. The <RTI>membran2</RTI> was then washed for 10 min at 3000 rpm using 3 mL of distilled water.

The conductive flat membrane was washed for <RTI>1C</RTI> min in ethyl alcohol and then for 10 min in 100 mL distilled water, it was then dried, and it was then affixed with a cap to the open end of a container. The conductive flat membrane had an electrical resistance of 0.3 <RTI>n.</RTI>

Microorganisms Used: <RTI>Steri1ization</RTI> tests were conducted using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and <RTI>tegicnella</RTI> pneumophila serogroup 1. The Legionella pneumophila used in the test was isolated from cooling water in building air conditions, and was identified as serogroup 1 based cn the biochemical description and <RTI>serclogical</RTI> analysis.

Method of Sterilization: 1 mL of bacterial solution adjusted tc a constant cell <RTI>cown</RTI> was placed on the conductive flat membrane, and the bacteria were trapped in the membrane by centrifugation. Physiological saline was then added in the form of drops to prevent drying, and 1 A of current was applied for 1C min. Following the conclusion <RTI>cf</RTI> <RTI>eletrification,</RTI> the <RTI>membrane</RTI> was turned over, 1 <RTI>m.L</RTI> of physiological saline was placed on the reverse side, and the bacteria trapped in the membrane were forcibly removed from the membrane and recovered. As a control, <RTI>membranes</RTI> were prepared with only electrification, and the cells recovered from the membrane were counted rest Results: The test results are given in Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the steps of the test procedure. The tables in Fig. 2 give the results of sterilization in terms of the level of current applied in each case. The expression "no current" means that <RTI> only</RTI> electrification was omitted after the bacterial cells had been trapped in the membrane, whereas the tables also give the various <RTI> levels of electrification for those cases in which electrification</RTI> <RTI>treatment</RTI> was carried out. The initial cell count is the cell count of the bacterial solutions placed on the membranes, the cell count of the filtrate is the cell count after the solution had been passed through the membrane, and the captured cell count is the difference of the cell count of the filtrate from the initial cell count. The effects of electrification can be calculated by the recovery cell <RTI>ccunts</RTI> in the tables. The recovery cell counts are the cell counts <RTI>cf</RTI> the solutions in <RTI>which</RTI> the cells in the membranes were forcibly removed by <RTI>centrifugtion</RTI> after the celis had been trapped <RTI>In</RTI> the membranes, the membranes had then been turned over, and physiological saline had been placed on the reverse.

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was adjusted in the following manner. Cells were pre-incubated overnight in <RTI>ampules</RTI> (3 <RTI>mL).</RTI>

They were washed twice using a centrifuge. The cells were resuspended in 3 mL physiological saline to prepare Pseudomonas <RTI>aeuginosa</RTI> suspensions <RTI>(lO</RTI> to <RTI>109</RTI> CFU/nL).

The results <RTI>in Fig. 2</RTI> show that the effects of electrification on Pseudomonas aeruginosa using 750 <RTI>mz DC</RTI> resulted only in about a <RTI>258</RTI> reduction compared to groups with no electrification, whereas 1A current reduced the cell count to as low as <RTI>.03</RTI> compared to the groups with no electrification. These results make it clear that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cannot be readily killed with conventional antibiotics or a variety of <RTI>other</RTI> chemicals such as <RTI>chemotherapeutic agents,</RTI> can be killed in a short Deriod of time without using such chemicals. Electrification of at least 750 mA is thus <RTI>deslrable.</RTI>

Embodiment 2 Sterilization tests against Legicnella pneumophila were carried out by the same method as in Embodiment 1.

Fig. 4 shows the results of the sterilization tests. Based on the test results, only about <RTI>107</RTI> cells could be recovered even when the cells were forcibly recovered by centrifugation after <RTI>1057</RTI> cells had been trapped, so the flat conductive membranes were highly effective in trapping the cells. <RTI>lectrification</RTI> is effective against bacterial cells because of the high trapping prcperties of the conductive flat <RTI>membrane.</RTI> It may thus be seen that <RTI>Legionella</RTI> pneumophila could be killed by electrification treatment because the recovered cell count <RTI>was</RTI> further reduced to about 1/100 by electrification <RTI>treatment,</RTI> Pseudomonas aeruginosa and <RTI>Legionelia pneumophila were</RTI> difficult to eradicate in the past, but such cells can be effectively killed with this system.

embodiment 3 Genes were extracted from pathogenic E. coli (Escherichia coli serotype 0-157) according to sections <RTI>[ 0043 ]</RTI> through <RTI>[ OC58</RTI> in Japanese <RTI>Unexamned</RTI> Patent <RTI>ApplIcation</RTI> <RTI>9-377E3</RTI> The genes that had been obtained were then amplified by <RTI>PCs</RTI> using Progene by <RTI>Techno.</RTI> The resulting genes were electrophoresed to obtain <RTI>electrophoresis patterns.</RTI> Fig. 5 shows the patterns.

In Fig. S, ((1)) <RTI>isagenemarker</RTI> (gene for <RTI>findingverotoxin)</RTI> ((2)) is the target gene (verotoxin-producing gene). ((3)) is the gene pattern obtained by chemical extraction with <RTI>109</RTI> cell/mL (using "Instagene, " a reagent for DNA <RTI>purificaticn</RTI> and recovery by Bio-Rad). ((4)) is a 1/10 chemical extraction <RTI>methcd</RTI> (10' <RTI>cell/m > ).</RTI> <RTI>((5))</RTI> is extraction without electrification. ((6)), <RTI>((r)),</RTI> ((8)), and ((9)) are the results for genes extracted with electrification under conditions involving electrification of 100 mA, 100 mA, 300 mA, and 500 mA <RTI>(103</RTI> cells/mL for both <RTI>electriied</RTI> and <RTI>non-electried).</RTI> Bands that appear white in the white lines are for the valerotoxin gene.

The details of the method for <RTI>chemical</RTI> extraction are given below. (1) Samples were washed with. phosphate-buffered physiological saline and concentrated. <RTI>(2i</RTI> The samples were resuspended in distilled water. (3) <RTI>Instagene</RTI> was added to the samples, and they were incubated for 30 minutes at 56 C. At this stage, the cell enzymes were destroyed and the genes <RTI>aggregated.</RTI>

(4) The samples were heated for 8 min at 100 C <RTI>tc thermally</RTI> denature the enzymes or other proteins and allow the genes to aggregate.

(5) The material was thoroughly mixed to produce PCR samples.

As is clear in Fig. 5, no bands showed up in samples that were not electrified, whereas bands did show up in those that were electrified, confirming the isolation of the 0-157 gene.

Patterns for contaminants showed up above and outside the bands (target gene) in the method of chemical extraction This did not show up in the electrified samples. Genes <RTI>could</RTI> thus be extracted in a curer state by electrification than by chemical <RTI>extracticn.</RTI>

Tig. 6 is an illustration of steps for comparing the time needed to recover genes in the method of gene extraction using <RTI>electrification</RTI> and the time needed to recover genes in the method of chemical extraction. The time <RTI>needed tie</RTI> <RTI>complete</RTI> gene recovery in the former was about half the time needed in the latter. That is, the cell pre-incubation and cell harvest took about the same amount of time in both, but the cells were completely destroyed in about 12 min in the former, whereas more than an hour was needed in the latter.

There were also considerable differences between the two <RTI>in</RTI> terms of the time needed <RTI>in the pre-incubation</RTI> for gene extraction.

That is, because the former is a method <RTI>for</RTI> the recovery and extraction of genes with high purity or high yields, the number of cells that are needed can be no more than 1/10 that of the latter.

Samples with a cell count of about <RTI>108</RTI> cells/mL are needed for 16 hours of pre-incubation in the latter method. Because the former method may have 1/10 or less <RTI>cf</RTI> that, the <RTI>pre-incubation</RTI> may be no more than <RTI>l</RTI> hour. That is, nearly 17 hours are needed from the <RTI>pre-incubation</RTI> of the cells to the extraction of the genes in the latter method, whereas no more than 2 hours are needed in the former method.

Ultimately, unlike the latter method of chemical extraction, the former method is a method of gene extraction that is <RTI>siT.p1er</RTI> and faster, with higher purity and yields. Since fewer chemical <RTI>components</RTI> are used than in the latter method, there is that much less opportunity for <RTI>contunination,</RTI> allowing genes of higher purity to be obtained.

Although flat membranes were used in <RTI>Enbodments</RTI> 1 and 2 above, <RTI>membranes</RTI> of hollow fibers coated with metal may also be used.

The structure of the apparatus used to realize the system of the present invention is described below using Fig, 7. In Fig.

7, the symbol 10 indicates 2 container housing <RTI>hollow</RTI> fibers coated <RTI>wth</RTI> metal. The <RTI>symbol</RTI> 12 indicates hollow fibers coated with metal. The symbol 12A <RTI>indicates</RTI> the space between the hollow fibers. Both ends of the hollow fibers are fixed to <RTI>ametal</RTI> support 14. The support serves as a contact when electricity is <RTI>supclied</RTI> to the metal coating of the hollow fibers. The symbol 16 is an adhesive for fixing the contact to the <RTI>hous:ng.</RTI>

The symbol 18 is a power source. Electricity is supplied from the power source to the aforementioned <RTI>contact</RTI> The symbol 2C is a voltmeter and the symbol 22 is an ampere meter. <RTI>Openings</RTI> for supplying the liquid to be treated in the container are provided at both ends of the container facing the <RTI>aforementIoned</RTI> contacts. The openings are indicated by 50 and 52. Similar openings 54 and 56 are provided on the sides of the <RTI>container.</RTI>

Openings 50 and 52 pass only through the two ends of the hollow fibers. Openings 54 and 56 pass through only the space between the hollow fibers.

Tubes forming passages thrcugh which liquids flow are conr.ected tc these openings. The tube structure is depicted in Fig. 7. The part where the tubes intersect <RTI>shows</RTI> that the liquid flows in both directions in the intersecting part.

Symbols 24, 26, 28, 30, and 40 each <RTI>ir.dicate</RTI> a valve. The valves are each placed in either an open or closed state. In the figure, "open" indicates that the <RTI>corresponding</RTI> valve is in an open state, allowing <RTI>liquid</RTI> <RTI>te</RTI> pass through. Conversely, "closed" indicates that the valve is in a closed state. A iegend <RTI>indicating</RTI> whether a valve is open or closed appears to the side of the valve. In the figure, the legends that are not in parentheses indicate whether or not the valves are open or closed when the liquid <RTI>contra zing</RTI> the <RTI>microorgan-.sms</RTI> is sent through the container for sterilization. The <RTI>legends inparentheses</RTI> indicate whether the valves are open or closed when the hollow fibers are washed following the conclusion of the sterilization treatment.

when a solution is to be sterilized, the solution that is to be treated is introduced from the location indicated by <RTI> "IN"</RTI> in the figure. The solution passes through valves 24 and 26 to openings 54 and 56, respectively. The solution supplied <RTI>rom</RTI> the openings passes through the side walls of the <RTI>hollow</RTI> fibers into the interior of the hollow fibers, and then <RTI>through</RTI> the opening 52 and the valve 40 into a recovery container 42. During <RTI>ths</RTI> step, the solution comes into contact with the <RTI>metal</RTI> coating the hollow fibers. The microorganisms in the solution are electrified by the metal at this tine. As z result, the undesirable microorganisms in the solution are killed <RTI> or</RTI> attenuated.

The porous material of the hollow fibers must be periodically washed because it becones clogged. In such cases, purified water is <RTI>niroduced</RTI> from IN as the valves are <RTI>cut</RTI> into the stated indicated in parentheses, The purified water at this time passes through the valve 2S, through the opening 50, from the top end <RTI>cf</RTI> the hollow fibers, into the intericr of the hollow fibers.

Because the opening 52 is closed at this time, the purified water passes from inside the hollow fibers, through the side walls of the hollow fibers, and into the opening 56, and it is <RTI>then</RTI> discharged through the valve 30.

As described <RTI>abcve,</RTI> the present invention makes it possible to provide a system that allows the adverse effects caused by <RTI>various</RTI> pathogenic <RTI>nicroorganisms</RTI> to be eliminated by simple operations. That is, the invention provides a sterilization system that is effective against microorganisms contaminating drinking water without the use of chemicals. The invention also provides a system for killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and <RTI>Leglor,ella</RTI> <RTI>pneumoshe ?2</RTI> without the use of chemicals. The invention furthermore provides a nucleic acid detecting system for the rapid and highly accurate genetic analysis <RTI>o</RTI> bacteria causing food poisoning.

Claims (1)

  1. What Is Claimed Is:
    1. A system comprising: electrification means having a metal membrane coated with a porous membrane; a power source for the electrification means; supply means for supplying microorganisms to said electrification means, said <RTI>microorganIsms</RTI> being a source of contamination for drinking water, and said electrification means serving as an electrode to provide <RTI>eletricity</RTI> from said power source to the microorganisms to kill the microorganisms.
    2. The system according to <RTI>Claim.</RTI> 1, wherein said <RTI>mlcroorgarisms</RTI> are at least one of Cryptosporidium, Pseudomonas <RTI>aeruqinosa,</RTI> <RTI>Legionella</RTI> <RTI>pneurncphila,</RTI> and pathogenic Escherichia coli.
    2. A system comprising: electrification means having a metal membrane coated with a porous membrane; a power source for the electrification means; supply means for supplying <RTI>microorgan.sms</RTI> to said electrification means, said <RTI>microorganlsms</RTI> being at least one bacterium from among Pseudomonas aeruginosa, <RTI>Legionella</RTI> pneumophila, and pathogenic Escherichia coli; and said electrification means serving as an electrode to provide electricity from said power source to the <RTI>microorganisms</RTI> to kill the microorganisms.
    4. The system according to Claim 1 or 3, wherein said electrification means provides direct current to said microorganisms.
    5. <RTI>The</RTI> system according to Claim 1 or 3, wherein said electrification means provides electricity while said microorganisms are trapped in the porcus <RTI>membrane.</RTI>
    6. The system according to Claim <RTI>1</RTI> or 3, wherein said metal is chemically bonded <RTI>te</RTI> the porous resin constituting said porous membrane.
    7. A system for recovering genes, <RTI>ccnpsis~rg:</RTI> electrification means having a metal <RTI>membrane</RTI> coated <RTI>wih</RTI> a porous membrane; a power source for the electrification means; and supply means for supplying pathogenic E. coli to said electrification means, said electrification means serving as an electrode to provide electricity <RTI>from.sa-dpowersource</RTI> to the microorganisms to destroy said E. coli cells, thereby allowing genes to be selectively extracted from The cellular contents thus produced.
    8. A method for applying microorganisms which are a source of contamination in drinking water to the porous <RTI>membrane</RTI> with which. the metal has been coated, and then providing electricity from the power source to said metal membrane, so as to kill said microorganisms.
    9. The method according to Claim 8, wherein said microorganisms are at least one of Cryptosporidium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, <RTI>Legionella</RTI> <RTI>preuznobrlila,</RTI> and pathogenic <RTI>Escherichia</RTI> coli.
    10. The system according to Claim 7, wherein said porous membrane is a <RTI>porous</RTI> resin membrane.
    11. The method according to Claim a, wherein said porous membrane is a porous resin membrane.
GB9820822A 1997-09-24 1998-09-24 Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes Withdrawn GB9820822D0 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP25881697A JPH1189567A (en) 1997-09-24 1997-09-24 System for sterilizing microorganism and gene recovery system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB9820822D0 GB9820822D0 (en) 1998-11-18
GB2329633A true true GB2329633A (en) 1999-03-31

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GB9820822A Withdrawn GB9820822D0 (en) 1997-09-24 1998-09-24 Sterilizing system and system for recovering genes

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JP (1) JPH1189567A (en)
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WO2002076589A1 (en) * 2001-03-23 2002-10-03 Fuma-Tech Gmbh Filter used in the provision of substantially germ-free water
WO2005083078A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2005-09-09 Thomsen Bioscience A/S Method, chip, device and system for extraction of biological materials
WO2006002769A2 (en) * 2004-06-30 2006-01-12 Scheller, Albert Hollow fibre and the use thereof
US7892794B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-02-22 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and integrated system for detection biological particles
US7932024B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-04-26 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and system for collection of biological particles

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JP4549084B2 (en) * 2004-03-19 2010-09-22 功一 中山 Biological material collection plate
CN103951118B (en) * 2014-04-12 2016-01-13 大连双迪科技股份有限公司 Water Business

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EP0577026A2 (en) * 1992-06-29 1994-01-05 Yoshiaki Nagaura Filtration method and filter device

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002076589A1 (en) * 2001-03-23 2002-10-03 Fuma-Tech Gmbh Filter used in the provision of substantially germ-free water
EP1747811A1 (en) * 2001-03-23 2007-01-31 FuMA-Tech Gesellschaft für funktionelle Membranen und Anlagetechnologie mbH Filter for the production of substantially germ-free water
WO2005083078A1 (en) * 2004-02-26 2005-09-09 Thomsen Bioscience A/S Method, chip, device and system for extraction of biological materials
US7892794B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-02-22 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and integrated system for detection biological particles
US7932024B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-04-26 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and system for collection of biological particles
US7985540B2 (en) 2004-02-26 2011-07-26 Delta, Dansk Elektronik, Lys & Akustik Method, chip, device and system for extraction of biological materials
WO2006002769A2 (en) * 2004-06-30 2006-01-12 Scheller, Albert Hollow fibre and the use thereof
WO2006002769A3 (en) * 2004-06-30 2008-12-24 Scheller Albert Hollow fibre and the use thereof

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JPH1189567A (en) 1999-04-06 application
GB9820822D0 (en) 1998-11-18 grant

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