GB2283036A - Drilling fluid - Google Patents

Drilling fluid Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2283036A
GB2283036A GB9420934A GB9420934A GB2283036A GB 2283036 A GB2283036 A GB 2283036A GB 9420934 A GB9420934 A GB 9420934A GB 9420934 A GB9420934 A GB 9420934A GB 2283036 A GB2283036 A GB 2283036A
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ester
fluid
glycol
ether
package
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GB2283036B (en )
GB9420934D0 (en )
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William Daniel Carlisle
Gregory Phillip Elliott
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BP CHEM INT Ltd
BP Chemicals Ltd
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BP CHEM INT Ltd
BP Chemicals Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/02Well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/04Aqueous well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/06Clay-free compositions
    • C09K8/12Clay-free compositions containing synthetic organic macromolecular compounds or their precursors
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K8/00Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells; Compositions for treating boreholes or wells, e.g. for completion or for remedial operations
    • C09K8/02Well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/04Aqueous well-drilling compositions
    • C09K8/14Clay-containing compositions
    • C09K8/18Clay-containing compositions characterised by the organic compounds
    • C09K8/22Synthetic organic compounds

Abstract

Water based drilling fluids comprise an aqueous medium, a polyalkylene glycol of formula R<1>O(CH2 - CH(R) - O)nH, wherein R is hydrogen or methyl R<1> is hydrogen or alkyl of 1 - 10 carbons and n is 2 - 200, in amount of 0.5 - 60% by volume of the fluid, and an ester which is at least one of (i) the neutralisation product of an acidic phosphate ester, derived from a fatty alcohol or ethoxylated fatty alcohol, and (ii) a partial ester of a fatty acid, and a polyol with at least 2 hydroxyl groups. The fluid provides a high lubrication with high shale inhibition properties.

Description

DRILLING FLUID This invention relates to water-based drilling fluids which are suitable for use in shale and clay formations.

A drilling fluid is used in conjunction with the rotary system of drilling. The drilling fluid is pumped from the surface down the inside of the rotating drill string, discharged through ports in the bit and returned to the surface via the annular space between the drill string and hole.

The drilling fluid serves to cool and lubricate the bit and drill string, bring drill cuttings to the surface, consolidate the side of the drilled hole, prevent squeezing-in or caving of the formation, control subsurface pressures, suspend drill cuttings when the column is static and minimise damage to any potential pay zone that might be encountered.

Drilling fluids generally contain a carrier, a weighting agent and chemical additives. They are commonly divided into two categories, water based muds (WBM) and oil based muds (OBM). In the former the carrier is an aqueous medium and in the latter it is an oil. Diesel oil was used in the past as the oil, but more recently low toxicity drilling oils have been developed for this purpose.

While WBM are more environmentally acceptable than OBM (since the latter still give rise to the problem of disposing of large quantities of oil contaminated drill cuttings, even if the oil is of low toxicity), they are recognised as being technically inferior in a number of important areas such as thermal stability, lubricity and shale inhibition.

Although shale is soft and therefore relatively easy to drill through, it still causes many problems for the drilling engineer. It disperses easily into the fluid, large lumps break off and fall into the hole, pores in the shale can contain fluids trapped under pressure, and in extreme cases, the borehole wall may collapse.

Since shale makes up a high proportion of the rocks drilled in exploratory and production wells for oil and gas, particularly in important producing areas such as the North Sea, it is important that drilling times and problems be kept to a minimum when drilling through such formations.

Many WBM formulations incorporating additives have been suggested in an attempt to control reactive shales and enhance the lubricity of the fluid. Such additives include: (a) salts such as potassium chloride to limit water uptake, reduce the swelling of the shale, and reduce leaching of any salt deposits encountered, (b) chemically modified starch or cellulosic materials which are used to reduce fluid loss, (c) water soluble polyacrylamides or other water soluble polymers which adsorb on the surface of shale to bind it with a coating of polymer, thereby reducing dispersion of the shale, (d) lime or gypsum which although sparing soluble, act in a similar manner to (a), (e) asphaltene derived products such as gilsonite which assist in fluid loss control by acting as blocking agents for cracks and microfractures, and (f) natural product oils of plant or animal origin to improve the lubricity properties of the fluid.

To date, however, none of these formulations has been able to provide shale inhibition or lubricity to the levels achieved with OBM.

This is because an OBM does not react with shale. A conventional WBM will, however, react to a greater or lesser extent with many shales causing them to swell and can give rise to problems such as stuck pipe, tight hole, overgauge hole, poor directional control, poor cementing and poor mud condition leading to extensive dumping and diluting and therefore high mud costs.

EP 495579 discloses a water based drilling fluid comprising (a) an aqueous medium, (b) a polyalkylene glycol of general formula: R10 ( CH2 - CH(R) - )n H wherein R is H or GH3, R1 is H or an alkyl group containing 1 to 4 carbon atoms and n is a number in the range 4 to 200, in amount 0.5 to 60%, preferably 1 to 20%, by volume of the fluid, and (c) a potassium salt, in amount 5-50, preferably 10-30 ppb (pounds per barrel), ie 14.3-143, preferably 28.6-85.7 g/l.

We have now discovered that the addition of certain esters results in an improved drilling fluid in which a synergistic effect between the glycol component which is the main shale inhibition component and the ester which is the main friction reducing compound-affords a highly lubricating and inhibitive package for addition to whole mud systems.

According to the present invention there is provided a water based drilling fluid comprising: (a) an aqueous medium, (b) a polyalkylene glycol (or ether) of general formula: R10 ( CH2 - CH(R) - 0 )n H (I) wherein R is H or CH3, R1 is H or an alkyl group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms and n is a number in the range 2 to 200e.g. 2-15 such as 2-10 or 3-8, in amount 0.5 to 60%, preferably 1 to 20%, by volume of the fluid, and (c) an ester, which is at least one of (i) the neutralisation product of an acidic phosphate ester of general formula <img class="EMIRef" id="027094039-00040001" />

wherein each of R2 and R3, which are the same or different, is a radical derived from a fatty alcohol or an ethoxylated fatty alcohol, with an alkali metal hydroxide and (ii) a partial ester of a fatty acid and a polyol with at least 2 hydroxyl groups.

The invention also comprises a mixture of (b) and (c) for use in a water based drilling fluid of the invention.

The polyalkylene glycol or ether (b) is preferably water soluble, e.g. in an amount of at least l0g/l in deionized water at 252C, and especially is soluble at 2520 in an amount of at least l0g/l in aqueous potassium chloride solution containing 70g/l KC1.

The polyalkylene glycol (or ether) may but preferably does not exhibit a cloud point at 3Z by weight in distilled water, below 80"C. The glycol or ether usually has an average molecular weight less than 1000 e.g. less than 700 especially 100-600 for polyethylene glycols and 200-450 for polypropylene glycols and 200-550 for copolymeric ethylene/propylene glycols, e.g. with 2080: 80-20 ethylene oxy to propylene oxy units. The glycol may be tri propylene glycol, but is preferably a homo polyethylene glycol e.g. triethylene glycol, and tetra ethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol mixtures of the above formula where R1 and R are H and n is an average of 4-6. Hydroxy ethers with at least one hydroxyl and at least one ether group may also be used, especially monoalkyl ethers (alkyl preferably being of 1-10 carbons, e.g. 1-6 or 1-4 carbons such as methyl, ethyl or butyl) of the above glycols or polyols; examples are the mono butyl ethers of diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol or a polyethylene glycol of the above formula where R1 is butyl and R is H and n is 2-7, usually with an average of 3. The hydroxy ethers are also preferably derived from homo polyethylene glycols.

In the phosphate ester c(i) of formula II or III, the or each group R2 and R3, which may be the same or different, may represent a fatty aliphatic hydrocarbyl group e.g. of 8-30 such as 10-24 carbon atoms, which may be saturated i.e. alkyl or mono or polyunsaturated e.g. alkenyl or polyalkenyl with 2-4 olefinic groups. Examples of such groups are n-octyl, decyl, dodecyl, lauryl, palmityl, stearyl, behenyl and lignoceryl and linolyl, oleyl, linolenyl, ricinolyl and erucyl. Group R2 or R3 may also represent an ethylenoxylated derivative of said fatty group e.g.

with 1-10 ethylene oxy groups such as a polyethylenoxy lauryl or polyoxyethylene (3) oleyl group. The phosphate ester may be of formula II or III or a mixture thereof such as one with 10:90 to 90:10 weight ratio of the two esters; such a mixture may be made by reaction of at least one molecule of formula R20H or a mixture of R20H and R30H with phosphorus pentoxide.

If the alkali metal hydroxide is soluble in the polyalkylene glycol of general formula (I) then the neutralisation product may be prepared by dissolving the acidic phosphate ester in the glycol and then adding the alkali metal hydroxide.

However, if the alkali metal hydroxide is not soluble in the polyalkylene glycol of general formula (I), then it can be dissolved in another polyalkylene glycol e.g. one of formula I wherein n is 1 or 2 or wherein n is 3 or 4 and R1 is H, in which it is soluble and the neutralisation product may be prepared by dissolving the acidic phosphate ester in the glycol of formula (I) and adding the solution of the alkali metal hydroxide in the other glycol.

The ester c(ii) is a partial ester of a fatty acid and a polyol, said polyol having at least 2 hydroxyl groups especially at least 3 hydroxyl groups. The fatty acid is usually a monocarboxylic acid and is preferably of formula R3C02H, whrein R3 represents a fatty aliphatic hydrocarbyl group e.g. of 7-29 such as 9-23 carbon atoms especially an average of 13-23 carbons which may be saturated i.e. alkyl, or mono- or poly- unsaturated e.g.

alkenyl or polyalkenyl with 2-4 olefinic groups. The fatty acid usually has a straight aliphatic chain and may be a natural or synthetic acid. Examples of the fatty acid are n-octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, lauric, palmitic, stearic, behenic, lignoceric, octadecanoic, and oleic, linoleic, linolenic, ricinoleic and erucic acids. The polyol, which is preferably noncyclic, may be an aliphatic polyol e.g. with 3-10 carbons and 3-7 hydroxyl groups attached preferably to a hydrocarbyl group, such as glycerol, trimethylolethane, trimethylol propane, pentaerythritol, 1,2,4 butane triol and 1,2,6-trihydroxyhexane.

The polyol may also be a ether polyol with 2-7 hydroxyls and 1-10 ether oxygen atoms, such as one of formula I wherein R1 is H and n is 1-10; examples are di- and tri-ethylene glycol, diglycerol and glycerol bottoms may also be used. The polyol may also be a sugar alcohol, of 5-7 hydroxyls and 5-7 carbons, such as sorbitol, mannitol, or an anhydride thereof e.g. sorbitan.

The esters (ii) are partial esters and have at least one hydroxyl group e.g. 1-5 hydroxyl groups and at least one fatty acid group e.g. 1-3 and especially 1 or 2 such groups. The molar ratio of the number of hydroxyl groups (i.e. non esterified) in the partial ester to fatty acid groups in the partial ester is usually 0.4-6:1, preferably 0.7-5:1 especially 1-3:1. The hydrophilic lipophilic balance HLB value for the partial ester is usually less than 12, such as 1-12, but preferably less than 9 such as 1-6 especially 1.5-4.The partial ester is usually less soluble than the polyalkylene glycol (or ether) in water or in the aqueous KC1 solution and may be water soluble in an amount of less than l0g/l e.g. l-l0g/1 in deionised water at 250C and especially soluble in an amount of less than lOg/g e.g. 1-10g/l in aqueous potassium chloride solution containing 70g/l KC1 at 25"C.

The amount of the phosphate ester in the water based drilling fluid of the invention is usually 0.05-5% by volume e.g.

0.1-1% by volume and the relative volume of the polyalkylene glycol (or ether) (b) to phosphate ester c(i) is usually 1:1-20:1 e.g. 5:1-15:1. The amount of the carboxylic ester c(ii) in the water based drilling fluid of the invention is usually 0.1-10% by weight e.g. 0.2-2% by weight and the relative volume of the polyalkylene glycol or ether (b) to carboxylic acid ester c(ii) is usually 0.5:1 to 15:1 e.g. 0.5:1 to 5:1 and preferably 1.5-4.5:1.

In the drilling fluid of the invention the polyalkylene glycol (or ether) and the ester, especially the carboxylic ester c(ii), form one liquid phase, and the resulting fluid too usually has one liquid phase, so is substantially free at 250C of any dispersed liquid phase e.g. droplets of glycol (or ether) (b) or ester (c) or liquid hydrocarbon e.g. diesel oil or kerosene. The fluid is thus usually a solution not a dispersion or oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsion. Hydrotropes are usually absent.

A potassium salt (d) is preferably present in the fluid of the invention and is usually in amount 5 to 50, preferably 10 to 30 ppb (pounds per barrel), ie, in amount 14.3 to 143, preferably 28.6 to 85.7 g/l.

The salt is preferably potassium chloride. However, other potassium salts such as formate, acetate, carbonate and phosphate are also suitable.

The fluid may also contain additional conventional ingredients such as weighting agents, eg barite, haematite or galena; viscosifiers, eg xanthan gum; fluid loss control agents, eg starch or cellulose derivatives e.g. carboxy methyl cellulose; shale inhibitors, eg polyacrylamide; and pH control agents, eg sodium or potassium hydroxide. The pH is suitably controlled to a value in the range 7 to 13. The amount of fluid loss additive, may be 0.5-15 ppb (pounds per barrel), e.g. 1-5 ppb, i.e. 1.43 42.9g/1, preferably 2.86-14.3g/l, or 5-15 ppb. The aqueous drilling fluids may also comprise a defoamer e.g. a silicone or aluminium based defoamer.

The aqueous medium may be fresh or salt water or brine or formation water.

The invention is illustrated with reference to the following Examples.

Example 1 Preparation of Combined Lubricant/Shale Inhibitor Package Neutralising Solution To 200g of a mixture of polyethylene glycols with an average molecular weight of 194 and an average of 3-5 ethylene oxy groups, 30g of crushed potassium hydroxide was slowly added while stirring vigorously and maintaining the temperature at 1500F (66 C). The resulting solution was allowed to cool.

Preparation of Package A To lOOg of a mixture A of polyalkylene glycols which are copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in molar proportion of 1:1 and average molecular weight of 500 which has a cloud point in distilled water at less than 80"C, was added lOg of a phosphated ester of polyoxyethylene (3) oleyl alcohol. With vigorous stirring of this resulting mixture, 12g of the neutralising solution was added until a pH of 7 was obtained to afford a sample of Package A.

Preparation of Package B The preparation was similar to the preparation of Package A but used, instead of mixture A, a mixture B which was mono butyl ethers of a mixture of polyethylene glycols with 2-7 ethylenoxy groups and an average of 3, and an average molecular weight of 230. This ether mixture B was soluble at 250C, both in water and in aqueous KC1 solution containing 70g/lKCl in amounts greater than 10g/l. The ether mixture does not exhibit a cloud point at 3% by weight in distilled water below 80"C.

For maximum efficiency, Package A or Package B should be added to whole mud systems at a level of 3% by volume.

Laboratorv Evaluation of Lubricitv and Shale Inhibition The performances of Packages A and B were evaluated in seawater in the presence of potassium chloride, potassium formate and potassium acetate (and for the lubricity experiments, also in the presence of xanthum gum to confer viscosity). Seawater and potassium chloride form the typical 'base' fluid of a water based mud system; however, alternative sources of potassium ions such as potassium acetate and formate may be used.

Shale Inhibition and Lubricitv Procedure To evaluate the inhibitive properties of a fluid containing Package A or Package B, 3% (w/w -10.5 ppb) was added to seawater and a known amount of dispersive London Clay (2-4mm fraction) added and the resulting mixture rolled at room temperature at 20 rpm for 16 hours. At the end of this time the non dispersed clay fraction ( > 0.5mm) was recovered, dried, weighed and any correlation between shale inhibition and additive type noted.

For the purposes of determining lubricity, the standardised testing procedure "Procedure for Determination of Lubricity Coefficient" - American Petroleum Institute API RP 13B (1982) was used.

In these experiments, potassium chloride and other salts were added to the mixture and comparisons were carried out with mixtures A and B (without phosphate ester present).

Results Fluid Composition % Shale Recovers Lubricitv Coefficient SW 1 0.32 SW/KC1 6 0.32 SW/KCl/Mixture A 93 0.24 SW/KC1/Mixture B 88 0.23 SW/KCl/Package A 100 0.06 SW/KCl/Package B 98 0.07 SW/KOAc 3 0.31 SW/KOAc/Mixture A 90 0.28 SW/KOAc/Mixture B 70 0.27 SW/KOAc/Package A 99 0.08 SW/KOAc/Package B 97 0.07 SW/KFormate 4 0.32 SW/KFormate/Mixture A 89 0.28 SW/KFormate/Mixture B 82 0.26 SW/KFormate/Package A 100 0.07 SW/KFormate/Package B 98 0.06 SW = seawater * All potassium salts added at lOppb.

* Mixture A and B additives added at 8.8 ppb (2.5% wt/wt) * Package A and Package B additives added at 10.5 ppb (3X wt/wt) * Lubricity measurements - fluid comprises seawater, 1 ppb xanthan gum polymer to confer viscosity and additives at above concentrations.

Conclusion: The copresence of the mixture A or B with the phosphate ester enhances both the lubricity of the fluid and its shale inhibition properties.

Example 2 Procedure To assess highly inhibitive fully formulated water based drilling fluid ("mud") systems, a more aggressive cuttings dispersion test was adopted. The test used approximately 100 grams of London Clay or other suitable shale chips in the size range 4-8mm. The chips were placed inside a cylindrical drum whose curved surface comprised a 5mm brass or steel mesh. The drum containing the shale was partly immersed (to half the diameter of the drum) in the mud under test and the drum rotated for 4 hours. After this time the shale remaining was recovered, washed, dried and the amount of shale lost by dispersion into the fluid calculated. Examinations of the amounts of shale recovered in differing mud systems provide comparisons of the relative inhibitive nature of the mud systems under test.

Mud Svstem 1 Seawater 2 KOl - 25 ppb 3 Xanthan gum - 1 ppb 4 Drilling starch - 4 ppb 5 Anionic polyacrylamide - 1 ppb The components were added in the above numerical sequence with stirring on a Hamilton Beach mixer at high speed for 5 minutes following the addition of each component.

Results Additive % Recoverv - Cuttings Dispersion Test None 15 Mixture A 64 Mixture B 57 Package A 75 Package B 72 Conclusion: The presence of the lubricity component enhances the lubricity of the fluid and its shale inhibition properties.

Example 3 Procedure To assess any effects that Package A or Package B might have on the components in a whole mud system, a typical water based mud system was made up as follows.

Mud Svstem 1 Seawater 2 KOl - 25ppb 3 Xanthan gum - 1 ppb 4 Drilling starch - 4 ppb 5 Anionic polyacrylamide - 1 ppb 6 Simulated drill solids - 30 ppb 7 Baryte - 150 ppb The components were added in the above numerical sequence with stirring on a Hamilton Beach mixer at high speed for five minutes following the addition of each component.

Using the above formulation as a base, samples containing Package A and Package B were prepared (addition at 3% by volume) and rheologies measured before hot rolling and after hot rolling.

* All rheological data measured at 1200F (49 C).

* Hot rolling test is at 1500F (66"C) for 16 hours in Inconel stainless steel bombs.

Mud System PV YP Gel Fluid Loss (Before Hot Rolling) Base 25 29 12/14 6 Base + Package A 27 24 12/13 7.2 Base + Package B 25 26 11/14 7.3 (After Hot Rolling) Base 23 26 10/12 8 Base + Package A 22 24 11/12 7 Base + Package B 25 22 10/13 7.5 Units: PV (Plastic Viscosity, cP);YP (Yield Point lb/100ft2); Gel (lOs/lOm), Fluid Loss (ml) Conclusion: The presence of Packages A and B does not affect rheological mud properties.

Example 4 To 150g of the mixture B ethers used in Example 1 was added 50 g of a commercial partial ester of a fatty acid, as further described below. Solutions with one liquid phase at 250C were formed and were stirred for 30 min. The partial esters were (X) glyceryl monooleate HLB 3.3 (sold as GMON/E by Croda), (Y) tetraethylene glycol monooleate), and (Z) glyceryl monoricinoleate HLB 3.6 (sold as GMR S/E by Croda) to give with the mixture B ethers as described above solutions designated packages X, Y and Z respectively.

The packages X and Y were tested for their activity in lubricity and shale inhibition in the same way as were tested packages A and B in Example 1.

The Results were as follows: FLUID COMPOSITION X SHALE RECOVERY LUBRICITY CO-EFFICIENT SW 1 0.32 SW/KC1 6 0.32 SW/KCl/Mixture B 88 0.23 SW/KCl/Package X 100 0.04 SW/KCl/Package Y 98 0.11 SW/KCl/Package Z 100 0.04 Example 5 The process of Example 2 was repeated with the mud system of Example 2 and then addition of components as specified below.

Results: Additive % Recovery - Cuttings Dispersion Test None 15 Mixture B 57 Package X 79 Example 6 The process of Example 3 was repeated with modified mud systems 1 and 2; system 1 comprised sea water, 25 ppb KC1 1.5 ppb xanthan gum, 4 ppb drilling starch and 0.5 ppb anionic polyacrylamide while system 2 contained in addition to system 1, also 40 ppb simulated drill solids and baryte up to Specific Gravity 1.3. Package X was added at 3% by volume separately to the system 1 and 2 and the rheologies of the aqueous drilling fluids obtained tested before and after hot rolling [200 F (930C) for 16hr in Inconel Stainless Steel Bombs]. The tests were otherwise performed as in Example 3.

The results were as follows: MUD SYSTEM PV YP GEL FLUID LOSS Before hot rolling System I 10 21 7/11 System I + Package X 9 22 8/11 -- System II 20 38 17/23 4.2 System II + Package X 19 36 15/25 5.2 After hot rolling System I + Package X 13 16 10/13 -- System II + Package X 19 45 22/26 6.1 Units: PV (Plastic Viscosity, cP); YP (Yield Point, lb/100ft2); Gel (lOs/lOmin); Fluid Loss (ml).

CONCLUSION: The presence of Package X does not adversely affect rheological mud properties.

Example 7 An aqueous drilling mud was made of the following components: MUD COMPOSITION: Freshwater (0.867 bls), KOl (20ppb), KOH (0.6ppb), xanthan gum Clppb), drilling starch (2ppb), anionic polyacrylamide (lppb) and baryte (187ppb) and variable amounts of Package X. The mud was not heat treated prior to use.

The water based mud systems were then tested for lubricity in apparatus representing a 1/4 scale simulation of the contact between a drillstring and pipe casing or formation core. The mud was evaluated under flow conditions (ca. 5 1/mien) in a circulating system at 60 C. Package X was added to the mud at 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5% and 6.0X (weight) in 10 minute intervals via shear mixing into the mud reservoir.

PIPE CASING: An N80 carbon manganese steel cylinder was used for the pipe casing specimen - 65mm long, 101.4mm in outer diameter and 50mm in internal diameter.

DRILL STRING: The drill string specimen was made of EN19T steel (0.4% C, 0.35% Mo, 1.0% Cr, 0.05% S). It was 40mm long and 31.5mm in diameter.

SIDE LOAD: A 150 N side load was applied during the testing.

Under the geometry of the appratus this represented a typical side load of 260 lb/ft at a rotation speed of 400rpm (corresponds to lOOrpm for full size drill pipe).

RESULTS: Friction between pipe casing and drill string Amount of Package X Reduction in friction (% by wt) coefficient (%) 1.5 11 3.0 32 There was no further reduction beyond 32% in the friction coefficient in drilling muds with 4.5% or 6.0% by weight of Package X.

Examples 8-11 Lubricity tests were performed on a number of drilling mud formulations made from sea water (200ml), xanthan gum (lppb) and potassium hydroxide to pH10, then the ester as described below (1.5g) and finally the butyl glycol ether mixture used in Package B (4.5g). The test was performed as described in Example 1, but the results are expressed in terms of the degree of reduction in the lubricity coefficient compared to the value without the ester and ether mixture. The results were as follows.

Example Ester HLB Reduction in Lubricity Coeff.

8 Glycerol Monooleate (coda) 3.3 90% 9 Sorbitan trioleate (Span 85) 1.8 80% 10 Sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) 4.3 89% 11 Sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20) 8.6 78% Example 12 The tests for Examples 8-11 were performed with a formulation as in Example 8, but with the butyl glycol ether replaced by the same weight of mixture A polyalkylene glycols used in Example 1. These polyalkylene glycols are soluble at 250C both in water and aqueous KC1 solution containing 70g/l KC1 in an amount of at least 10g/l; the polyalkylene glycols show a cloud point at 3% by weight in distilled water of less than 80"C. The % reduction in Lubricity Coefficient was 69%.

Claims (10)

Claims:
1. A water based drilling fluid comprising: (a) an aqueous medium, (b) a polyalkylene glycol (or ether) of general formula: R10 (CH2 - CH(R) -O)nH (I) wherein R is H or CH3, R1 is H or an alkyl group containing 1 to 10 carbon atoms and n is a number in the range 2 to 200 in amount 0.5 to 60% by volume of the fluid, and (c) an ester, which is at least one of (i) the neutralisation product of an acidic phosphate ester of general formula <img class="EMIRef" id="027094040-00160001" />
wherein each of R2 and R3, which are the same or different, is a radical derived from a fatty alcohol or an ethoxylated fatty alcohol, with an alkali metal hydroxide and (ii) a partial ester of a fatty acid and a polyol with at least 2 hydroxyl groups.
2. A fluid according to claim 1 which is one liquid phase at 25"C.
3. A fluid according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the glycol or ether (b) is water soluble and has an average molecular weight of less than 700.
4. A fluid according to claim 3 wherein the glycol or ether (b) is a copolymeric ethylene glycol/propylene glycol or an alkyl ether of a polyethylene glycol.
5. A fluid according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the ester (c)(ii) is a partial ester with a polyol with at least 3 hydroxyl groups.
6. A fluid according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the ester (c)(ii) is a partial ester of a straight chain fatty mono carboxylic acid of 9-23 carbon atoms said ester having a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 1-6.
7. A fluid according to any one of the preceding claims, which also comprises a potassium salt.
8. A mixture of a polyalkylene glycol or ether (b) and ester (c), each as defined in any one of the preceding claims.
9. A method of drilling involving pumping a drilling fluid from the surface down inside a rotating drill string, discharging said fluid through ports in the bit and returning said fluid to the surface via the annular space between the drill string and hole, in which the drilling fluid is as claimed in any one of claims 17.
10. Use of a mixture of a polyalkylene glycol or ether (b) and ester (c) as claimed in claim 8 for lubrication and shale inhibition in an aqueous drilling fluid.
GB9420934A 1993-10-22 1994-10-17 Drilling fluid Expired - Fee Related GB2283036B (en)

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Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1996024645A1 (en) * 1995-02-10 1996-08-15 Sofitech N.V. Drilling fluid
WO1997010313A1 (en) * 1995-09-11 1997-03-20 M-I L.L.C. Glycol based drilling fluid
EP0770661A1 (en) * 1995-10-27 1997-05-02 B W Mud Limited Lubricant for drilling mud
US5977031A (en) * 1996-08-02 1999-11-02 M-I L.L.C. Ester based invert emulsion drilling fluids and muds having negative alkalinity
US5990050A (en) * 1998-01-08 1999-11-23 M-I L.L.C. Water soluble invert emulsions
US6029755A (en) * 1998-01-08 2000-02-29 M-I L.L.C. Conductive medium for openhole logging and logging while drilling
US6242389B1 (en) 1997-04-14 2001-06-05 Bp Chemicals Limited Ethers
US6308788B1 (en) 1998-01-08 2001-10-30 M-I Llc Conductive medium for openhole logging and logging while drilling
WO2002002713A1 (en) * 2000-07-05 2002-01-10 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method and fluid for controlling saturation of a formation around a well
US6589917B2 (en) 1996-08-02 2003-07-08 M-I Llc Invert emulsion drilling fluids and muds having negative alkalinity and elastomer compatibility
US6793025B2 (en) 1998-01-08 2004-09-21 M-I L. L. C. Double emulsion based drilling fluids
US6806235B1 (en) 1998-11-17 2004-10-19 Cognis Deutschland Gmbh & Co. Kg Lubricants for drilling fluids
US6828279B2 (en) 2001-08-10 2004-12-07 M-I Llc Biodegradable surfactant for invert emulsion drilling fluid
WO2005087891A1 (en) * 2004-03-09 2005-09-22 Imperial Chemical Industries Plc Improved drilling fluids
WO2006013596A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2006-02-09 Lamberti S.P.A. Shale inhibitors for the petroleum industry
US7238647B2 (en) 2000-07-05 2007-07-03 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method and fluid for controlling the saturation of a formation around a well
WO2009014821A3 (en) * 2007-07-20 2009-03-19 Tobias Johannes Futterer Method for recovering crude oil from a subterranean formation
US7919449B2 (en) 2007-06-12 2011-04-05 Rhodia Operations Detergent composition with hydrophilizing soil-release agent and methods for using same
US8993506B2 (en) 2006-06-12 2015-03-31 Rhodia Operations Hydrophilized substrate and method for hydrophilizing a hydrophobic surface of a substrate
US9725641B2 (en) 2012-03-29 2017-08-08 Axel R. Johnson Methods fluids by producing and employing oil and gas well drilling and completion fluids as well as hydraulic fracturing fluids employing triglyceride processing by products and propylene glycol recovered from aircraft deicing operations

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JP5774307B2 (en) 2007-06-12 2015-09-09 ソルベイ ユーエスエー インコーポレイティド Method of cleaning a hard surface cleaning composition having a hydrophilizing agent, hard surfaces
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EP0495579A2 (en) * 1991-01-12 1992-07-22 The British Petroleum Company P.L.C. Drilling fluid

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Cited By (29)

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WO1996024645A1 (en) * 1995-02-10 1996-08-15 Sofitech N.V. Drilling fluid
WO1997010313A1 (en) * 1995-09-11 1997-03-20 M-I L.L.C. Glycol based drilling fluid
US6291405B1 (en) 1995-09-11 2001-09-18 M-I Llc Glycol based drilling fluid
EP0770661A1 (en) * 1995-10-27 1997-05-02 B W Mud Limited Lubricant for drilling mud
US6589917B2 (en) 1996-08-02 2003-07-08 M-I Llc Invert emulsion drilling fluids and muds having negative alkalinity and elastomer compatibility
US5977031A (en) * 1996-08-02 1999-11-02 M-I L.L.C. Ester based invert emulsion drilling fluids and muds having negative alkalinity
US6242389B1 (en) 1997-04-14 2001-06-05 Bp Chemicals Limited Ethers
US5990050A (en) * 1998-01-08 1999-11-23 M-I L.L.C. Water soluble invert emulsions
US6029755A (en) * 1998-01-08 2000-02-29 M-I L.L.C. Conductive medium for openhole logging and logging while drilling
US6308788B1 (en) 1998-01-08 2001-10-30 M-I Llc Conductive medium for openhole logging and logging while drilling
US6793025B2 (en) 1998-01-08 2004-09-21 M-I L. L. C. Double emulsion based drilling fluids
EP1137736B1 (en) * 1998-11-17 2005-03-09 Cognis Deutschland GmbH &amp; Co. KG Lubricants for drilling fluids
US6806235B1 (en) 1998-11-17 2004-10-19 Cognis Deutschland Gmbh & Co. Kg Lubricants for drilling fluids
US6740625B1 (en) * 2000-07-05 2004-05-25 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method and fluid for checking the saturation of a formation in the immediate vicinity of a well
JP2004519526A (en) * 2000-07-05 2004-07-02 オレオン エヌ ヴェー Method and apparatus for controlling the saturation of oil wells nearby structures
WO2002002713A1 (en) * 2000-07-05 2002-01-10 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method and fluid for controlling saturation of a formation around a well
US7238647B2 (en) 2000-07-05 2007-07-03 Institut Francais Du Petrole Method and fluid for controlling the saturation of a formation around a well
FR2811326A1 (en) * 2000-07-05 2002-01-11 Inst Francais Du Petrole Method and fluid to control the saturation of a formation near a well
US6828279B2 (en) 2001-08-10 2004-12-07 M-I Llc Biodegradable surfactant for invert emulsion drilling fluid
WO2005087891A1 (en) * 2004-03-09 2005-09-22 Imperial Chemical Industries Plc Improved drilling fluids
EP2298847A1 (en) * 2004-03-09 2011-03-23 Croda International Plc Improved drilling fluids
US7343986B2 (en) 2004-03-09 2008-03-18 Croda International Plc Drilling fluids
CN100471927C (en) 2004-03-09 2009-03-25 禾大国际股份公开有限公司 Improved drilling fluids
US7614462B2 (en) 2004-03-09 2009-11-10 Croda International Plc Drilling fluids
WO2006013596A1 (en) * 2004-08-06 2006-02-09 Lamberti S.P.A. Shale inhibitors for the petroleum industry
US8993506B2 (en) 2006-06-12 2015-03-31 Rhodia Operations Hydrophilized substrate and method for hydrophilizing a hydrophobic surface of a substrate
US7919449B2 (en) 2007-06-12 2011-04-05 Rhodia Operations Detergent composition with hydrophilizing soil-release agent and methods for using same
WO2009014821A3 (en) * 2007-07-20 2009-03-19 Tobias Johannes Futterer Method for recovering crude oil from a subterranean formation
US9725641B2 (en) 2012-03-29 2017-08-08 Axel R. Johnson Methods fluids by producing and employing oil and gas well drilling and completion fluids as well as hydraulic fracturing fluids employing triglyceride processing by products and propylene glycol recovered from aircraft deicing operations

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