GB2259667A - Method for manufacturing an integral moulded body - Google Patents

Method for manufacturing an integral moulded body Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2259667A
GB2259667A GB9219670A GB9219670A GB2259667A GB 2259667 A GB2259667 A GB 2259667A GB 9219670 A GB9219670 A GB 9219670A GB 9219670 A GB9219670 A GB 9219670A GB 2259667 A GB2259667 A GB 2259667A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
preg
resin
mould
filler composition
filled
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB9219670A
Other versions
GB9219670D0 (en
GB2259667B (en
Inventor
David Merrick Harford
Original Assignee
David Merrick Harford
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB919119873A priority Critical patent/GB9119873D0/en
Application filed by David Merrick Harford filed Critical David Merrick Harford
Publication of GB9219670D0 publication Critical patent/GB9219670D0/en
Publication of GB2259667A publication Critical patent/GB2259667A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2259667B publication Critical patent/GB2259667B/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C44/00Shaping by internal pressure generated in the material, e.g. swelling or foaming ; Producing porous or cellular expanded plastics articles
    • B29C44/02Shaping by internal pressure generated in the material, e.g. swelling or foaming ; Producing porous or cellular expanded plastics articles for articles of definite length, i.e. discrete articles
    • B29C44/12Incorporating or moulding on preformed parts, e.g. inserts or reinforcements
    • B29C44/14Incorporating or moulding on preformed parts, e.g. inserts or reinforcements the preformed part being a lining
    • B29C44/16Incorporating or moulding on preformed parts, e.g. inserts or reinforcements the preformed part being a lining shaped by the expansion of the material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C70/00Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
    • B29C70/04Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts comprising reinforcements only, e.g. self-reinforcing plastics
    • B29C70/28Shaping operations therefor
    • B29C70/40Shaping or impregnating by compression not applied
    • B29C70/42Shaping or impregnating by compression not applied for producing articles of definite length, i.e. discrete articles
    • B29C70/44Shaping or impregnating by compression not applied for producing articles of definite length, i.e. discrete articles using isostatic pressure, e.g. pressure difference-moulding, vacuum bag-moulding, autoclave-moulding or expanding rubber-moulding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C43/00Compression moulding, i.e. applying external pressure to flow the moulding material; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C43/02Compression moulding, i.e. applying external pressure to flow the moulding material; Apparatus therefor of articles of definite length, i.e. discrete articles
    • B29C43/10Isostatic pressing, i.e. using non-rigid pressure-exerting members against rigid parts or dies
    • B29C43/12Isostatic pressing, i.e. using non-rigid pressure-exerting members against rigid parts or dies using bags surrounding the moulding material or using membranes contacting the moulding material
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2105/00Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped
    • B29K2105/06Condition, form or state of moulded material or of the material to be shaped containing reinforcements, fillers or inserts

Abstract

A method for manufacturing a filled integral moulded body, said method comprising: (a) enveloping a foamable filler composition (4) within at least one layer of a pre-preg material (6) which is in contact with the inner surface of a mould (7), said composition being capable of foaming and developing a pressure within said mould sufficient to compress and mould said pre-preg material into the desired shape at the curing temperature of said pre-preg material; and (b) applying heat for a period of time sufficient to cure said pre-preg material and cause foaming of said composition so as to develop a pressure within said mould sufficient to compress and mould said pre-preg material into the desired shape, whereby to produce a filled integral moulded body. Such a single-step method is useful in manufacturing moulded products e.g. winch drums, and results in lightweight products having improved structural integrity. <IMAGE>

Description

Method for manufacturing an integral moulded body The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an integral moulded body. In particular it relates to the manufacture of improved moulded products from filled "pre-preg materials", the products being foam-filled composite structures having improved structural integrity and being lightweight.
By "pre-preg material" is meant any structural fibre reinforcement generally in the form of unidirectional tape, woven or non-crimped fabric, or chopped strand mat/random discontinuous fibres, which have been impregnated with a thermosetting resin or thermoplastic resin or with a blend of thermosetting and thermoplastic resins. Such pre-preg materials are known in the art.
Moulded articles are, of course, commonplace. Such articles may be manufactured by the vacuum moulding of plastics materials. However, such a process generally only allows the moulding of the individual parts of intricate bodies. Once moulded, the parts must be adhered together and this leads to a lower structural integrity and strength of the body than is desirable for many purposes. As well as producing a structurally weak product, such a process is expensive, requiring several moulding operations for one product and entailing a great wastage of materials.
Whilst it is known to vacuum mould a moulded body by expanding a bag inside the plastics material, this process still requires an aperture in the plastics material, which must be plugged after subsequent removal of the bag and, if desired, introduction of a filler material. Again, several steps are involved and the product is structurally weaker than is often desirable.
It is also known to manufacture moulded products by the technique of injection moulding in a split mould.
This technique largely suffers from the same problems as described for vacuum moulding - it is difficult to manufacture a filled integral moulded body in a single moulding operation. In addition, when such products are manufactured in one piece, they are very heavy.
In many areas of endeavour there is a requirement for strong but lightweight components. Thus, for example, winch tackle components, e.g. winch drums, for yachts and ships in general need to be strong and reliable whilst preferably being lightweight. This is equally true of, for example, wheels for high performance racing cars. However, these requirements, in such areas, have to date been met by using aluminiumbased metal alloy components, which are both expensive and relatively heavy. Moulded plastics materials have not been utilised in such operations because of the lack of integrity and strength of the products, together with the expense of manufacture. There is therefore a need to produce strong, lightweight filled moulded products, preferably at low expense.
The present invention addresses this need.
Thus, according to one aspect, the present invention provides a method for manufacturing a filled integral moulded body, said method comprising: (a) enveloping a foamable filler composition within at least one layer of a pre-preg material which is in contact with the inner surface of a mould, said composition being capable of foaming and developing a pressure within said mould sufficient to compress and mould said pre-preg material into the desired shape at the curing temperature of said pre-preg material; and (b) applying heat for a period of time sufficient to cure said pre-preg material and cause foaming of said composition so as to develop a pressure within said mould sufficient to compress and mould said pre-preg material into the desired shape, whereby to produce a filled integral moulded body.
On cooling and opening of the mould, there is obtained a filled integral moulded body.
According to further aspects of the present invention there are provided a filled integral moulded body manufactured by a method according to the invention, and a filled integral moulded body comprising at least one layer of cured pre-preg material encasing one or more cavities filled with a foamed filler composition.
The invention therefore provides a method whereby a filled integral moulded product, which may have an intricate shape, is manufactured in a single moulding operation, thus saving both time and materials.
Furthermore, the finished product, comprising an integral casing of cured pre-preg material, which may for example contain carbon fibre, e.g. epoxy impregnated carbon fibre, has improved structural integrity and is stronger than when such a component is made in 2 or more parts which are joined in a separate process.
Pre-preg materials, such as e.g materials in the form of tapes or cloths, comprising resin which has been pre-impregnated with, for example carbon fibres, are well-known in the art.
Thus, for example the pre-preg material may contain any of a wide range of reinforceants. Any reinforcing fibre may be used, such as ceramic fibres, silicon oxide or carbide whiskers, quartz fibres, HDPE (high density polyethylene), or thermoplastic fibres. Such reinforceants may typically comprise carbon fibres, glass fibres, aramid fibres such as KEVLAR, boron or silicon carbide or oxide whiskers, etc. It is particularly preferred to utilize carbon-fibre pre-preg materials, since such materials are particularly strong and readily available.
The resin material may be any suitable curable resin. Thermosetting resins such as epoxy resins are particularly preferred, being readily available and being curable over a range of temperatures. Typically, suitable resins are available which have curing temperatures of at least 80 C and which range up to 350 400 C. Especially preferred are those which may be cured at 80 to 180 C over a period of 1 to 3 hours.
Particularly preferred epoxy resins are CYANAMID 919 of American Cyanamid Company which is especially tough and has a moderate curing temperature and CIBA-GEIGY M10.
Further examples of resins suitable for use in the present invention include phenolic, polyester, vinylester, cyanate ester, bismaleimide, polyurethanes, polyimines and compatible blends thereof.
The foamable filler composition should be capable of foaming or expanding and developing a pressure sufficient to compress and mould the pre-preg material into the desired shape within the mould. Preferably, the composition should be capable of developing a pressure of 2.7 x 105 to 4.2 x 105 Pa (40-60 psi) within the mould at the curing temperature of the pre-preg material. Any foamable filler compositions fulfilling these criteria will be suitable for use in the method of the present invention Particularly preferred are materials comprising unexpanded microspheres. Such products generally comprise microspheres of a polymeric shell encapsulating a blowing agent. Of this sort of product, the EXPANCEL line of unexpanded products of Nobel Industries Sweden, comprising microspheres of a copolymer of vinylidene chloride and acrylonitrile encapsulating isobutane as a blowing agent, are particularly preferred. EXPANCEL 551 has been found to be of particular advantage, being available as a dry, free-flowing powder. Powders are particularly preferred as they will form into any intricate shape. EXPANCEL 820 may also be used and the EXPANCEL 642, 461, 051 and 091 products are also acceptable.
Whatever foamable filler composition is employed, it should conveniently, in the appropriate amount, be capable of providing a foam having a density of 60-100 Kg/m3 (see later).
In order to impart increased strength to the foam derived from the foamable composition, the composition may be mixed with an appropriate strengthening resin.
Suitable resins include any thermosetting resin such as epoxy resin, phenolic, polyester, vinylester, cyanate ester, bismaleimide, polyurethanes, polyimines, or compatible blends of such resins. Such a mixture may, for example, be utilised to increase the compression strength and/or the shear strength of the moulded product. The unexpanded microspheres may also be combined not only with resins but with other powders and expanded microspheres to change the mechanical properties of the resultant foam.
In the present invention, any conventional tooling will be suitable in order to carry out the method.
Thus, for example, vacuum moulds or moulds useable for injection moulding will be suitable.
As noted above, the pre-preg material may be obtained and utilised as pre-preg cloth or pre-preg tape. At least one layer of this material is laid in contact with the surface of the mould. Typically, however, two or more layers of the material will be utilised to form a multi-layer laminate on curing. The number of layers required will depend on the thickness and density of the pre-preg material and, where appropriate, the need to avoid passage of the powder through it, as well as the end-use. In the case of a two-part mould, the inside of each half will conveniently be layered with the pre-preg material.
The foamable filler material, typically in the form of a dry, flowable powder will then be encapsulated within the pre-preg material and the mould closed and sealed. The amount of foamable filler composition used will depend on the nature of the composition and the need to achieve a pressure of 2.7 x 105 to 4.2 x 105 Pa (40-60 psi) on foaming at the curing temperature. This pressure is required to cause compaction of the pre-preg and filler and preferably also adhesion of the filler to the inner surface of the pre-preg "skin". The required density of the final foam will also be determined by the amount of the composition that is used. The preferred density is 60-100 Kg/m3. Above 100 Kg/m3, the method is wasteful of material; below 60 Kg/m3 the surface finish is of a lower quality, ie. there is a need to fill the surface. The density may more preferably be 70-90 Kg/m3.
The curing temperature may preferably be between 80 and 180 C, more preferably 90-140 C, especially around 120 C. This will vary with the nature of the resin used in the pre-preg material, as will the time period over which heat is applied. Preferred heating times are 1-3 hours, more preferably 18 to 2 hours. A particularly preferred combination is the use of a carbon-fibre prepreg including CYANAMID 919 epoxy resin, with EXPANCEL 551 as the foamable filler composition. With such a combination a curing temperature of around 120 C applied for about 1 hours is generally sufficient to produce a useful moulded product.
In order to provide a moulded product having further improved structural strength, when laying down the layers of pre-preg material, veins or webbed structures of pre-preg material may be built up within the "cavity" for the foamable filler material in order to form several "cavities", into each of which is introduced an appropriate quantity of foamable filler material. This will, after heating, produce a body having a greater structural integrity.
The moulded product may typically have a cured prepreg laminate thickness of between 0.5mm and 5mm, depending on the use to which the moulded product is to be put. Above 5mm, there may be problems with the presence of voids in the pre-preg laminate, resulting in a reduction in strength. Below 0.5mm there may be problems with strength and possibly, when a powdery filler composition is used, problems with the composition passing through the pre-preg material during processing.
As noted above, the method of the invention can be used to produce a wide range of moulded products having intricate shapes. Indeed, any article that was previously producible by, for example, injection moulding, may be made using the method of the present invention, from strengthened pre-preg materials. Thus, for example, the method can be used to manufacture winch drums and other components used in winching systems, especially for use in sailing, in the manufacture of high performance racing car wheels and indeed for the manufacture of any product which is required to be both lightweight and strong.
The present invention will now be illustrated by way of specific embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings of which: Figure 1 is a schematic representation of a specific embodiment of the method according to the present invention; and Figure 2 is a cross-section through an example of a moulded body manufactured according to the present invention.
Referring to Figure l(a), successive uncompacted layers 2,3 of a pre-preg cloth containing carbon fibres in a CYANAMID 919 epoxy resin are laid on the inner surface of one section of a mould 1. A quantity (determined by measuring the volume of the mould and taking into account the required foam density) of dry, powdered EXPANCEL 551 (4) is poured into the mould 1 within the layers 2,3 of pre-preg cloth (Figure l(b)).
Referring to Figure l(c), further uncompacted layers 5,6 of pre-preg cloth containing carbon fibres in a CYANAMID 919 epoxy resin are layered on the other section 7 of the mould 1 which is then sealed onto the mould 1.
The sealed mould 1,7 is then heated at about 120 D C for 1h to 2 hours in order to cause foaming of the EXPANCEL 551 (4), generating a pressure of about 3.45 x 105 Pa (50 psi) within the mould, and causing curing and compaction of the pre-preg material 2,3,5,6.
The mould 1,7 is then removed, leaving a filled integral product having high strength and structural integrity. Figure 2 shows a schematic cross-section through such a product. The moulded product 8 comprises a hardened outer casing comprising compacted laminated layers 9,10 of the pre-preg material encasing the solid expanded filler material 11. Reinforcing layers 12,13, of pre-preg material may also be included, when initially laying down the layers of pre-preg material and before heating, to increase the structural integrity of the moulded product.

Claims (18)

1. A method for manufacturing a filled integral moulded body, said method comprising: (a) enveloping a foamable filler composition within at least one layer of a pre-preg material which is in contact with the inner surface of a mould, said composition being capable of foaming and developing a pressure within said mould sufficient to compress and mould said pre-preg material into the desired shape at the curing temperature of said pre-preg material; and (b) applying heat for a period of time sufficient to cure said pre-preg material and cause foaming of said composition so as to develop a pressure within said mould sufficient to compress and mould said pre-preg material into the desired shape, whereby to produce a filled integral moulded body.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein said foamable filler composition is capable of developing a pressure of 2.7 x 105 to 4.2 x 105 Pa (40-60 psi) within said mould at the curing temperature of said pre-preg material.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2 wherein said foamable filler composition is capable of providing a foam having a density of 60-100 kg/m3.
4. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein said foamable filler composition comprises microspheres of a copolymer of vinylidene chloride and acrylonitrile encapsulating isobutane as a blowing agent.
5. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein said foamable filler composition comprises a strengthening resin.
6. A method as claimed in claim 5 wherein said strengthening resin is a thermosetting resin which is an epoxy resin, a phenolic resin, a polyester resin, a vinylester resin, a cyanate ester resin, a bismaleimide resin, a polyurethane resin, a polyimine resin or a compatible blend thereof.
7. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein step (b) is performed at a temperature of 80 to 180 C.
8. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein step (b) is performed at a temperature of 90 to 140 C.
9. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein in step (b) heat is applied for 1 to 3 hours.
10. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein in step (b) heat is applied for 1 to 2 hours.
11. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein said pre-preg material contains at least one reinforceant.
12. A method as claimed in claim 11 wherein the reinforceant is at least one of carbon fibres, glass fibres, aramid fibres, boron or silicon carbide or oxide.
13. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein said pre-preg material comprises a curable resin being an epoxy resin, a phenolic resin, a polyester resin, a vinylester resin, a cyanate ester resin, a bismaleimido resin, a polyurethane resin, a polyimine resin and compatible blends thereof.
14. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein said pre-preg material comprises an epoxy impregnated carbon fibre material and said foamable filler composition comprises microspheres of a copolymer of vinylidene chloride and acrylonitrile encapsulating isobutane as a blowing agent.
15. A method as claimed in claim 1 substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
16. A filled integral moulded body manufactured by a method as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 15.
17. A filled integral moulded body comprising at least one layer of a cured pre-preg material encasing one or more cavities filled with a foamed filler composition.
18. A filled integral moulded body as claimed in claim 17 wherein comprising more than one cavity filled with a foamed filler composition, the cavities being defined by veins or webbed structures of said pre-preg material.
GB9219670A 1991-09-17 1992-09-17 Method for manufacturing an integral moulded body Expired - Fee Related GB2259667B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB919119873A GB9119873D0 (en) 1991-09-17 1991-09-17 Method of manufacturing an integral moulder body

Publications (3)

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GB9219670D0 GB9219670D0 (en) 1992-10-28
GB2259667A true GB2259667A (en) 1993-03-24
GB2259667B GB2259667B (en) 1995-12-06

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GB9219670A Expired - Fee Related GB2259667B (en) 1991-09-17 1992-09-17 Method for manufacturing an integral moulded body

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1502726A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-02 Behr GmbH & Co. KG Materials for moldings
EP2111970A1 (en) 2008-03-14 2009-10-28 Nike Bauer Hockey Inc. Epoxy core with expandable microspheres
US7824591B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2010-11-02 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Method of forming hockey blade with wrapped, stitched core
US20110147564A1 (en) * 2009-12-17 2011-06-23 Eurocopter Deutschland Gmbh Method of fabricating an improved mold core and a mold core obtained by said method
US8677599B2 (en) 2010-09-20 2014-03-25 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Blade constructs and methods of forming blade constructs
IT201900014454A1 (en) * 2019-08-08 2021-02-08 Daniel Giorgia "Composite material and hot stamping method"
US11298892B2 (en) * 2019-07-01 2022-04-12 The Boeing Company Expandable tooling systems and methods

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Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1502726A1 (en) * 2003-07-29 2005-02-02 Behr GmbH & Co. KG Materials for moldings
US10513083B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2019-12-24 Bauer Hockey, Llc Epoxy core with expandable microspheres
US7824591B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2010-11-02 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Method of forming hockey blade with wrapped, stitched core
EP2281680A1 (en) * 2008-03-14 2011-02-09 Bauer Hockey Corp. Epoxy core with expandable microspheres
US10150261B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2018-12-11 Bauer Hockey, Llc Epoxy core with expandable microspheres
US7985148B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2011-07-26 Bauer Hockey, Inc Hockey blade with wrapped, stitched core
US8282515B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2012-10-09 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Hockey blade with wrapped, stitched core
US10821342B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2020-11-03 Bauer Hockey, Llc Hockey blade with wrapped, stitched core
US10112090B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2018-10-30 Bauer Hockey, Llc Hockey blade with wrapped core
US8865044B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2014-10-21 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Hockey blade with wrapped, stitched core
EP2990186A1 (en) * 2008-03-14 2016-03-02 Bauer Hockey Corp. Method of fabricating a formed structure comprising an epoxy core with expandable microspheres
EP2111970A1 (en) 2008-03-14 2009-10-28 Nike Bauer Hockey Inc. Epoxy core with expandable microspheres
US9295890B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2016-03-29 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Hockey blade with wrapped, stitched core
US9364998B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2016-06-14 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Method of fabricating a formed structure with expandable polymeric shell microspheres
US9802369B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2017-10-31 Bauer Hockey, Llc Epoxy core with expandable microspheres
US10486374B2 (en) 2008-03-14 2019-11-26 Bauer Hockey, Llc Epoxy core with expandable microspheres
US8734704B2 (en) * 2009-12-17 2014-05-27 Airbus Helicopters Deutschland GmbH Method of fabricating an improved mold core and a mold core obtained by said method
US20110147564A1 (en) * 2009-12-17 2011-06-23 Eurocopter Deutschland Gmbh Method of fabricating an improved mold core and a mold core obtained by said method
US9289662B2 (en) 2010-09-20 2016-03-22 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Blade constructs and methods of forming blade constructs
US8677599B2 (en) 2010-09-20 2014-03-25 Bauer Hockey, Inc. Blade constructs and methods of forming blade constructs
US11298892B2 (en) * 2019-07-01 2022-04-12 The Boeing Company Expandable tooling systems and methods
IT201900014454A1 (en) * 2019-08-08 2021-02-08 Daniel Giorgia "Composite material and hot stamping method"
EP3772401A1 (en) * 2019-08-08 2021-02-10 Daniel Giorgia Composite material and method for hot-molding

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2259667B (en) 1995-12-06
GB9119873D0 (en) 1991-10-30
GB9219670D0 (en) 1992-10-28

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