GB2259231A - Renewable energy plant propagator - Google Patents

Renewable energy plant propagator Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2259231A
GB2259231A GB9118988A GB9118988A GB2259231A GB 2259231 A GB2259231 A GB 2259231A GB 9118988 A GB9118988 A GB 9118988A GB 9118988 A GB9118988 A GB 9118988A GB 2259231 A GB2259231 A GB 2259231A
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GB
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
phase change
plant
plant propagator
propagator
change material
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB9118988A
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GB2259231B (en )
GB9118988D0 (en )
Inventor
Anthony Godfrey Bunbury
Michael Adrian Bray
Original Assignee
Anthony Godfrey Bunbury
Michael Adrian Bray
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D20/00Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00
    • F28D20/02Heat storage plants or apparatus in general; Regenerative heat-exchange apparatus not covered by groups F28D17/00 or F28D19/00 using latent heat
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses for horticulture; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • A01G9/243Collecting solar energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology
    • Y02A40/264Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, or watering
    • Y02A40/266Collecting solar energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/14Thermal storage
    • Y02E60/145Latent heat storage
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/30Systems combining energy storage with energy generation of non-fossil origin
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/10Agricultural machinery or equipment
    • Y02P60/12Agricultural machinery or equipment using renewable energies
    • Y02P60/124Collecting solar energy in greenhouses

Abstract

A renewable energy plant propagator is disclosed which utilises a phase change material 9 which is kept in thermal contact with the plant growth material 13 to store solar or other energy and subsequently release the energy to heat the plants. Embodiments of the plant propagator are disclosed wherein solar energy is supplied to the phase change medium by direct absorption on a surface 7 of the propagator, or by means of photovoltaic cells. <IMAGE>

Description

RENEWABLE ENERGY PLANT PROPAGATOR This invention relates to a plant propagator which utilises a phase-change material to store solar energy.

Plants require steady temperatures to grow in, and also require protection against the possibility of frost. However reliance on direct sunlight means that often the temperature inside the plant propagator can become higher than necessary or desirable during the day when the sun is shining, and conversely may become very cold during the night.

Existing systems provide frost protection and heating at night or during cold days as required to maintain a steady temperature using conventional fuel based sources such as paraffin heaters, forced convection electric element heater, hot water radiator/piped hot water system, where the water has been heated by electricity, gas, oil etc. However these prior methods use energy which has to be transported and paid for on a continuous basis and are therefore relatively expensive, require maintenance and cause pollution.

An attempt has been made previously, in EP-A0121668, to provide heating for a greenhouse by providing a system to store solar heat. In this system heat is absorbed primarily by allowing the temperature of air in the greenhouse to rise. The heat is transferred to a latent heat accumulating tank, and later back to the air, by circulating air, using a fan, throughout the greenhouse and through the heat accumulating tank which is buried in the ground.

However, this arrangement still consumes energy by the operation of the fan and is relatively inefficient at absorbing the incoming heat energy. In addition, heat losses will be high due to the forced circulation of air within the greenhouse and leakage of air if the greenhouse is not air tight. Furthermore this arrangement requires substantial work and expenditure to realise and is not portable.

The present invention seeks to provide a plant propagator which at least alleviates the disadvantages of the known devices.

According to the present invention there is provided a plant propagator comprising: a vessel containing a phase change material, or materials, which undergoes a phase change at temperatures suitable for plant propagation; a heat conductor made of thermally conductive material; and a propagation zone for containing a growth material in which plants can grow, such that the growth material, the phase change material and the heat conductor are in thermal contact.

In a first embodiment of the invention, at least one surface of the heat conductor is adapted to absorb solar energy.

In a second embodiment of the invention, the plant propagator further comprises photovoltaic cells, arranged to convert solar energy, and means to effect a transfer of the energy to the phase change material in addition to, or as an alternative to, energy absorbed by the heat conductor.

These arrangements enable the plant propagator to absorb or convert solar energy through the surfaces of the heat conductor so adapted or by means of solar cells or a solar array module, and to store this energy in the phase change material. This energy may be used later to heat the plants when the external temperature falls, thus stabilising the temperature.

The fact that the growth material, phase change material and heat conductor are in thermal contact means that heat transfer can take place by conduction and is therefore more efficient.

Thus there is provided an autonomous system which uses principally solar energy to provide an environment suitable for plant growth, and which can maintain plants at a steady temperature over long periods of time even though the external temperature fluctuates.

Preferably the plant propagator further comprises an enclosure, made from transparent material, surrounding the plants.

This enables greater control over the environment the plants grow in, and helps prevent heat loss to the surroundings.

Advantageously, the heat conductor has fins or pins extending into the phase change material. This provides improved heat conduction from the heat conductor to the phase change material, so enabling the phase change material to absorb and store more energy.

In one preferred embodiment the vessel further comprises means to accommodate a change in volume when the phase change material changes phase while keeping the phase change material in contact with the surface of the heat conductor.

Additionally, the vessel may be partitioned to contain different types of phase change material.

Different regions of the growth material may then be brought into thermal contact with different phase change materials at different temperatures to enable optimum growth of different plants in those regions.

For a better understanding of the present invention, and to show how it may be brought into effect, reference will now be made, by way of example to the following drawing in which: Figure 1 shows a partially sectioned side view of a plant propagator.

Figure 2 shows a second partially sectioned side view of a plant propagator.

The plant propagator comprises a vessel 1 with thermally insulating sides and base. The vessel is closed at the top by a heat conductor 2. The heat conductor supports an enclosure 3 which is made of a material which is transparent to sunlight such as glass or plastic. The plants to be propagated are placed inside the enclosure, which acts as a propagation chamber. The plants are shown growing in soil 13 placed directly on top of the top plate 4 of the heat conductor 2 which has fins or pins 14 protruding into the soil to improve heat transfer. Alternatively, as shown in Figure 2, the plants may be grown in pots 15a, 15b, 15c or seed trays 16a,16b which rest on the top plate 4 of the heat conductor. Run-off channels for excess water after watering the plants may also be provided.The enclosure may be multi-glazed to improve heat retention, and may also have one or more vents 5 to provide ventilation and help to prevent the plants overheating. The vents 5 may be operated manually or may be actuated automatically by a bi-metal or similar device. The enclosure 3 may be any convenient size, or the propagator may include a series of enclosures having a range of sizes suitable for plants of different heights: this is especially advantageous since the plants will change height as they germinate and propagate. Alternatively, an extendable enclosure may be provided in order to vary the height of the enclosure as the plants grow. The use of an enclosure having a reduced volume resulting from a lower height helps to minimise heat loss to the outside, particularly during the early part of the growing season.

The heat conductor 2 has a top plate 4 and may have integrally formed fins or pins 6 extending downwardly. The heat conductor may be made from any material which has good thermal conductivity. The external heat conductor surface 7 on which radiation is absorbed may be shaped such that most (or at least some) incident radiation which is initially reflected impinges upon at least one other portion of the heat conductor surface 7 so as to enable the absorbtion of a greater portion of the incident light through multiple reflections. For example the surface 7 may be provided with formations, for example of a pyramid configuration or with a saw-tooth cross-section. The surface 7 is preferably matt black to absorb the most heat.The heat conductor external surfaces 7 may have a cover 8 which is made advantageously from a material, such as plastic or glass, which has a high transmissivity to solar radiation, but a low transmissivity to the reflected heat. Thus the cover allows these surfaces of the heat conductor to absorb more energy than they emit. The cover 8 and also the plant enclosure 3 may be double glazed in order to maximise heat retention.

A vacuum may be formed under the cover 8 in order to minimise heat lost to the surroundings. Alternatively, small vents may be incorporated into the cover 8 in order to enable moisture to be released: a desiccant may also be provided between the cover 8 and the heat conductor 4. Alternatively the cover 8 may be replaced by a solid body in direct contact with the heat conductor surface 7. If the solid body is made of a material which is opaque to infra-red radiation, and has a low thermal conductivity, it may prevent conduction and convection of heat away from the surface, allowing higher temperatures to be achieved.

In order to allow the maximum radiation to fall on the heat conductor external surfaces 7 reflectors may be added to focus more sunlight onto these areas than would otherwise fall on them naturally. Lenses or prisms may also be incorporated into the cover 8 to direct more energy. In addition the cover 8 may have a surface finish or an anti-reflective coating to increase absorbtion of radiation.

The fins 6 of the heat conductor 2 are surrounded by a phase change material 9 which is supported from beneath by a flexible diaphragm 10. The phase change material 9 is used to absorb heat from the heat conductor 2 and fins 6, for example during the daytime when the sun is shining and radiation falling on the heat conductor external surfaces 7 is converted to heat energy and conducted through the top plate 4 and through the fins 6 to the phase change material 9. The phase change material 9 absorbs this energy by changing phase (for example from solid to liquid) while keeping its temperature constant. Obviously the phase change material must be selected so that this temperature is appropriate for the propagation of plants.Normally a temperature of between 5-250C but exceptionally 0-30"C is selected: suitable phase change materials are coconut oil and paraffin wax although many other suitable materials are available.

To improve the heat transfer between the heat conductor and the phase change material, conductive fillers 10 may be included within the phase change material. These could be wire wool, or metallic powder within the phase change material. Heat pipes may be used within or in place of the fins or pins of the heat conductor 2, and they may also be included within the phase change material to efficiently distribute the heat throughout the phase change material.

In the night, or when the temperature drops, the phase change material 9 is able to change phase again (for example from liquid to solid) and thus supply the stored heat to the plants. Thus the propagator is able to keep the plants at a substantially constant temperature.

In an alternative embodiment of the invention, heat is also supplied to the phase change material 9 by a solar array module composed of photovoltaic cells.

Incident light falling on the solar cells is converted to electricity which is passed through a resistive circuit embedded in the phase change material, thus heating the phase change material which changes phase to store the heat. During cooler periods the phase change material makes the stored heat available to the plants in a similar manner to the above described embodiment.

As the phase change material changes phase its volume will alter. The flexible diaphragm 11 is designed to be able to take up the expansion and contraction of the phase change material to ensure that the phase change material remains in contact with the top plate 4 and the fins 6. However flexible foam (closed cell or covered) may alternatively be used to take up the volume changes of the phase change material 9 within the vessel 1.

A sensor may be arranged to measure the degree of expansion of the phase change material 9 and thus provide an indication of a heat charging level. This indicator may be used either to activate a cooling device for the phase change material such as bellows (not shown), which may be built into vessel 1, or to open the vents 5 to provide increased ventilation and let some heat out. Temperature, humidity and soil dryness indicators may also be added to the plant enclosure.

Legs 12 may be fitted to the base of the vessel, if considered necessary or desirable, to allow the whole propagator to stand free. Alternatively, existing staging may be used.

The principles of this invention are not limited with regard to size or shape. For example a cylindrical, or other shaped propagator is possible.

In addition, the propagator may be used for a single plant, or may be used for an entire greenhouse, provided only that sufficient heat conductor external surface and sufficient phase change material are provided to allow the temperature of the growth material to be regulated as desired.

In addition it will be clear that the propagator, containing the soil and the enclosure, may be separated from the heat conductor and phase change material, and linked by a heat transfer device such as a heat pipe or fluid loop. This enables optimum positioning of the heat conductor for collecting heat and enables a greater surface area of the heat conductor to be exposed to the sun, as well as enabling a flexible approach to greenhouse configuration.

Furthermore, the vessel 1 may contain partitions separating different phase change materials. These materials may be chosen to have different phase change temperatures such that different regions of the growth material, in thermal contact therewith, can be kept at different temperatures for plant propagation, protection and hardening.

Claims (28)

1. A plant propagator comprising: a vessel containing a phase change material, or materials, which undergoes a phase change at temperatures suitable for plant propagation; a heat conductor made of thermally conductive material; and a propagation zone for containing a growth material in which plants can grow, such that the growth material, the phase change material, and the heat conductor are in thermal contact.
2. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 1 further comprising photovoltaic cells, arranged to absorb solar energy, and means to effect a transfer of the solar energy to the phase change material.
3. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 1 wherein at least one surface of the heat conductor is adapted to absorb solar energy.
4. A plant propagator as claimed in any one of claims 1-3 further comprising an enclosure, made from a transparent material, surrounding the plants.
5. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the heat conductor has fins or pins extending into the phase change material to facilitate heat transfer.
6. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim, further comprising means to accommodate a change in volume when the phase change material changes phase while keeping the phase change material in contact with the surface of the heat conductor.
7. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 6 wherein the means to accommodate the variable volume of the phase change material comprises a flexible diaphragm.
8. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the vessel is partitioned to contain different phase change materials.
9. A plant propagator as claimed in one of claims 4 to 8 wherein the enclosure may be of variable height to accommodate growing plants.
10. A plant propagator as claimed in one of claims 4 to 9 where the enclosure is provided with air vents.
11. A plant propagator as claimed in one of claims 4 to 10 wherein the enclosure is multi-glazed.
12. A plant propagator as claimed claim 3, or any one of claims 4 to 11 when appendant to claim 3, wherein the or each surface of the heat conductor which is adapted to absorb solar energy is matt black and rough.
13. A plant propagator as claimed in claims 3, or any one of claims 4-12 when appendant to claim 3 wherein the or each surface of the heat conductor which is adapted to absorb solar energy is covered by a cover.
14. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 13 wherein the or each cover is multi-glazed.
15. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 13 or 14 wherein the or each cover has an anti-reflective coating on its outer surface.
16. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the vessel has thermally insulating walls.
17. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the phase change material surrounds conductive material which is in thermal contact with the heat conductor.
18. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim in which legs are attached to the vessel.
19. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 16 wherein the legs are removable.
20. A plant propagator as claimed in any of claims 1 to 17 wherein the enclosure is sufficiently sized to allow people to stand within the plant enclosure.
21. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim wherein soil is placed in direct thermal contact with the heat conductor.
22. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 21 wherein fins protrude from the surface of the heat conductor into the soil.
23. A plant propagator as claimed in one of claims 1 to 21 wherein the heat conductor and the propagation zone are separate and are linked by means for transferring heat.
24. A plant propagator as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the phase change material changes phase at a temperature which is not less than 0 C and not more than 30"C.
25. A plant propagator as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the phase change material changes phase at a temperature which is not less than 5"C and not more than 25"C.
26. A plant propagator as claimed in claim 24 or 25, wherein the phase change is between the solid and liquid phases.
27. A plant propagator as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the vessel contains a thermally conductive material within the phase change material to improve thermal conduction throughout the phase change material.
28. A plant propagator substantially as herein described with reference to the accompanying drawing.
GB9118988A 1991-09-05 1991-09-05 Renewable energy plant propagator unit Expired - Lifetime GB2259231B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9118988A GB2259231B (en) 1991-09-05 1991-09-05 Renewable energy plant propagator unit

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9118988A GB2259231B (en) 1991-09-05 1991-09-05 Renewable energy plant propagator unit

Publications (3)

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GB9118988D0 GB9118988D0 (en) 1991-10-23
GB2259231A true true GB2259231A (en) 1993-03-10
GB2259231B GB2259231B (en) 1995-04-26

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GB9118988A Expired - Lifetime GB2259231B (en) 1991-09-05 1991-09-05 Renewable energy plant propagator unit

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102005010122A1 (en) * 2005-03-02 2006-09-07 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH A method for increasing the thermal heat capacity of the root space and the substrate surface of plants as well as suitable apparatus to
DE102005025595B3 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-10-26 Sitzendorfer Porzellanmanufaktur Kg Heat and humidity source consists of hollow body embedded with high temperature storing phase-exchange material and filler opening that is lined with impermeable coating to protect against humidity
NL2000253C2 (en) 2006-10-02 2008-04-04 Harry Schmitz Assembly of gardening equipment and animal husbandry equipment.
US7369101B2 (en) 2003-06-12 2008-05-06 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Calibrating real and virtual views
ES2303499A1 (en) * 2008-04-02 2008-08-01 Juan Carlos Encinas Mateo Portable sustainable garden.
WO2013128049A1 (en) * 2012-03-02 2013-09-06 Investigaciones Y Desarrollos La Macaronesia S L Agricultural device for self-sufficient cultivation
CN103371064A (en) * 2012-04-17 2013-10-30 喜诺克斯株式会社 Assitor for plant cultivation using solar energy
FR2994371A1 (en) * 2012-08-09 2014-02-14 Agrithermic Thermal regulation device for agricultural greenhouse, has heat storage tank sensor to be exposed to solar radiation, and including water and phase change material in encapsulated form, and metal bar arranged vertically inside sensor
US9999179B2 (en) 2015-07-17 2018-06-19 The Bose Family Trust Enclosure temperature control system

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0008717A1 (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-03-19 Oliver Laing Plant cultivation process using solar energy storage devices

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0008717A1 (en) * 1978-09-05 1980-03-19 Oliver Laing Plant cultivation process using solar energy storage devices

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7369101B2 (en) 2003-06-12 2008-05-06 Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc. Calibrating real and virtual views
DE102005010122B4 (en) * 2005-03-02 2016-11-24 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH A method for increasing the thermal heat capacity of the root space and the substrate surface of plants as well as suitable apparatus to
DE102005010122A1 (en) * 2005-03-02 2006-09-07 Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH A method for increasing the thermal heat capacity of the root space and the substrate surface of plants as well as suitable apparatus to
DE102005025595B3 (en) * 2005-06-03 2006-10-26 Sitzendorfer Porzellanmanufaktur Kg Heat and humidity source consists of hollow body embedded with high temperature storing phase-exchange material and filler opening that is lined with impermeable coating to protect against humidity
NL2000253C2 (en) 2006-10-02 2008-04-04 Harry Schmitz Assembly of gardening equipment and animal husbandry equipment.
EP1908809A1 (en) 2006-10-02 2008-04-09 Harry Schmitz Assembly of a horticultural facility and a livestock-breeding facility
ES2303499A1 (en) * 2008-04-02 2008-08-01 Juan Carlos Encinas Mateo Portable sustainable garden.
WO2009121980A1 (en) * 2008-04-02 2009-10-08 Mateo Juan Carlos Encinas Portable sustainable garden
WO2013128049A1 (en) * 2012-03-02 2013-09-06 Investigaciones Y Desarrollos La Macaronesia S L Agricultural device for self-sufficient cultivation
CN103371064A (en) * 2012-04-17 2013-10-30 喜诺克斯株式会社 Assitor for plant cultivation using solar energy
CN103371064B (en) * 2012-04-17 2015-06-24 喜诺克斯株式会社 Assitor for plant cultivation using solar energy
FR2994371A1 (en) * 2012-08-09 2014-02-14 Agrithermic Thermal regulation device for agricultural greenhouse, has heat storage tank sensor to be exposed to solar radiation, and including water and phase change material in encapsulated form, and metal bar arranged vertically inside sensor
US9999179B2 (en) 2015-07-17 2018-06-19 The Bose Family Trust Enclosure temperature control system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
GB2259231B (en) 1995-04-26 grant
GB9118988D0 (en) 1991-10-23 grant

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PE20 Patent expired after termination of 20 years

Expiry date: 20110904