GB2294132A - Data communication network - Google Patents

Data communication network Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2294132A
GB2294132A GB9420383A GB9420383A GB2294132A GB 2294132 A GB2294132 A GB 2294132A GB 9420383 A GB9420383 A GB 9420383A GB 9420383 A GB9420383 A GB 9420383A GB 2294132 A GB2294132 A GB 2294132A
Authority
GB
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
data
means
node
user
request
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9420383A
Other versions
GB9420383D0 (en )
Inventor
Paul Andrew Johnson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BAE Systems Electronics Ltd
Original Assignee
BAE Systems Electronics Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F17/00Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific functions
    • G06F17/30Information retrieval; Database structures therefor ; File system structures therefor
    • G06F17/30067File systems; File servers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/02Details
    • H04L12/14Metering, charging or billing arrangements specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/02Details
    • H04L12/14Metering, charging or billing arrangements specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications
    • H04L12/1442Metering, charging or billing arrangements specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications at network operator level
    • H04L12/1446Metering, charging or billing arrangements specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications at network operator level inter-operator billing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/02Details
    • H04L12/14Metering, charging or billing arrangements specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications
    • H04L12/1453Methods or systems for payment or settlement of the charges for data transmission involving significant interaction with the data transmission network
    • H04L12/1457Methods or systems for payment or settlement of the charges for data transmission involving significant interaction with the data transmission network using an account
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/02Details
    • H04L12/14Metering, charging or billing arrangements specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications
    • H04L12/1453Methods or systems for payment or settlement of the charges for data transmission involving significant interaction with the data transmission network
    • H04L12/1471Methods or systems for payment or settlement of the charges for data transmission involving significant interaction with the data transmission network splitting of costs
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/28Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications for the provision of proxy services, e.g. intermediate processing or storage in the network
    • H04L67/2866Architectural aspects
    • H04L67/288Distributed intermediate devices, i.e. intermediate device interaction with other intermediate devices on the same level
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L69/00Application independent communication protocol aspects or techniques in packet data networks
    • H04L69/30Definitions, standards or architectural aspects of layered protocol stacks
    • H04L69/32High level architectural aspects of 7-layer open systems interconnection [OSI] type protocol stacks
    • H04L69/322Aspects of intra-layer communication protocols among peer entities or protocol data unit [PDU] definitions
    • H04L69/329Aspects of intra-layer communication protocols among peer entities or protocol data unit [PDU] definitions in the application layer, i.e. layer seven

Abstract

To minimise traffic over an expensive transmission link (6), data obtained from an information provider (1, 2) in response to a request by a user (11, 12) is semi-permanently stored in the cache memory (10) of a node (8) local to the users whence it can be supplied to another user. When a user (11) requests data, its local node (8) checks its directory to see if the data is held by itself or by another node (38, Fig. 2). Only if neither node has it, is the data obtained from an information provider (1) via the expensive line 6, the information then becoming stored in the nodes cache memory (10) as well as being supplied to the user who requested it. The directories of any other nodes are updated accordingly to inform them that fresh data is available. Transaction information for chargeable data may be exchanged between nodes and between nodes and information providers. An electronic funds transfer message may accompany the request for data. Nodes may cooperate to cache data (28, 38 in Fig. 2). Node 8 may charge users 11, 12 on behalf of information providers 1, 2, so that the users need not have an account with the information provider. <IMAGE>

Description

Data Communication Networks This invention relates to data communication networks.

There are many different types of data communications networks. Some networks make no charge for any data which is accessed by a user. An example of such a network is the World-Wide Web, commonly known as "The Web", which utilises the Internet. In general, users of the Web only pay a connection charge which allows them unlimited access to the Web, information being available from information providers at no extra cost. To reduce loading on long distance transmission links, it has latterly been the practice to provide "cache sites", otherwise known as "proxy servers".

A proxy server comprises a cache store in which more frequently-used data is stored. This avoids the need to repetitively send the same data over long distance links.

Other networks make a charge for information provided. In order to access the data held by these networks it is in general necessary to register with the data provider and pay a subscription fee before any data can be obtained, in addition a fee may be charged for each record accessed.

While this may be satisfactory for regular users, it can be inconvenient for the occasional user, who needs to register in advance, and for the data provider, who may find it uneconomic to provide billing for an occasional user.

This invention arose from an attempt to provide an improved data communications network.

A first aspect of the invention provides a communications network for providing communication between at least one provider of data and a plurality of users, the network comprising a plurality of nodes, each node being arranged to receive a request for data from a user and to supply a copy of the data requested to that user, at least one first node comprising memory means arranged to store, in a semipermanent manner, a copy of data requested by a user, at least one node comprising index means arranged to store information indicating the contents of its own memory means and at least part of the contents of the memory means of at least one other node, and means for providing communication between the nodes and the at least one provider of data.

A second aspect of the invention provides a communications network for providing communication between at least one provider of data and a plurality of users, the network comprising a node arranged to receive requests for data from said users, the node comprising memory means arranged to store, in a semi-permanent manner, a copy of data requested by a user, and index means arranged to store an indication of the contents of the memory means, request processing means arranged to process a request for data from a user, the request being accompanied by an authorisation to pay for the data requested, the request processing means being arranged to: supply the user with the requested data from the memory means and transfer the authorisation to pay to the provider of the data requested, in the event of data requested being present in the memory means; and in the event of the data requested not being present in the memory means, obtain the data requested from a provider of data, store that data in the memory means, update its index, supply the user with the data requested, and transfer the authorisation to pay to the provider of that data.

Embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of non-limiting example only, with reference to the drawings in which: Figure 1 shows a first data communications network in accordance with the invention; and Figure 2 shows a second data communications network in accordance with the invention.

Referring now to Fig 1, a plurality of information providers (IPs) 1,2 in region A are coupled via respective relatively inexpensive communications links 3,4 to a first packet switching exchange 5 which is coupled via a relatively expensive communications link 6 to a second packet switching exchange 7 in region B. A proxy server 8 is coupled to the second packet switching exchange 7 via inexpensive communications lines 9. First and second users 11,12 are coupled to the first proxy server 8 via respective inexpensive lines 13,14. Proxy server 8 has a cache store 10 in region C. Similarly a second relatively expensive link 16 couples the first exchange 5 in region A to a third exchange 17 in region C. A second proxy server 18 having a cache memory 100 is coupled to the third exchange 17 via an inexpensive link 19.Third and fourth users 111,112 are coupled to the second proxy server 18 via inexpensive lines 113,114.

The precise nature of regions A,B and C is not important.

Regions A,B and C may be any regions connected via relatively expensive communications links. They may for example comprise different states, different regions within a single state, or different companies or organisations.

A proxy server stores a subset of all the information available on the network. When a network user requests an item of data, which for convenience will be referred to as a page of information, the system operates as follows: Say user 11 requests a page of information. This request is transmitted to its associated proxy server 8.

Proxy server 8 checks its store 10. If it has the page then it returns it to the user.

If the proxy server does not have the page then it forwards the request to the IP identified in the request. Say the page is available from IP1. IP1 then transmits the page to proxy server 8.

Proxy server 8 then forwards the page to user 11, and also places a copy of the page in its own store 10.

Once the store 10 is full, the proxy server throws away the least-recently-used pages to make room for new pages and sends messages to the other proxy servers to update their directories accordingly.

Each page may be tagged with an expiry date, so that updated information can be fetched automatically.

Updating and replacement of lesser-used pages can be implemented using a Least-Recently Used (LRU) algorithm. The LRU algorithm is a simple algorithm that gives good results under a wide range of conditions. It performs best when a few pages are very popular, but the timing of the page requests is otherwise random. Many data communication networks are found to exhibit this behaviour.

In theory a region may only require a single proxy server, since two or more proxy servers will duplicate work and hence raise the bandwidth on the relatively expensive link.

However a free market may demand that there be multiple proxy servers, and that the number and nature of the proxy servers be able to change over time.

Fig 2 illustrates in simplified form what will be termed a federated caching scheme. First and second vendors of information (information providers) 21,22 in region A have information stored in respective data banks 60,61. The information providers (IP's) are coupled to a first packet router 25 via relatively inexpensive links 23,24. The first packet router 25 is coupled via a relatively expensive link 26 to a second packet router 27 in region B. First and second proxy servers 28, 38 having respective cache stores 210,310 are coupled to the second packet router 27 via respective relatively inexpensive links 29,30 and to each other via link 31. First and second users 211, 212 are coupled to the first proxy server 28 via inexpensive links 213,214. Third and fourth users 311, 312 are coupled to the second proxy server 38 via inexpensive links 313,314.

Only two proxy servers have been shown for simplicity, but in practice as many as necessary may be provided, each being in communication with the others either directly or via other proxy servers or the packet router 27. The collection of pro,sy servers comprises a "federated cache".

In the present embodiment, each proxy server keeps a directory which contains a list of all the files which are stored by that proxy server, and a list of files held by other proxy servers of the federation. A request from a user is processed as follows.

A user 211 sends a request for information to the first proxy server 28. The proxy server consults its directory. If it holds the information requested, it sends the information to the user 211. It also generates data recording the transaction as will be described later. The transaction then terminates.

If the first proxy server does not itself hold the information but can locate the information in the second proxy server 38, it forwards the request to the second proxy server 38. The second proxy server 38 sends the information to the first proxy server, which forwards it to the first user 211. However, the first proxy server 38 does not in general keep a copy of the information. Data recording the transaction details are generated. The transaction data may include details of the payment (if any) to be made by the first proxy server 28 to the second proxy server 38 for supplying the information, the charges being such as to promote equitable distribution of operating costs between the proxy servers. The transaction then terminates.

If the first proxy server is unable to locate a copy of the information in its directory, then it forwards the request to the source of information indicated by the first user 211 via the packet router and the expensive link 26. Say the information is held by the first IP 21. IP 21 then sends the information from its store 60 to the first proxy server 28.

The proxy server forwards it to the first user 211.

In this instance the first proxy server does keep a copy of the information in its cache store 210. As well as generating data recording the transaction, it broadcasts a message to the other proxy servers in the federation that it now has a copy of that information. The transaction then terminates.

Thus the federation of caches can behave as a single proxy server for the purposes of reducing the bandwidth requirements of the expensive communications link 26, but can function as separate caches for the purposes of competing on cost and quality.

It was mentioned above that the first proxy server does not in general keep a copy of data which is held by another proxy server. This would for example be the case where the cost to the first proxy server of obtaining the data from another proxy server was less than the cost of keeping that data. If the cost of obtaining the data from another proxy server was sufficiently high, or the data was subject to sufficient usage, it could well become more economical for the first proxy server to keep a copy of the data itself rather than obtaining it from another proxy server each time it was needed.

As was mentioned above, data recording the transaction is generated during operation.

A proxy server must ensure that payment reaches the original IP. Furthermore, the IP must be able to ensure that all the payment due is in fact reaching him. However, it is desirable for the IP not to be able to associate an arbitrary purchase with any particular person, lest this break anonymity.

For a non-federated cache of the type shown in Fig 1, the problem may be solved as follows.

The user sends an electronic payment to the proxy server with the request. Conveniently, payment consists of electronic funds transfer between bank accounts, or may consist of electronic messages exchanged between smartcards, for example the Mondex system. Mondex is a trademark of the National Westminster Bank PLC.

The proxy server generates a unique transaction number. If the proxy server does not hold the information, the payment is forwarded to the IP with the request and the transaction number. The information is forwarded to the user, along with the transaction number.

If the proxy server does hold the information then the following parts of the transaction are sent to the IP: the amount paid; the transaction number; and the payment.

Thus the identity of the user is not conveyed to the IP and anonymity is preserved.

The payment operation may be delayed in order to batch up many payments, the relevant information being stored temporarily and processed en masse at a convenient time.

In a federated cache as shown in Fig 2 the payment accompanies the request until it reaches a site which actually holds the requested information. The transaction number is augmented with the name of the proxy server which fulfilled the request. Otherwise the system works as above.

For example, if user 211 requests information which is not held by proxy server 28, but which is held by proxy server 38, then proxy server 38 will be credited with the payment.

This allows the IPs to carry out spot checks by purchasing information through a proxy server (possibly via a third party to avoid detection) and then checking that the list of transactions sent by the proxy server do indeed include the test transactions.

In the present embodiment, when a first proxy server receives a request from a client, it assigns a unique code to that request, and transmits that request code to the client.

In the case that the first proxy server can fulfil the request, it transmits the request code to the appropriate IP, along with other accounting information such as the value of each request and an instruction to pay the IP for the information which has been provided to the client.

In the case that the first proxy server can locate the requested page on a second proxy server, then the first proxy server will forward the request code and payment instruction to the second proxy server along with the request. The second proxy server will then fulfil the request as described earlier, and forward the request code and other information as described in the first case to the IP.

In the case that the first proxy server cannot locate the requested page in any of the other proxy servers, it will forward the request, request code and payment to the appropriate IP.

In all cases the protocol for forwarding of payment instructions will include a non-repudiatable message acknowledging receipt to be sent from the payee to the payer.

This message is known as a "digital receipt". The proxy servers will store these receipts for a predetermined time for inspection by the relevant IPs, and may then delete them.

The proxy servers may chose to batch up the data and payment which is to be sent to the IPs in order to reduce the cost of data transmission and money transfers.

The client transmits its copy of the request code to the IP.

The IP can then check that the request code provided by the client is present in the list provided by the proxy servers.

If the request code is absent, or the value given for the request is not the same as the value given for that request in the list, then the IP may reasonably conclude that one of the proxy servers is behaving dishonestly. Inspection of the digital receipts stored by the various proxy servers will allow the IP to determine which proxy server this is.

In order to verify that Inter-Proxy payments are being made, a proxy server transmits to a client a "probe" request which names a non-existent page of information, and also transmits to a second proxy server an index update corresponding to this probe request. The client then transmits this probe request to the second proxy server, and the original proxy server monitors the request it receives in order to determine if the second proxy server correctly forwards the request to the original proxy server. If the original proxy server receives the probe request in a form which appears to have come from a client, then it may conclude that the second proxy server is behaving dishonestly.

In addition a proxy server can provide additional anonymity to users. In a commercial network in accordance with the invention there may be many small IPs, and some of them may attempt to gain information on their customers for illegal or unethical purposes such as blackmail or public disclosure.

A crooked IP could record the network address of a client, and then find the user with that address. Since a network address identifies a particular machine, and a machine might be used by only one person, it would be possible to identify the person who had bought a particular piece of information.

However if the client is purchasing information via a proxy server, the IP is denied the network address of the customer.

The IP can only discover this information with the cooperation of the customer.

A crooked cache could behave in a similar way to a crooked IP, but there will be only a few proxy servers in a federation, so each will have a long-term interest in protecting the anonymity of their clients in order to avoid bad publicity.

A number of modifications are possible within the scope of the invention.

In the embodiment of Figure 2, when any proxy server stores data in its cache memory, it broadcasts that fact to all the other proxy servers in the federation. However, it is not essential for the proxy servers to behave in this way under all circumstances, and the exchange of information need not be wholly reciprocal. In a modification of the network shown in Figure 2, the first proxy server 28 always informs the second proxy server 38 of the contents of its store 210, whereas the second proxy server 38 does not necessarily always inform the first proxy server 28 of the contents of its store 310. This arrangement allows the second proxy server 38 to store data of a sensitive or confidential nature, which data is only made available to authorised users associated with proxy server 38.

In a further modification all the proxy servers in a federated cache behave in this manner, each witholding the existence of at least some of the data which it is storing from at least some of the other proxy servers.

Further, certain data held by a proxy server may be selectively available to some proxy servers of the federation but not to others.

The embodiments have been described with reference to data for which a charge has been made. Networks in accordance with the invention may equally well be used to convey data for which no charge is made either in addition to or instead of chargeable data.

In addition to, or as an alternative to, tagging pages with an expiry date, means may be provided to allow an IP to broadcast a message to the proxy servers indicating that a particular page is now out of date. The proxy server or servers holding that page may then update the expiry date associated with that page, or else delete the page concerned from their cache memory as appropriate, the page being restored when the next request for it is received from a user.

Alternatively, out-of-date records may simply be deleted in response to instructions broadcast from the IPs. This can avoid the need for proxy servers to store expiry dates as such.

Further, at least some of the data held by a proxy server may be kept in permanently stored form. For example, data kept by a proxy server may include or consist entirely of reference works such as encyclopedias stored in read-only memory such as CD-ROM. To the user or another proxy server, the proxy server will behave just like any other proxy server.

At least some of the proxy servers may hold information which does not appear in the directories of the other proxy servers, but which is nonetheless available if requested.

The network is then provided with a request broadcast facility whereby, if a proxy server cannot find a page in its own directory or directories of which it has copies, then it broadcasts a request to the other members of the federation.

Only if no positive response is received does it send the request to an IP.

In another modification, the LRU algorithm may be replaced by an algorithm which attempts to predict which pages will be popular in the near future. For instance, some pages may be very popular during weekends, but not during weekdays. Under these circumstances the LRU algorithm may cause these pages to be stored for most of the week, deleted on Friday and then refetched on Saturday. A more complex algorithm may take this into account when selecting pages for deletion.

In a further modification, a predictive algorithm fetches pages before they are requested. If the expensive link is much slower than the links from the proxy server to the customer then this will avoid delaying the first client while the page is transmitted from the IP.

Claims (12)

Claims
1. A communications network for providing communication between at least one provider of data and a plurality of users, the network comprising a plurality of nodes, each node being arranged to receive a request for data from a user and to supply a copy of the data requested to that user, at least one first node comprising memory means arranged to store, in a semi-permanent manner, a copy of data requested by a user, at least one node comprising index means arranged to store information indicating the contents of its own memory means and at least part of the contents of the memory means of at least one other node, and means for providing communication between the nodes and the at least one provider of data.
2. A communications network as claimed in Claim 1 in which at least one node comprises data which is not included in the index means of at least one other node.
3. A communications network as claimed in Claim 1 or 2 in which the at least one first node comprises request processing means for processing a request for data from a user coupled thereto, the request processing means comprising means to consult the index of the node, means to supply data from the memory means of the node if the data requested is present therein, means to obtain the data from the memory means of another node if the data is held by that node, means to obtain the data from a provider of data if the data is not held by any node, and means to store in a semi-permanent manner, the data requested by the user in the memory means of the node if that data was not previously stored therein and to update the index means of the node.
4. A communications network as claimed in Claim 3, further comprising means to update the index means of at least one further node to indicate the presence and location of the newly-stored data.
5. A communication network as claimed in Claim 3 or 4 in which the data requested by the user is stored in a semipermanent manner only if that data is not already present in the memory means of another node.
6. A communications network as claimed in any one of Claims 3, 4 or 5, in which the request for data comprises authorisation to pay for the data requested, in which the request processing means comprises means to transfer the authorisation to the provider of the data.
7. A communications network as claimed in Claim 6, in which the request processing means comprises means to temporarily store the authorisation to pay.
8. A communications network as claimed in Claim 6 or 7 in which the request processing means comprises means to forward the authorisation to pay to the node providing the data when the data is provided from another node.
9. A communications network as claimed in any preceding claim, in which the at least one first node comprises means for determining the usage of each item of data stored in its own memory means, and means for selectively erasing lesser used data.
10. A communications network as claimed in any preceding claim, comprising means to cause an item of semi-permanently stored data to be deleted when it is no longer valid.
11. A communications network for providing communication between at least one provider of data and a plurality of users, the network comprising a node arranged to receive requests for data from said users, the node comprising memory means arranged to store, in a semi-permanent manner, a copy of data requested by a user, and index means arranged to store an indication of the contents of the memory means, request processing means arranged to process a request for data from a user, the request being accompanied by an authorisation to pay for the data requested, the request processing means being arranged to; supply the user with the requested data from the memory means and transfer the authorisation to pay to the provider of the data requested in the event of data requested being present in the memory means; and in the event of the data requested not being present in the memory means, obtain the data requested from a provider of data, store that data in the memory means, update its index, supply the user with the data requested, and transfer the authorisation to pay to the provider of that data.
12. A data communication network substantially as described with reference to Figure 1 or Figure 2 of the drawings.
GB9420383A 1994-10-10 1994-10-10 Data communication network Withdrawn GB2294132A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9420383A GB2294132A (en) 1994-10-10 1994-10-10 Data communication network

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9420383A GB2294132A (en) 1994-10-10 1994-10-10 Data communication network

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB9420383D0 true GB9420383D0 (en) 1994-11-23
GB2294132A true true GB2294132A (en) 1996-04-17

Family

ID=10762600

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB9420383A Withdrawn GB2294132A (en) 1994-10-10 1994-10-10 Data communication network

Country Status (1)

Country Link
GB (1) GB2294132A (en)

Cited By (35)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0771099A2 (en) * 1995-09-12 1997-05-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Distributed multimedia service system
EP0804012A2 (en) * 1996-04-23 1997-10-29 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Multimedia terminal and method for realising multimedia reception
EP0825748A2 (en) * 1996-07-15 1998-02-25 AT&amp;T Corp. A method and apparatus for restricting access to private information in domain name systems by redirecting query requests
GB2317302A (en) * 1996-09-12 1998-03-18 Sharp Kk A distributed information system
WO1998014894A1 (en) * 1996-09-30 1998-04-09 Viewinn Plc Caching systems
WO1998018089A1 (en) * 1996-10-23 1998-04-30 Pluris, Inc. Parallel local area network server
WO1998024208A2 (en) * 1996-11-23 1998-06-04 Orchestream Limited Data communication system
EP0871127A2 (en) * 1997-04-10 1998-10-14 AT&amp;T Corp. Scalable network object caching
EP0877326A2 (en) * 1997-05-05 1998-11-11 AT&amp;T Corp. Network with shared caching
WO1999003243A1 (en) * 1997-07-08 1999-01-21 France Telecom Interactive System and method for managing transactions between service suppliers and customers on a communication network
WO1999038093A1 (en) * 1998-01-23 1999-07-29 Filepool N.V. Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
WO1999048262A1 (en) * 1998-03-17 1999-09-23 Infolibria, Inc. Message redirector with cut-through switch
EP0993163A1 (en) * 1998-10-05 2000-04-12 Backweb Technologies Ltd. Distributed client-based data caching system and method
GB2343764A (en) * 1998-11-10 2000-05-17 Int Computers Ltd Data processing system for integrated business solution
WO2000073922A2 (en) * 1999-06-01 2000-12-07 Cacheflow, Inc. Content delivery system
EP1096749A2 (en) * 1999-10-28 2001-05-02 V-Sync Technology CO., Ltd. Information distribution system
FR2813733A1 (en) * 2000-09-07 2002-03-08 Vivendi Net Method and system for payment of transmission operations and / or CARRIED service in a packet data transmission network
US6535509B2 (en) 1998-09-28 2003-03-18 Infolibria, Inc. Tagging for demultiplexing in a network traffic server
EP1298538A1 (en) 2001-09-27 2003-04-02 SAP Aktiengesellschaft Method and computer system for identifying object suppliers in a computer network
GB2381337A (en) * 2001-08-30 2003-04-30 Inventec Corp Method and system for reading authorised data
WO2003071800A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2003-08-28 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Distributed storage network architecture using user devices
US6760757B1 (en) 1997-07-11 2004-07-06 Ico Services, Limited Techniques for using a web based server provided in a vehicle
US6807632B1 (en) 1999-01-21 2004-10-19 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
US6976165B1 (en) 1999-09-07 2005-12-13 Emc Corporation System and method for secure storage, transfer and retrieval of content addressable information
US6990352B2 (en) 2002-10-03 2006-01-24 Nokia Corporation GPRS signaling via SMS messages
WO2006041832A2 (en) * 2004-10-05 2006-04-20 Vectormax Corporation Method and system for broadcasting multimedia data
EP1715656A1 (en) * 2005-04-18 2006-10-25 Research In Motion Limited Offering a push service to a wireless device using a push proxy which monitors the coverage state of the device
US7165224B2 (en) 2002-10-03 2007-01-16 Nokia Corporation Image browsing and downloading in mobile networks
US7336925B2 (en) 2002-10-28 2008-02-26 Nokia Corporation Graphical indication of a proximately located device
US7643825B2 (en) * 2005-04-18 2010-01-05 Research In Motion Limited System and method for managing data to be pushed to a wireless device when the device may be outside of a coverage range
US7802310B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2010-09-21 Kinetech, Inc. Controlling access to data in a data processing system
US8074289B1 (en) 1998-01-23 2011-12-06 Emc Corporation Access to content addressable data over a network
US8185576B2 (en) 2006-03-14 2012-05-22 Altnet, Inc. Filter for a distributed network
US8185579B2 (en) 2006-04-13 2012-05-22 Eloy Technology, Llc System and method for obtaining media content for a portable media player
US8307092B2 (en) 2007-02-21 2012-11-06 Napo Enterprises, Llc Method and system for collecting information about a user's media collections from multiple login points

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0278472A2 (en) * 1987-02-13 1988-08-17 International Business Machines Corporation Directory management in distributed data processing system network
US4825354A (en) * 1985-11-12 1989-04-25 American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories Method of file access in a distributed processing computer network
GB2227585A (en) * 1988-12-14 1990-08-01 Hitachi Ltd Method and system for information distribution services
US5230048A (en) * 1986-09-03 1993-07-20 Wang Laboratories, Inc. Data processing system with tree and list data structure
EP0600457A2 (en) * 1992-12-04 1994-06-08 International Business Machines Corporation Distributed data processing system with replication of data across the system
GB2277176A (en) * 1993-04-14 1994-10-19 Fujitsu Ltd Information retrieval system using hierarchical data-management function.

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4825354A (en) * 1985-11-12 1989-04-25 American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories Method of file access in a distributed processing computer network
US5230048A (en) * 1986-09-03 1993-07-20 Wang Laboratories, Inc. Data processing system with tree and list data structure
EP0278472A2 (en) * 1987-02-13 1988-08-17 International Business Machines Corporation Directory management in distributed data processing system network
GB2227585A (en) * 1988-12-14 1990-08-01 Hitachi Ltd Method and system for information distribution services
EP0600457A2 (en) * 1992-12-04 1994-06-08 International Business Machines Corporation Distributed data processing system with replication of data across the system
GB2277176A (en) * 1993-04-14 1994-10-19 Fujitsu Ltd Information retrieval system using hierarchical data-management function.

Cited By (74)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7945544B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2011-05-17 Kinetech, Inc. Similarity-based access control of data in a data processing system
US8001096B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2011-08-16 Kinetech, Inc. Computer file system using content-dependent file identifiers
US7802310B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2010-09-21 Kinetech, Inc. Controlling access to data in a data processing system
US8082262B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2011-12-20 Personalweb Technologies, LLC Methods, systems, and devices supporting data access in a data processing system
US8099420B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2012-01-17 Personalweb Technologies, LLC Accessing data in a data processing system
US7945539B2 (en) 1995-04-11 2011-05-17 Kinetech, Inc. Distributing and accessing data in a data processing system
EP0771099A3 (en) * 1995-09-12 2003-10-29 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Distributed multimedia service system
EP0771099A2 (en) * 1995-09-12 1997-05-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Distributed multimedia service system
EP0804012A2 (en) * 1996-04-23 1997-10-29 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Multimedia terminal and method for realising multimedia reception
US6172673B1 (en) 1996-04-23 2001-01-09 Nokia Mobile Phones, Ltd. Multimedia terminal and method for realizing multimedia reception
EP0804012A3 (en) * 1996-04-23 1999-09-08 Nokia Mobile Phones Ltd. Multimedia terminal and method for realising multimedia reception
EP0825748A2 (en) * 1996-07-15 1998-02-25 AT&amp;T Corp. A method and apparatus for restricting access to private information in domain name systems by redirecting query requests
EP0825748A3 (en) * 1996-07-15 1999-02-24 AT&amp;T Corp. A method and apparatus for restricting access to private information in domain name systems by redirecting query requests
GB2317302A (en) * 1996-09-12 1998-03-18 Sharp Kk A distributed information system
WO1998014894A1 (en) * 1996-09-30 1998-04-09 Viewinn Plc Caching systems
WO1998018089A1 (en) * 1996-10-23 1998-04-30 Pluris, Inc. Parallel local area network server
US5884046A (en) * 1996-10-23 1999-03-16 Pluris, Inc. Apparatus and method for sharing data and routing messages between a plurality of workstations in a local area network
WO1998024208A2 (en) * 1996-11-23 1998-06-04 Orchestream Limited Data communication system
WO1998024208A3 (en) * 1996-11-23 1998-11-05 Inmedia Investment Limited Data communication system
EP0871127A2 (en) * 1997-04-10 1998-10-14 AT&amp;T Corp. Scalable network object caching
EP0871127A3 (en) * 1997-04-10 2001-03-28 AT&amp;T Corp. Scalable network object caching
EP1416402A3 (en) * 1997-05-05 2005-07-13 AT&amp;T Corp. Network with shared caching
EP1416402A2 (en) * 1997-05-05 2004-05-06 AT&amp;T Corp. Network with shared caching
EP0877326A3 (en) * 1997-05-05 2000-03-01 AT&amp;T Corp. Network with shared caching
EP0877326A2 (en) * 1997-05-05 1998-11-11 AT&amp;T Corp. Network with shared caching
WO1999003243A1 (en) * 1997-07-08 1999-01-21 France Telecom Interactive System and method for managing transactions between service suppliers and customers on a communication network
US6760757B1 (en) 1997-07-11 2004-07-06 Ico Services, Limited Techniques for using a web based server provided in a vehicle
US7930550B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2011-04-19 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation and transfer
US8074289B1 (en) 1998-01-23 2011-12-06 Emc Corporation Access to content addressable data over a network
US7591022B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2009-09-15 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
US7487551B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2009-02-03 Emc Corporation Access to content addressable data over a network
US7475432B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2009-01-06 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
US7415731B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2008-08-19 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
WO1999038093A1 (en) * 1998-01-23 1999-07-29 Filepool N.V. Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
WO1999038092A1 (en) * 1998-01-23 1999-07-29 Filepool N.V. Access to content addressable data over a network
US7503076B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2009-03-10 Emc Corporation Access to content addressable data over a network
US7398391B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2008-07-08 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
US7770228B2 (en) 1998-01-23 2010-08-03 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
WO1999048262A1 (en) * 1998-03-17 1999-09-23 Infolibria, Inc. Message redirector with cut-through switch
US6327242B1 (en) 1998-03-17 2001-12-04 Infolibria, Inc. Message redirector with cut-through switch for highly reliable and efficient network traffic processor deployment
US6535509B2 (en) 1998-09-28 2003-03-18 Infolibria, Inc. Tagging for demultiplexing in a network traffic server
EP0993163A1 (en) * 1998-10-05 2000-04-12 Backweb Technologies Ltd. Distributed client-based data caching system and method
GB2343764A (en) * 1998-11-10 2000-05-17 Int Computers Ltd Data processing system for integrated business solution
US6807632B1 (en) 1999-01-21 2004-10-19 Emc Corporation Content addressable information encapsulation, representation, and transfer
WO2000073922A2 (en) * 1999-06-01 2000-12-07 Cacheflow, Inc. Content delivery system
WO2000073922A3 (en) * 1999-06-01 2001-08-16 Entera Inc Content delivery system
US8261066B2 (en) 1999-09-07 2012-09-04 Emc Corporation System and method for secure storage, transfer and retrieval of content addressable information
US6976165B1 (en) 1999-09-07 2005-12-13 Emc Corporation System and method for secure storage, transfer and retrieval of content addressable information
US9497062B1 (en) 1999-09-07 2016-11-15 EMC IP Holding Company LLC System and method for secure storage, transfer and retrieval of content addressable information
EP1096749A2 (en) * 1999-10-28 2001-05-02 V-Sync Technology CO., Ltd. Information distribution system
EP1096749A3 (en) * 1999-10-28 2002-09-04 V-Sync Co., Ltd. Information distribution system
US7493285B2 (en) 2000-09-07 2009-02-17 Cegetel Groupe Payment process and system for transmission and/or service operations within a data packet transmission network
EP1187393A3 (en) * 2000-09-07 2009-04-01 Volubill Payment process and system for transmission and/or service operations within a packet transmission network
EP1187393A2 (en) * 2000-09-07 2002-03-13 Cegetel Groupe Payment process and system for transmission and/or service operations within a packet transmission network
FR2813733A1 (en) * 2000-09-07 2002-03-08 Vivendi Net Method and system for payment of transmission operations and / or CARRIED service in a packet data transmission network
GB2381337A (en) * 2001-08-30 2003-04-30 Inventec Corp Method and system for reading authorised data
EP1298538A1 (en) 2001-09-27 2003-04-02 SAP Aktiengesellschaft Method and computer system for identifying object suppliers in a computer network
WO2003071800A1 (en) * 2002-02-20 2003-08-28 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. Distributed storage network architecture using user devices
CN100405846C (en) 2002-02-20 2008-07-23 皇家飞利浦电子股份有限公司 Distributed storage network architecture using user devices
US7165224B2 (en) 2002-10-03 2007-01-16 Nokia Corporation Image browsing and downloading in mobile networks
US6990352B2 (en) 2002-10-03 2006-01-24 Nokia Corporation GPRS signaling via SMS messages
US7336925B2 (en) 2002-10-28 2008-02-26 Nokia Corporation Graphical indication of a proximately located device
US8230097B2 (en) 2004-10-05 2012-07-24 Vectormax Corporation Method and system for broadcasting multimedia data
WO2006041832A3 (en) * 2004-10-05 2006-07-27 Vectormax Corp Method and system for broadcasting multimedia data
WO2006041832A2 (en) * 2004-10-05 2006-04-20 Vectormax Corporation Method and system for broadcasting multimedia data
US7643825B2 (en) * 2005-04-18 2010-01-05 Research In Motion Limited System and method for managing data to be pushed to a wireless device when the device may be outside of a coverage range
US8014770B2 (en) 2005-04-18 2011-09-06 Research In Motion Limited System and method for managing data to be pushed to a wireless device when the device may be outside of a coverage range
EP1715656A1 (en) * 2005-04-18 2006-10-25 Research In Motion Limited Offering a push service to a wireless device using a push proxy which monitors the coverage state of the device
US8185576B2 (en) 2006-03-14 2012-05-22 Altnet, Inc. Filter for a distributed network
US9098683B2 (en) 2006-03-14 2015-08-04 Global File Systems Holdings, Llc Filter for a distributed network
US8775508B2 (en) 2006-03-14 2014-07-08 Altnet, Inc. Filter for a distributed network
US9037639B2 (en) 2006-04-13 2015-05-19 Eloy Technology, Llc System and method for obtaining media content for a portable media player
US8185579B2 (en) 2006-04-13 2012-05-22 Eloy Technology, Llc System and method for obtaining media content for a portable media player
US8307092B2 (en) 2007-02-21 2012-11-06 Napo Enterprises, Llc Method and system for collecting information about a user's media collections from multiple login points

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB9420383D0 (en) 1994-11-23 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Povey et al. A distributed Internet cache
US6947908B1 (en) System and use for correspondent banking
US7165051B2 (en) Electronic commerce system and method for detecting fraud
US5729594A (en) On-line secured financial transaction system through electronic media
US6546392B1 (en) Self service gateway
US6336095B1 (en) Method for electronic merchandise dispute resolution
US6029151A (en) Method and system for performing electronic money transactions
US7318047B1 (en) Method and apparatus for providing electronic refunds in an online payment system
US5899980A (en) Retail method over a wide area network
US6363357B1 (en) Method and apparatus for providing authorization to make multiple copies of copyright protected products purchased in an online commercial transaction
US6606604B1 (en) Incremental updates of items and prices on a customer&#39;s computer to reduce download times for frequently purchased items in e-commerce transactions in a method, system and program
US7698217B1 (en) Masking private billing data by assigning other billing data to use in commerce with businesses
US6766422B2 (en) Method and system for web caching based on predictive usage
US20020174031A1 (en) System and method for processing multi-currency transactions at a point of sale
US7080035B1 (en) System and method for notifying an electronic billing vendor of a customer status change
US20020156737A1 (en) Identifying, managing, accessing, and tracking digital objects and associated rights and payments
US7203845B2 (en) Multiple trust modes for handling data
US20080010365A1 (en) Methods, products, systems, and devices for processing reusable information
US20040044622A1 (en) Method and apparatus for the payment of internet content
US6014698A (en) System using first banner request that can not be blocked from reaching a server for accurately counting displays of banners on network terminals
US20010034709A1 (en) Anonymous and private browsing of web-sites through private portals
US20020023053A1 (en) System, method and apparatus for international financial transactions
US9026616B2 (en) Content delivery reconciliation
US20020099616A1 (en) System and method for distributing web content on a network
US20010037292A1 (en) Provision of transparent proxy services to a user of a client device

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
WAP Application withdrawn, taken to be withdrawn or refused ** after publication under section 16(1)