GB2274526A - Verifying geometry of a part - Google Patents

Verifying geometry of a part Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2274526A
GB2274526A GB9400881A GB9400881A GB2274526A GB 2274526 A GB2274526 A GB 2274526A GB 9400881 A GB9400881 A GB 9400881A GB 9400881 A GB9400881 A GB 9400881A GB 2274526 A GB2274526 A GB 2274526A
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GB
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
computer model
digitized data
part
fabricated part
point
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9400881A
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GB9400881D0 (en )
Inventor
Jnr Charles A Hahs
Stefan Peana
Jerrold Scott Pine
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Motorola Solutions Inc
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Motorola Solutions Inc
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Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/0002Inspection of images, e.g. flaw detection
    • G06T7/0004Industrial image inspection
    • G06T7/001Industrial image inspection using an image reference approach
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/18Numerical control [NC], i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form
    • G05B19/401Numerical control [NC], i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form characterised by control arrangements for measuring, e.g. calibration and initialisation, measuring workpiece for machining purposes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/30Subject of image; Context of image processing
    • G06T2207/30108Industrial image inspection
    • G06T2207/30164Workpiece; Machine component

Abstract

A method for determining, visualizing and analyzing discrepancy between a fabricated part and a computer model of a part comprises the steps of creating the computer model of the part (802), creating a digitized data base of the fabricated part (804), and then translating, rotating, scaling and merging the computer model and the digitized data base (806). Then, the distance from at least one digitized data point of the fabricated part to the computer model is 810 determined (810). Subsequently (814), vectors depicting the discrepancy between the computer model and the digitized data base are created. The vectors are then categorized based on magnitude and direction of the discrepancy (814), (818), (822). Finally, the discrepancy is represented or displayed (828). <IMAGE>

Description

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR VERIFYING GEOMETRY Field of the Invention This invention relates in general to part geometry inspection and analysis methods, and more specifically to those methods which utilize 3-d digitization of a fabricated part.

Background of the Invention Mechanical parts are designed using computer models in the form of wire-frame, surface or solid models. The designed parts are then fabricated using a combination of dimensioned drawings and computer aided manufacturing techniques such as numerically controlled machining directly from the part's computer model database. Fabricated parts deviate from the computer model because of tolerances inherent to the employed manufacturing processes and errors in assembly and design.

Traditional methods for inspection and analysis of fabricated part geometry and the depiction of discrepancy between the fabricated part and the computer model of the part have been based on dimensioned drawings and specific points measured using coordinate measurement machines.

Coordinate measurement machines have a touch or optical probe which is moved to points on the part which define the part geometry, so that a coordinate measurement can be made. These coordinates are used to define feature geometry in terms of attributes such as pin or circle diameter, hole depth, circle concentricity, etc.. The resulting inspected values of the entity attributes are tabulated and compared with acceptable values based on engineering tolerance specifications. Coordinate measurement machines require significant operation time and expensive computer programming to obtain relative coordinate measurements of particular part features. Coordinate measurement machines have become advanced with the addition of numerical control, so that a part program is written to control the movement of the machine and the measurements made.Once a part program has been created for a particular part, repeat measurements are accomplished more quickly, more easily and more repeatable.

Even with the advancement of coordinate measurement techniques, analysis is still cumbersome and discrete. The difficulty of specifying all features requiring inspection often results in incomplete inspection, and once inspection results are available to the engineer, interpretation is tedious and error prone. Often more inspection is required to better understand the results.

Thus, what is needed is a methodology and apparatus for determining the discrepancy between computer model and fabricated part using an automatic comparison between the digitized points of a fabricated part and a computer model.

Summary of the Invention A method for determining, visualizing and analyzing discrepancy between a fabricated part and a computer model of a part comprises the steps of creating a computer model of a part, creating digitized data of the fabricated part, translating, rotating, or scaling, when required for alignment, the relationship between computer model and the digitized data of the fabricated part, and merging the computer model and the digitized data of the fabricated part.Then, the method determines the discrepancy from at least one digitized data point of the digitized data of the fabricated part or from at least one point derived from the digitized data of the fabricated part to the computer model, categorizes a geometry which is derived from the digitized data of the fabricated part based on the discrepancy, and represents the discrepancy between the digitized data base of the fabricated part and the computer model.

Brief Description of the Drawings FIG. 1 is an isometric view of a computer model of a part in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 2 is an isometric view of a fabricated part in accordance with the present invention..

FIG. 3 is an isometric view of the fabricated part in figure 2 and a single row of digitized points on the top of the fabricated part in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 4 is an isometric view of the merging of the database of the computer model of the part with the digitized database of the of the fabricated part but before translating, scaling, and rotating in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 5 is an isometric view of the database of the computer model of the part and the digitized point database from the fabricated part after merging, positioning, orienting and scaling of the two databases together in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 6 is the same as FIG. 5 with the addition of vector end points created with one end of the vector at the digitized point on the fabricated part and the other end at the closest corresponding point on the computer model of the part in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 7 is the same as FIG. 6 with the addition of the vectors shown in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8 is a flow chart in accordance with the method of the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a block diagram of a computer and measuring machine in accordance with the present invention.

Detailed Description of the Invention Referring to FIG. 1, a computer model or database of the computer model is represented as wire-frame, surfaces or solids or any combination of wire-frame, surfaces or solids which describe a part or assembly of parts.

The model of this particular example has nine faces or surfaces. The inclined face (101) intersects the horizontal face (103) at edge (102).

FIG. 2 depicts a fabricated part (200) which was manufactured according to the computer model (100), but the fabricated part (200) has discrepancies. The fabricated part has eleven faces or surfaces. The inclined surface (201) of the fabricated part (200) is elevated and separated from the horizontal face (203) of the fabricated part (200), so that there is no edge formed by the intersection of the inclined face (201) and the horizontal face (203).

By submitting the fabricated part (200) to any method of 3dimensional digitizing, a set of coordinate data of the digitized points or a digitized database 300 is created. Digitization is preferably accomplished by any contact or non-contact profiling or sectioning characterization. Figure 3 illustrates fabricated part (200) and graphical representation of digitized coordinates (301,302) which is part of the total digitized data base 300 (not shown). Digitized points (301) lie on the inclined face (201) of fabricated part (200). Digitized points (302) lie on the horizontal face (203) of fabricated part (200). Of course, many other digitized points can exist, but just points 301 on inclined surface 201 and points 302 on horizontal surface 203 are shown for clarity.

The created digitized database of the fabricated part and the database of the computer model are then preferably merged (not added to each other to create a third entity) or otherwise superimposed as shown in FIG. 4. The outline of the fabricated part 200 is shown in ghost lines to emphasize that it is the created digitized data 300 that is being merged with the database (200) of the computer model.

Once the digitized data has been created, the computer model of the part (100) and the digitized data base (300) are merged, translated, rotated and scaled so that their reference frames match as depicted in Figure 5. The translating, rotating and scaling can be performed on either the digitized data base or the computer model or on both and in any desired order as contemplated within the present invention. In other words, the relationship between the computer model and the digitized data of the fabricated part needs to be aligned. For instance, the translating, rotating and scaling can be performed solely on the computer model if desired, so long as the reference frame of the digitized database and the computer model match.In another example, the translation, rotation and scaling can be performed prior to or subsequent to merging the digitized data of the fabricated part with the computer model. The alignment of the relationship between the computer model and the digitized data can be done in numerous ways within the scope and spirit of the present invention.

Digitized points (301) on the inclined face (201) of fabricated part (200) are substantially elevated above the inclined face (101) of the computer model of the part (100), because the inclined face (201) of the fabricated part (200) is substantially elevated with respect to the matched reference frame of the computer model of the part. Points digitized (302) on the horizontal face (203) of fabricated part (200) are located very close to the horizontal face (103) of computer model (200).

After operation of the described process depicted in the flowchart of FIG. 8, digitized points (301,302) points are divided into categories preferably based on the distance from the digitized point to the computer model of the part. Categorization of the digitized points, vectors, lines, surfaces, and other geometries can be based on other criteria (perhaps using one of a myriad of functions or as simple as selecting a random or arbitrary point on a created surface based on the digitized data) as contemplated by those skilled in the art. Categorization may be represented in the form of changing the layers, colors, groups, computer files, computer directories of the point entity or the point may be ignored or eliminated from the database, or any other method of identifying categories.

In addition to categorizing the digitized point (301,302), after operation of the described process depicted in the flowchart of Figure 8, points (401, 402) on the computer model which are preferably closest (again other criteria can be used) to the digitized points (301,302) are conditionally created and conditionally categorized based on the distance of the respective digitized point from the computer model. The closest point (401) on the computer model to digitized point (301) is created and categorized based on the distance of digitized point (301) to the computer model as shown in FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is a flow chart disclosing a particular algorithm 800 in accordance with a method of the present invention. Initially, a computer model of the part in the form of a solid, or surfaces or wireframe or any combination thereof is created (step 802). Next, a fabricated model of a part is digitized to create a database of digitized points or coordinates (step 804).

Although, in the preferred in embodiment the fabricated part should be based on the computer model, the present invention is not limited to such.

For instance, any fabricated part can be compared to a different computer model for analysis and comparison. Next, either the computer model or the digitized data base of the fabricated part or both are preferably translated, rotated, and scaled to have matching reference frames (step 806).

Additionally, the digitized database and the computer model are merged into one database.

The analysis begins by selecting a digitized point of the fabricated part (step 808). The shortest distance between the digitized point of the fabricated part to the computer model is determined (step 810). Next, the algorithm 800 runs through a series of options. In the "create lines option" (step 812) the algorithm creates a vector from the digitized point of the fabricated part to the closest point on the computer model and optionally categorizes the vector based on the shortest distance and/or the best direction from the digitized point to the computer model (step 814).In the next option (step 816), the algorithm can categorize the digitized point of the fabricated part based on the shortest distance and/or the best direction from the digitized point to the computer model (step 818). In the final option (step 820), the algorithm 800 can create a point on the computer model which is closest to the digitized point and likewise optionally categorize the digitized point based on the shortest distance from the digitized point to the computer model (step 822). The process is repeated as shown until all digitized points have been evaluated (step 824).Once all the digitized points have been evaluated (step 826), then the discrepancy can be represented in a display (step 828) by showing a graphical representation of the categorization in different colors, layers, groups, or computer files or other distinguishing manner one ordinarily skilled in the art can contemplate. For example, if the discrepancy falls within a first tolerance, then the points, lines, vectors, or surfaces can be color coded with a first color or distinguished in a first distinguishable layer. If the the discrepancy falls within a second tolerance, then the points, lines, vectors, or surfaces can be color coded with a second color or distinguished in a second distinguishable layer. Alternatively, the vectors themselves can be shown.

In addition to the two operations discussed above, after operation of the described process depicted in the flowchart of FIG. 8, points (401, 402) on the computer model and digitized points (301, 302) are conditionally connected by lines (501) as depicted in FIG. 7. Connecting lines (501) are conditionally categorized based on the distance and/or the best direction of the respective digitized point from the computer model.

Using this method, a graphical representation of the magnitude and direction of the discrepancy between computer model and fabricated part is achieved. Furthermore, comprehensive and automatic discrepancy analysis based on the groupings of created and categorized entities is possible.

Referring to FIG. 9, a block diagram of an apparatus 10 for determining, visualizing and analyzing discrepancy between a fabricated part 18 and a computer model of a part is shown. The apparatus 10 preferably comprises a means for creating a computer model of a part such as a computer 12 having sufficient memory and processing power for such applications and a means 16 for creating a digitized data base of the fabricated part 18 such as any any contact or non-contact profiling or sectioning characterization apparatus such a coordinate measuring machine or a profilometer.Furthermore, the apparatus 10 comprises a means for translating, rotating, scaling and merging the computer model and the digitized data base of fabricated part, for determining the distance from at least one digitized data point of the fabricated part to the computer model, for creating at least one vector depicting the discrepancy between the computer model and the digitized data base of the fabricated part, and for categorizing the vector(s) or geometry based on magnitude and direction of the discrepancy. The aforementioned means is preferably embodied by the computer 12 with the appropriate software routines in accordance with the flow chart of FIG. 8. Finally, the apparatus 10 comprises a means 14 for representing the discrepancy between the digitized data base of the fabricated part and the computer model, preferably a color computer monitor or screen.

Although the invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, it is to be understood that numerous other arrangements in accordance with the present invention may readily be devised by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

Claims (20)

1. A method for determining, visualizing and analyzing discrepancy between a fabricated part and a computer model of a part, comprising the steps of: (a) creating a computer model of a part; (b) creating digitized data of the fabricated part; (c) translating, rotating, or scaling, when required for alignment, the relationship between computer model and the digitized data of the fabricated part; (d) merging the computer model and the digitized data of the fabricated part; (e) determining the discrepancy from at least one digitized data point of the digitized data of the fabricated part or from at least one point derived from the digitized data of the fabricated part to the computer model; (f) categorizing a geometry which is derived from the digitized data of the fabricated part based on the discrepancy; and (g) representing the discrepancy between the digitized data base of the fabricated part and the computer model.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the creating of the computer model is represented as wire-frame, surfaces or solids or any combination of wireframe, surfaces or solids which describe a part or assembly of parts.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the creating of the digitized data base of the fabricated part is accomplished by any contact or non-contact profiling or sectioning characterization.
4. The method in accordance with claim 1, where translation, rotation and scaling is performed prior to merging the digitized data of the fabricated part with the computer model.
5. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the translating, rotating and scaling is performed after merging the digitized data of the fabricated part with the computer model.
6. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein at least one point on the computer model which is closest to the digitized point of the fabricated part or closest to the point derived from the digitized data of the fabricated part is created.
7. The method in accordance with claim 6, further comprising the creating of a line from the digitized data point of the fabricated part or from the point derived from the digitized data of the fabricated part to the point on the computer model which is closest to the digitized data point or the derived point.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of categorizing the geometry comprises categorization of the geometry into different layers, colors, groups, computer files, computer directories or eliminating or omitting the geometry from the database, or any other computer based method of identifying categories.
9. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the geometry comprises of points, lines, curves, vectors, surfaces, or solids.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the geometry is further categorized based on ranges of discrepancy and is represented by layers, colors, groups, computer files, or computer directories or eliminating or omitting ranges from the database, or any other computer based method of identifying categories.
11. The method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the step of representing the discrepancy is accomplished by graphically presenting at least one combination of the categorized data.
12. A method for determining, visualizing and analyzing discrepancy between a fabricated part and a computer model of a part, comprising the steps of: (a) creating a computer model of a part; (b) creating a digitized data base of the fabricated part; (c) translating, rotating, scaling and merging the computer model and the digitized data base of fabricated part; (d) determining the distance from at least one digitized data point of the digitized data base of the fabricated part to the computer model; (e) creating at least one vector depicting the discrepancy between the computer model and the digitized data base of the fabricated part; (f) categorizing the vector(s) or a geometry based on magnitude and/or direction of the discrepancy; and (g) representing the discrepancy between the digitized data base of the fabricated part and the computer model.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the categorization of a vector or a geometry can include the step of categorizing points, lines, vectors, or surfaces.
14. An apparatus for determining, visualizing and analyzing discrepancy between a fabricated part and a computer model of a part, comprising: means for creating a computer model of a part; means for creating a digitized data base of the fabricated part; means for translating, rotating, scaling and merging the computer model and the digitized data base of fabricated part; means for determining the distance from at least one digitized data point of the fabricated part to the computer model; means for creating at least one vector depicting the discrepancy between the computer model and the digitized data base of the fabricated part; means for categorizing the vector(s) or geometry based on magnitude and direction of the discrepancy; and means for representing the discrepancy between the digitized data base of the fabricated part and the computer model.
15. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the computer model is represented as a wire-frame, or surfaces or solids or any combination of wire-frame, surfaces or solids which describe a part or assembly of parts.
16. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the means for creating a digitized data base of the fabricated part comprises any contact or non-contact profiling or sectioning characterization.
17. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the means for creating vectors creates at least one point on the computer model which is closest to the digitized point of the fabricated part.
18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein the means for creating vectors comprises the creating of a line from the closest digitized data point of the fabricated part to the point on the computer model which is closest to the digitized data point.
19. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the means for categorizing the vectors further comprises the categorization of points, lines, vectors or surfaces based on ranges of magnitude and direction of discrepancy.
20. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the means for representing the discrepancy is presented by at least one combination of categorized data, said categorization being represented in the form of different layers, colors, groups, computer files, computer directory of the point entity or the point may be ignored or eliminated from the database, or any other method of identifying categories.
GB9400881A 1993-01-21 1994-01-18 Method and apparatus for verifying geometry Withdrawn GB9400881D0 (en)

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GB2274526A true true GB2274526A (en) 1994-07-27

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EP0874296A2 (en) * 1997-04-22 1998-10-28 Mitutoyo Corporation Measuring aid system
WO2005050515A2 (en) * 2003-11-12 2005-06-02 The Boeing Company System and method for manufacturing and after-market support using as-built data
WO2005071357A1 (en) * 2004-01-14 2005-08-04 Romer Incorporated Transprojection of geometry data
US7546689B2 (en) 2007-07-09 2009-06-16 Hexagon Metrology Ab Joint for coordinate measurement device
US7568293B2 (en) 2006-05-01 2009-08-04 Paul Ferrari Sealed battery for coordinate measurement machine
US7578069B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2009-08-25 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Automated robotic measuring system
US7624510B2 (en) 2006-12-22 2009-12-01 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Joint axis for coordinate measurement machine
US7640674B2 (en) 2008-05-05 2010-01-05 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Systems and methods for calibrating a portable coordinate measurement machine
US7743524B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2010-06-29 Hexagon Metrology Ab Coordinate measurement machine with improved joint
US7774949B2 (en) 2007-09-28 2010-08-17 Hexagon Metrology Ab Coordinate measurement machine
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US8763267B2 (en) 2012-01-20 2014-07-01 Hexagon Technology Center Gmbh Locking counterbalance for a CMM
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US8792709B2 (en) 2004-01-14 2014-07-29 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Transprojection of geometry data
US7568293B2 (en) 2006-05-01 2009-08-04 Paul Ferrari Sealed battery for coordinate measurement machine
US7805854B2 (en) 2006-05-15 2010-10-05 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Systems and methods for positioning and measuring objects using a CMM
US7743524B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2010-06-29 Hexagon Metrology Ab Coordinate measurement machine with improved joint
US8336220B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2012-12-25 Hexagon Metrology Ab Coordinate measurement machine with improved joint
US8015721B2 (en) 2006-11-20 2011-09-13 Hexagon Metrology Ab Coordinate measurement machine with improved joint
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US8453338B2 (en) 2008-03-28 2013-06-04 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Coordinate measuring machine with rotatable grip
US8201341B2 (en) 2008-03-28 2012-06-19 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Coordinate measuring machine with rotatable grip
US8122610B2 (en) 2008-03-28 2012-02-28 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Systems and methods for improved coordination acquisition member comprising calibration information
US7779548B2 (en) 2008-03-28 2010-08-24 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Coordinate measuring machine with rotatable grip
US7640674B2 (en) 2008-05-05 2010-01-05 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Systems and methods for calibrating a portable coordinate measurement machine
US8955229B2 (en) 2008-10-16 2015-02-17 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Articulating measuring arm with optical scanner
US9618330B2 (en) 2008-10-16 2017-04-11 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Articulating measuring arm with laser scanner
US8176646B2 (en) 2008-10-16 2012-05-15 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Articulating measuring arm with laser scanner
US7908757B2 (en) 2008-10-16 2011-03-22 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Articulating measuring arm with laser scanner
US8438747B2 (en) 2008-10-16 2013-05-14 Hexagon Metrology, Inc. Articulating measuring arm with laser scanner
US8220173B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2012-07-17 Hexagon Metrology Ab Coordinate measurement machine with vibration detection
US8104189B2 (en) 2009-06-30 2012-01-31 Hexagon Metrology Ab Coordinate measurement machine with vibration detection
US9360291B2 (en) 2009-11-06 2016-06-07 Hexagon Metrology Ab Systems and methods for control and calibration of a CMM
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GB9400881D0 (en) 1994-03-16 grant

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