GB2303023A - Communications with remote sites - Google Patents

Communications with remote sites Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2303023A
GB2303023A GB9513349A GB9513349A GB2303023A GB 2303023 A GB2303023 A GB 2303023A GB 9513349 A GB9513349 A GB 9513349A GB 9513349 A GB9513349 A GB 9513349A GB 2303023 A GB2303023 A GB 2303023A
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GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
subscriber
multiplicity
data
time
terminal
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9513349A
Other versions
GB9513349D0 (en
Inventor
James Thomas Colgan
Cillian Feiritear
Patrick Moore
Patrick Dunne
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Knightsbury Holdings Ltd
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KNIGHTSBURY HOLDINGS LIMITED
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by KNIGHTSBURY HOLDINGS LIMITED filed Critical KNIGHTSBURY HOLDINGS LIMITED
Priority to GB9513349A priority Critical patent/GB2303023A/en
Publication of GB9513349D0 publication Critical patent/GB9513349D0/en
Publication of GB2303023A publication Critical patent/GB2303023A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08CTRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR MEASURED VALUES, CONTROL OR SIMILAR SIGNALS
    • G08C17/00Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link
    • G08C17/02Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link using a radio link

Abstract

Each of a multiplicity of subscriber terminals, of which one is shown, communicates with a central location or base station via a wireless subscriber loop, each subscriber terminal is assigned the same home section (ie. the same telephone number), and each terminal has means 41 to activate it for at least one unique individual period of time during which every other terminal is inactive. The activating means may be a real time clock 41 which closes a power switch 28, eg. for one unique 5 minute period every month. The clocks 41 may be programmed by data from a SIM 16 or plug-in smart card, through a local data port, or over the wireless loop from the base station. A block of time may be set aside on a periodic basis for network installation or maintenance work, during which time none of the terminals is programmed to be activated. A manual switch may override the time switch 28 during this period for test and synchronisation purposes. The system may be used for voice and/or data communication, eg. for transferring data from power meters or for other utility (eg. gas, water) usage data.

Description

TITLE OF THE INVENTION Communications with remote sites BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention This invention relates to telecommunications transmission systems. The invention is especially directed towards telecommunications systems in which wireless transmission is used in the subscriber's loop, i.e. the connection between the telephone network and the subscriber's handset or terminal, as represented by the loop of copper wire in traditional wired telephone systems.

In a particular aspect, the invention is further directed to communications between a central location and a multiplicity of remote sites, especially, but not exclusively, data communication.

Discussion of the Drior art In recent years, a diversity of developments have taken place in regard to extending telecommunications systems based on wireless access into new areas of application. The GSM network, representing Global Systems for Mobile communications, is a particular digital system with pan-European roaming capability especially adapted to the establishment of such advances as Personal Communications Networks (PCNs), under which a user is enabled to access the network at any time and from any physical location under the same home section, i.e. telephone number, by virtue of a Subscriber Information Module (SIM) in the form of, for example, an internally-mounted unit in the subscriber set or a slide-in smartcard which contains all relevant data for the subscriber or user, viz. international subscriber number and eligibility for specific GSM services, the smartcard option obviating any necessity to carry around a particular portable unit.

Other examples of networks in which wireless subscriber loops may exist include analogue systems such as the telephone cellular network of the European TACS network (Total Access Communication System), the North American AMPS network (Advanced Mobile Phone System), the Japanese cellular system (MCS) - land mobile communication system1 and the Scandinavian NMT network, Nordic Mobile Telephone system, the Ericsson cellular system. Also relevant is the North American digital AMPS.

Developing digital systems include the European DCS 1800 PCN network, the ETSI (European Telecoms Standards Institute) specification for PCNs, and PCN networks being advanced in North America and Japan.

Still further examples of networks relevant to the field of the invention are the LMSS network (Land Mobile Radio Services by Satellite), and the PAMD network (Public Access Mobile Data). Yet other areas to which the invention may be applied are satellite systems such as INMARSAT, MSAT and AUSSAT (mobile communications systems using geostationary satellites as base stations together with repeaters), and developing systems such as FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System), a project under current international administrative attention, the tasks and objectives of which are presented in CCIR Report 1153 (CCIR - the Consultative Committee on International Radio of the ITU - International Telecommunication Union), and UMTS (the Universal Mobile Telephone Service), a system with cellular attributes under consideration in pursuance of the RACE programme of the European Union (Research in Advanced Communication for Europe).

GB-A-2,174,571 describes a system for the wireless transmission of multiple information signals using time division multiplexing between a base station and a plurality of subscriber stations. The base station operates over a plurality of RF channel pairs, each pair comprising a transmit channel for processing a given plural number of information signals received simultaneously over telephone company trunk lines for TDM transmission to different subscriber stations over a given RF channel, and a receive channel for processing the receive stations.

The subscriber stations may be fixed or movable. The number of time division circuits is determined by the transmission quality of the signals. The base station is interconnected with an external telephone information network, which may be analog and/or digital and may include a voice, data, facsimile, video, computer and instrumentation signals. The modulation level of the signals and the power applied to the system are adjusted in accordance with signal error detection in the system. The system may be provided with spatial diversity by using a plurality of antennas selectively spaced from each other to provide relatively high signal reception despite signal fading.

GB-A-2,224,414 describes a communication system in which a plurality of subscriber stations are in RF communication with a base station. The base station has multiple sequentially repetitive time slots, each time slot being assigned to a particular subscriber station. The base station is further provided with means to change either the frequency or the time slot configurations, or both, in the event of a deterioration of transmission quality caused by modulation change, frequency channel interference, equipment failure, or the like, or by the entrance of additional subscriber stations going on line.

It is an object of the invention to provide an improved telecommunications arrangement or system in which there is provision for time sharing of a single wireless subscriber loop between a multiplicity of subscriber terminals.

It is a further objective of the invention to provide an improved method for cost effective communication between a central location and a multiplicity of remote sites, especially for data transfer, although optionally also for voice communication.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to the invention there is provided a telecommunications system comprising : (a) a multiplicity of subscriber terminals, and (b) a subscriber loop for said multiplicity of subscriber terminals, wherein (i) said subscriber loop is a wireless subscriber loop, (ii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is assigned the same home section, and (iii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals comprises means for activating the respective said each subscriber terminal for at least one unique individual period of time during which every other of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is inactive.

Said activating means may comprise a programmable timing means, preferably operating in real time, disposed within said each subscriber terminal. Said timing means is suitably programmed to render said each subscriber terminal responsive to incoming communications and/or available for outgoing communications for said period of time. This may be effected, for example, by switching on a power supply unit of said subscriber terminal for said period of time. Means may also be provided for selective synchronisation of said timing means with an external standard. Suitably an independent power supply is provided within the subscriber terminal for said timing means1 for example in the form of a long-life battery cell.

The invention in its first aspect is especially suited to data transfer, i.e. communicating data to and from a multiplicity of remote sites, but it may equally apply to voice communication in non-data-related communications applications.

In a second aspect, the invention provides a telecommunications system comprising : (a) a central location, (b) a multiplicity of remote sites1 and (c) a subscriber loop for said multiplicity of remote sites1 wherein (i) each of said multiplicity of remote sites is uniquely identifiable by the central location, (ii) the central location is adapted to sequentially poll each of said multiplicity of remote sites1 (iii) a data interface is associated with each of said multiplicity of remote sites, and (iv) each of said multiplicity of remote sites comprises a modem for interchange of data between said subscriber loop and said data interface during said sequential polling.

The data interface is suitably adapted to function as or to be capable of functioning as a data source, for originating outward information to be transferred from the remote site to the central location, or for reception or acceptance of incoming or inward data or instructions.

The data interface may operate in conjunction with an optional transducer.

In a particular embodiment of the invention in its second aspect, in which the polling of the remote sites is effected by time share over a single wireless loop in the manner of the invention in its first aspect, there is provided a telecommunications system comprising (a) a central location, (b) a multiplicity of subscriber terminals, and (c) a subscriber loop for said multiplicity of subscriber terminals, wherein (i) said subscriber loop is a wireless subscriber loop, (ii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is assigned the same home section, (iii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals comprises means for activating the respective said each subscriber terminal for at least one unique individual period of time during which every other of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is inactive, (iv) a data interface is associated with each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals, and (v) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals comprises a modem for interchange of data between said subscriber loop and said data interface during said period of time.

Said data interface may be a data source comprising, for example, a power meter. Polling of the subscriber terminals by the central location or base station then enables remote metering, namely the gathering of information in respect of customer usage, by utilities such as power companies. The invention may also be applied to acquisition of other data, in particular, cumulative data of similar kinds relating to the usage of a utility product, e.g. water, gas etc.

The invention in both of its aspects especially facilitates such remote polling in an economical manner by virtue of use of the same home section, viz. telephone number, for each of a large number of subscriber terminals, with time sharing of the single wireless subscriber loop or home section between the multiplicity of subscriber terminals, without any restriction as to where these terminals may be located within the network.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a subscriber terminal in accordance with the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Figure 1 shows in schematic form, a typical subscriber terminal for a GSM system, with the omission of keypad and microphone/speaker circuits. Communication to and from a central location or base station takes place in wireless manner by way of an antenna 1. Incoming signals are transferred to a base band interface 2 by way of a duplexer 3 and a receiver 4, this latter suitably including a channel filter.

Outgoing signals are handled by the same duplexer, but by way of a transmitter 5 communicating between the base band interface 2 and the duplexer 3, the transmitter suitably including a power amplifier. A further feature of this portion of the terminal is a synthesizer 6, communicating between interface 2 and receiver 4 and transmitter 5.

Within the terminal, data and voice decoding of digital information takes place to provide data and voice output as required. For this purpose, the arrangement includes an equalizer 11, channel codec 12 and voice codec 13 to voice output line 14 and a data output 15. Provision is made for data interchange between the data line 15 and SIM 16, a Subscriber Information Module of the terminal, this containing subscriber identification number and details of eligibility for specific network services.

A data interface 21 provides for further data interchange between interface 2 and thus ultimately the central location or base station and a data line or input 22, which may comprise, for example, an arrangement for data polling at that individual station. The terminal as shown further includes a main processor 23 and memories 24, these communicating with the base band interface 2 and such other features of the system as are appropriate, such as by way of the particular interchanges noted and by way of data bus 31. Power supply 25 enables power distribution to the various component parts of the terminal by way of power lines 26 through on/off switch gang 27, comprising a directly actuated power switch 28, which is activated by a clock feature of the system, now to be described, and a manual switch 29 which may override the clock-actuated switch 28.

These particular features of the present invention as shown in Figure 1 include a programmable timer 41, this being a unit or feature operating in real time and capable of being accurately synchronised as required with an external standard. The timer 41 may also be referred to as a "clock", but with the clear proviso that what is here in question is a timing means operating in real time, and not a feature generating clock pulses, as the term "clock" may be understood in other electronic circuitry contexts. The timer 41 is suitably independently and directly powered from the main power supply 25 by way of a long-life rechargeable battery, which is kept normally fully charged by the power supply, thereby securing reliability of the system.Timer 41 is programmed to activate or deactivate power to the operating components of the terminal, viz. interface 2, processor 23 etc., by way of power switch 28. The timer 41 controls operation of switch 28 and has priority over the manual switch 29. Thus power is switched to the power distribution feature 26 by means of switch 28, which is activated by the clock 41. The manual switch 29 may override the clock activated switch 28. The manual switch 29 is of a type such that when switched into the "on" state, a positive and continuous action is required to maintain it in that state. A particular example of such a feature is the requirement to keep the switch 29 depressed while manually overriding the clock controlled switch 28. The purpose of this feature is to ensure that the unit cannot be left unattended with the manual override 29 activated.

Timer 41 is programmed over the data bus 31 as required, the programming data being provided either by SIM 16 or from data sent to the terminal by way of the subscriber loop and antenna 1, i.e. "down the line". Activating and deactivating the subscriber terminal by switching aspects of it on and off represents only one method or manner of achieving such activation/deactivation. "Switching" of the terminal may also be effected by non-power means, operating for example, purely in software or firmware. A timer operating in real time in the fashion of a VCR "clock" represents, however, an advantageous and economical method of establishing and controlling relevant time intervals, irrespective of the nature of the actual "switching" itself.

Thus each subscriber terminal of a group of terminals in a network may be assigned the same home section, i.e. the same telephone number, and is then also assigned a period of time for which it is active in such a manner that no two terminals of the group are active for the same time period. This requirement is realised by the provision of a clock or timing circuit in each subscriber terminal to control the effective on/off state of the terminal, whether by central power switching or otherwise. The clock circuit may be self-running or it may be periodically realigned with a common standard. The timing devices which control the periods for which a particular terminal is set or active are established or prescribed through a programming mechanism which is either preset locally or remotely adjusted. The arrangement is thus somewhat analogous to the provision of a virtual SIM card as used in GSM subscriber terminals, but time shared between each of a group of subscriber terminals and capable of being customised on an ongoing basis in regard to its power-on state.

The principles underlying the present invention accordingly involve the use of a preset or programmable mechanism within each subscriber terminal of a group of terminals of a wireless subscriber system which share the single home section in such a manner as to permit only one of the multiplicity of shared terminals to be deemed to be active at any one moment of time. The number of terminals so shared or sharing the particular home section is limited only by the amount of time required by each terminal to perform the function for which it is used, taking into account also the time intervals required by the network to establish the link to each terminal as required.

The limit on the number of terminals sharing a single home section may be further explained having regard to the concept of the "on state" of a terminal. The "on state" of each terminal may be defined as that state in which an ordinary (non-loop sharing) terminal would find itself, if powered up and fitted with its SIM card, in the case of a GSM terminal requiring a SIM card. This state may also be defined as being in a state of readiness to receive incoming calls or to make a call. The number of terminals sharing a a single home section is then limited only by the programmed duration of the "on state" of each terminal, as defined above, together with the frequency of the "on state" for each particular terminal.

In specific exemplification of the foregoing, in a situation in which it is desired to operate the system within reduced charge rate periods of a network, e.g. between 8.00 p.m. and 8.00 a.m. Monday to Friday inclusive and throughout the weekends, and to connect the central location or base station to each of the subscriber terminals for 2 minutes during a prescribed 5 minute period on a monthly basis (this also allowing for connection difficulties etc.), these criteria allow 469 hours per month for the system during the reduced rate periods. At 5 minutes per terminal, the system may support up to 5628 terminals over a single subscriber loop.

Each subscriber terminal is programmed to periodically switch to the "on state", as defined above. Switching of the terminal to the "on state" may, for example, be effected by means of a programmed mechanism which switches on or powers up the unit or otherwise activates the terminal. The programmed mechanism is suitably such as to be capable of being synchronised in time with an external standard, thereby to ensure that the base station may make the appropriate connections during the prescribed periods. The clock or timing device used as part of the programming mechanism is suitably also such as to take into account both the time and the date.Programming information may be delivered to the unit by means of, for example, a plug-in smart card or through a data port, either locally or remotely over the line from the base station, into a device such as a "Flash PROM".

Set-up and maintenance of the system may be effected by, for example, a block of time being set aside on a periodic basis for the purpose of carrying out installation or maintenance on the network (the network in this instance being the base station and the multiplicity of terminals sharing the same home section or local loop). During this periodic or intermittent block of time, none of the subscriber terminals is programmed to be active. Also during this period of time however, the possibility is also preferably preserved of initiating a call from the subscriber site by manually overriding the programmed mechanism, for the purpose of test and synchronisation.

In order to provide a means for ensuring that each subscriber station has been assigned a unique set of time periods for which it is programmed to be put into the "on state", a database may be established for blocking out the periods of time assigned to each unique and identifiable subscriber terminal. This database may be used in conjunction either with the on-line programming of each subscriber terminal, or with the programming mechanism used for setting up smart cards associated with each terminal.

One application of the invention is directed to the provision of cost effective data communication between a central location and a multiplicity of remote sites. The principle of establishing data communication between a central location and a multiplicity of remote sites is well established. Known arrangements extend from the visiting of each of the sites by an inspector for the purpose of collecting or delivering data and reporting the information exchanged back at the central site, to the use of central computers for polling the remote sites using dedicated links or cables and thus establishing data communication.

The principle of the present invention in its data exchange aspect provides for the polling of remote sites from a central location using the public switched telephone network. Each polled terminal may be connected to, for example, the European GSM network, for the purpose of establishing data communication. Each polled terminal operates in time sharing mode over a single wireless subscriber loop. A particularly novel aspect of the invention is effecting the polling of the remote stations over a network such as the GSM network using time sharing on a wireless subscriber loop.

The invention is effected in a practical embodiment by the equipping of each remote site with a modem connected to, for example, a GSM subscriber terminal. Each modem or data source is uniquely identifiable by the central location such as by way of the system described above, in particular in regard to Figure 1. The central station polls each of the remote locations and establishes either one-way or two-way communication between a central data terminal and the respective remote location using the public switched telephone network. Each of the multiplicity of subscriber terminals time shares over a single wireless loop in the manner already described.

Claims (10)

1. A telecommunications system comprising : (a) a multiplicity of subscriber terminals, and (b) a subscriber loop for said multiplicity of subscriber terminals, wherein (i) said subscriber loop is a wireless subscriber loop, (ii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is assigned the same home section, and (iii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals comprises means for activating the respective said each subscriber terminal for at least one unique individual period of time during which every other of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is inactive.
2. A telecommunications system according to Claim 1, wherein said activating means comprises a programmable timing means1 preferably operating in real time, disposed within said each subscriber terminal.
3. A telecommunications system according to Claim 2, wherein said timing means is programmed to render said each subscriber terminal responsive to incoming communications and/or available for outgoing communications for said period of time.
4. A telecommunications system according to Claim 3, wherein said timing means is programmed to supply power to render said subscriber terminal responsive for said period of time, preferably by effecting switching action at a power supply unit of said subscriber terminal.
5. A telecommunications system according to any of Claims 2 to 4, comprising means for selective synchronisation of said timing means with an external standard.
6. A telecommunications system according to any of Claims 2 to 5, comprising an independent power supply within the subscriber terminal for said timing means.
7. A telecommunications network according to Claim 6, wherein said independent power supply comprises a long-life battery cell.
8. A telecommunications system comprising : (a) a central location, (b) a multiplicity of remote sites, and (c) a subscriber loop for said multiplicity of remote sites, wherein (i) each of said multiplicity of remote sites is uniquely identifiable by the central location, (ii) the central location is adapted to sequentially poll each of said multiplicity of remote sites, (iii) a data interface is associated with each of said multiplicity of remote sites, and (iv) each of said multiplicity of remote sites comprises a modem for interchange of data between said subscriber loop and said data interface during said sequential polling.
9. A telecommunications system comprising : (a) a central location, (b) a multiplicity of subscriber terminals, and (c) a subscriber loop for said multiplicity of subscriber terminals, wherein (i) said subscriber loop is a wireless subscriber loop, (ii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is assigned the same home section, (iii) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals comprises means for activating the respective said each subscriber terminal for at least one unique individual period of time during which every other of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals is inactive (iv) a data interface is associated with each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals, and (v) each of said multiplicity of subscriber terminals comprises a modem for interchange of data between said subscriber loop and said data interface during said period of time.
10. A telecommunications system according to Claim 8 or Claim 9, wherein said data interface comprises a data source, such as a power meter.
GB9513349A 1995-06-30 1995-06-30 Communications with remote sites Withdrawn GB2303023A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9513349A GB2303023A (en) 1995-06-30 1995-06-30 Communications with remote sites

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9513349A GB2303023A (en) 1995-06-30 1995-06-30 Communications with remote sites

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GB9513349D0 GB9513349D0 (en) 1995-09-06
GB2303023A true GB2303023A (en) 1997-02-05

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2000013291A1 (en) * 1998-08-27 2000-03-09 Horst Ziegler System for controlling consumption of a medium, especially a mains-connected medium
GB2345824A (en) * 1998-11-27 2000-07-19 Minorplanet Ltd Transferring operational data collected at remote stations to a base station
GB2363291A (en) * 2000-06-07 2001-12-12 Ubinetics Ltd Communications system
US6615057B1 (en) 1998-05-08 2003-09-02 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson(Publ) Method and arrangement for communicating subscriber related data in a wireless communications system
US20060259199A1 (en) * 2003-06-05 2006-11-16 Gjerde Jan O Method and a system for automatic management of demand for non-durables

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GB880310A (en) * 1958-11-06 1961-10-18 Telefunken Gmbh Improvements in or relating to traffic control systems
GB2013010A (en) * 1978-01-18 1979-08-01 Compur Electronic Gmbh Signal transmission
GB2018480A (en) * 1978-04-06 1979-10-17 Mallinckrodt Inc Sensor monitor system
US4972507A (en) * 1988-09-09 1990-11-20 Cellular Data, Inc. Radio data protocol communications system and method
GB2237910A (en) * 1989-11-07 1991-05-15 Atomic Energy Authority Uk Telemetry transponder
WO1994009464A1 (en) * 1992-10-19 1994-04-28 Metrona Wärmemesser Union Gmbh Installation for reading the consumption figures for various consumption quantities in a building
GB2283847A (en) * 1992-08-06 1995-05-17 Menvier Fire detection system

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB880310A (en) * 1958-11-06 1961-10-18 Telefunken Gmbh Improvements in or relating to traffic control systems
GB2013010A (en) * 1978-01-18 1979-08-01 Compur Electronic Gmbh Signal transmission
GB2018480A (en) * 1978-04-06 1979-10-17 Mallinckrodt Inc Sensor monitor system
US4972507A (en) * 1988-09-09 1990-11-20 Cellular Data, Inc. Radio data protocol communications system and method
GB2237910A (en) * 1989-11-07 1991-05-15 Atomic Energy Authority Uk Telemetry transponder
GB2283847A (en) * 1992-08-06 1995-05-17 Menvier Fire detection system
WO1994009464A1 (en) * 1992-10-19 1994-04-28 Metrona Wärmemesser Union Gmbh Installation for reading the consumption figures for various consumption quantities in a building

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6615057B1 (en) 1998-05-08 2003-09-02 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson(Publ) Method and arrangement for communicating subscriber related data in a wireless communications system
WO2000013291A1 (en) * 1998-08-27 2000-03-09 Horst Ziegler System for controlling consumption of a medium, especially a mains-connected medium
GB2345824A (en) * 1998-11-27 2000-07-19 Minorplanet Ltd Transferring operational data collected at remote stations to a base station
GB2345824B (en) * 1998-11-27 2001-05-23 Minorplanet Ltd Transferring operational data
GB2363291A (en) * 2000-06-07 2001-12-12 Ubinetics Ltd Communications system
GB2363291B (en) * 2000-06-07 2004-01-21 Ubinetics Ltd Communications system
US20060259199A1 (en) * 2003-06-05 2006-11-16 Gjerde Jan O Method and a system for automatic management of demand for non-durables

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