GB2250470A - Protective sheet material - Google Patents

Protective sheet material Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2250470A
GB2250470A GB9024069A GB9024069A GB2250470A GB 2250470 A GB2250470 A GB 2250470A GB 9024069 A GB9024069 A GB 9024069A GB 9024069 A GB9024069 A GB 9024069A GB 2250470 A GB2250470 A GB 2250470A
Authority
GB
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
sheet
polymeric material
layers
fabric
preceding
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB9024069A
Other versions
GB9024069D0 (en )
Inventor
Arthur Clive Angood
Harry Pentney
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Shrinemark Ltd
Original Assignee
* SHRINEMARK LIMITED
SHRINEMARK LIMITED
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/02Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/12Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by structural features of a fibrous or filamentary layer characterised by the relative arrangement of fibres or filaments of different layers, e.g. the fibres or filaments being parallel or perpendicular to each other
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B5/00Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts
    • B32B5/22Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed
    • B32B5/24Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B5/26Layered products characterised by the non- homogeneity or physical structure, i.e. comprising a fibrous, filamentary, particulate or foam layer; Layered products characterised by having a layer differing constitutionally or physically in different parts characterised by the presence of two or more layers which are next to each other and are fibrous, filamentary, formed of particles or foamed one layer being a fibrous or filamentary layer another layer next to it also being fibrous or filamentary
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F41WEAPONS
    • F41HARMOUR; ARMOURED TURRETS; ARMOURED OR ARMED VEHICLES; MEANS OF ATTACK OR DEFENCE, e.g. CAMOUFLAGE, IN GENERAL
    • F41H5/00Armour; Armour plates
    • F41H5/02Plate construction
    • F41H5/04Plate construction composed of more than one layer
    • F41H5/0471Layered armour containing fibre- or fabric-reinforced layers
    • F41H5/0485Layered armour containing fibre- or fabric-reinforced layers all the layers being only fibre- or fabric-reinforced layers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2260/00Impregnation or embedding of a layer; Bonding a fibrous, filamentary or particulate layer by using a binder
    • B32B2260/02Composition of the impregnated, bonded or embedded layer
    • B32B2260/021Fibrous or filamentary layer
    • B32B2260/023Two or more layers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2260/00Impregnation or embedding of a layer; Bonding a fibrous, filamentary or particulate layer by using a binder
    • B32B2260/04Impregnation material
    • B32B2260/046Synthetic resin
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2262/00Composition of fibres which form a fibrous or filamentary layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2262/02Synthetic macromolecular fibres
    • B32B2262/0261Polyamide fibres
    • B32B2262/0269Aromatic polyamide fibres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2262/00Composition of fibres which form a fibrous or filamentary layer or are present as additives
    • B32B2262/10Inorganic fibres
    • B32B2262/101Glass fibres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2305/00Condition, form or state of the layers or laminate
    • B32B2305/07Parts immersed or impregnated in a matrix
    • B32B2305/076Prepregs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B32LAYERED PRODUCTS
    • B32BLAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
    • B32B2571/00Protective equipment

Abstract

A sheet of protective material comprises a laminate of layers of polymeric material having generally parallel fibre reinforcement. Preferably there is a layer of fabric between at least two of the fibre reinforced layers and that fabric may be at least partially impregnated with polymeric material, for example the material of the layers.

Description

Protective Sheet Material This invention relates to a sheet of protective material.

There is a wide range of materials available intended to protect against impact of projectiles, but these have a number of disadvantages. For example most materials designed to cope with slow moving sharp projectiles consist of impact resisting sheets, for example of titanium, which simply cause the projectile to rebound. Such rebounds can of course endanger people or equipment nearby. Conversely materials designed to deal with fast moving projectiles generally work on the principle of entrapment and energy dissipation but are likely to be penetrated by a sharp edge, even if it is of low velocity.

From one aspect the invention consists in a sheet of protective material comprising a laminate of layers of polymeric material having generally parallel fibre reinforcement.

This reinforcement is preferably continuous but may be interrupted.

In a preferred embodiment the laminate further comprises a layer of fabric between at least two of the fibre reinforced layers. For the purposes of this specification the term "fabric" includes any open cell structure fabricated from interconnected fibres, threads or the like. The fabric may be woven, knitted or non-woven and the intercies may be glued, welded, knotted or integral. In this last case the fabric may be in the form of a integrally moulded net.

The fabric may be at least partially impregnated with polymeric material and that polymeric material may be that used in the layers. The polymeric material may be thermosetting or thermoplastic and thus may be any of a poly alkene, polyamide, poly -phenylene sulphide, epoxy resin, phenolic polyester or a polyurethane.

The fibres may be glass, carbon, aramid, or of the polymeric material- and the fabric may be made from glass, carbon, aramid, textile or of the polymeric material.

The sheet may be made of alternate layers of fibre reinforced material or fabric and the layers may themselves be made of a number of plies wherein the orientation of fibres in one ply are at an angle, for example 450, to the fibres in another ply.

The average volume fraction of polymeric material in the whole sheet may be between 20% to 80% and/or the volume fraction of polymeric material in the fibre reinforced layers may lie between 25% and 80%. The fibre reinforced layers may be consolidated together by moulding and/or curing.

The invention further includes a composite plate comprising a plurality of sheets as defined above and in a preferred arrangement at least one of the sheets is spaced from another.

The invention also includes protective articles manufactured from sheets or plates as defined above, for example an article of clothing or a protective panel or shield.

Although the invention has been defined above it is understood it includes any inventive combination of the features set out above or in the following description.

The invention may be performed in various ways and specific embodiments and methods of construction will now be described with reference to the following drawings in which: Figure 1 illustrates a number of different ways in which a sheet of protective material can be made up for a predetermined depth; Figure 2 illustrates fibre orientations; and Figure 3 illustrates how the distribution of fibre within a laminate can be varied.

Method of Manufacture The composite sheet may comprise a number of layers of a fibre reinforced resin prepreg interleaved with layers of a fabric interlining.

During the moulded process resin from the prepreg is forced into the voids of the interlining such that it is bonded to the adjacent fibre reinforced layer. Moulding conditions can be adjusted to ensure that the interlining can be starved of resin.

The resin may be either a thermoplastic or a thermosetting material: typical thermoplastic resins could include poly alkenes, polyamides, poly phenylene sulphide and thermoplastic polyurethanes; typical thermosetting resins could include the epoxies, phenolics polyesters and polyurethanes.

The reinforcing fibre within the prepreg could be glass or carbon aramid. It is preferred that the fibres are substantially continuous and aligned substantially in one direction.

The fibres from which the interlining is manufactured can be the same or different to the fibre reinforcement within the resin prepreg and could include fibres of the same thermoplastic resin as used in the prepreg: typical fibres could include glass, carbon, aramid and any conventional textile fibre; typical fabrics could be woven, knitted or non-woven.

The total volume fraction of resin can be varied depending on the construction of either or both of the prepreg and interlining. This shown schematically in Figure 1 for a composite sheet of total thickness 1.8 m.

The total volume fraction of resin is the same in all constructions but the distribution of the prepreg layer and fabric interlining can be adjusted, to optimise the protection properties of the composite plate.

The composition of each layer depends on the thickness of prepreg and interliner which are commercially available.

It is possible to make up a layer of a particular thickness by combining several plies of smaller thicknesses together.

Because of the anisotropic character of both the prepreg and the interlining, particularly if a woven fabric is used as the interlining, the orientation of one ply with the adjacent ply can be varied.

Typical arrangements are shown in Figure 2.

Purpose of the different components Continuous Fibre reinforced prepreg.

The purpose of this is: to provide an tough outer layer which will dissipate energy, either by delamination along the continuous fibres or by through the fibres.

to provide a reservoir of resin which can be pumped into the interlining during the moulding operation.

to provide an environmentally resistant surface offering particularly in the case of poly phenylene sulphide a solvent resistant material with excellent fire, smoke and toxicity characteristics.

to provide an inner surface capable of plastic deformation, hence offering an opportunity of encasing an emerging knife blade.

The preferred prepreg is one based on a thermoplastic polyamide resin containing continuous glass fibre reinforcement (volume fraction approximately 30%).

From a practical point of view it is generally necessary to balance cost against final weight of a plate needed to offer adequate protection.

Thus, composites based on polypropene would be lighter but the adhesion of polypropene to glass is much poorer than that of polyamide to glass and products made have inferior performance.

Conversely composites based on poly phenylene sulphide, because they are available with volume fraction of glass up to 65% give satisfactory performance even without the inclusion of additional glass cloth, but are ruled out of some applications because of their high cost.

Interlining The purpose of the interlining is: to enable the overall fibre content to be modified and in particular to enable the total glass content to be increased to levels greater than those obtainable by the use of commercially available prepregs (specifically those based on polyamides and poly propene).

to locate within the composite sheet areas of material having substantially different deformation and energy absorbing characteristics than those of the surface layers of continuous fibre reinforced resin.

The deformation and energy absorbing characteristics of the interlining can also be modified by the degree of resin penetration.

The preferred construction of the interlining is a woven glass cloth having a real mass of 100 to 350 g m~2.

It is considered that it may be advantageous to have a tight weave so that there is a considerable quantity of the fabric which is resin deficient. The tighter the weave the more closely its fracture characteristics should approximate to those of a sheet of glass.

In certain applications the total amount of glass may be critical as it plays a significant effect in blunting the cutting edge of any object passing through the composite plate. It is advantageous from weight saving and comfort aspects if this mass of glass is contained within the minimum plate thickness.

There may also be advantages in using two or more plies to achieve a particular mass of fabric. This would supply a "weak" layer, which could mop up energy by moving in a direction perpendicular to the applied force.

The use of fabrics based on other fibres such as graphite and aramid has been considered. Although there may be technical advantages they may prove uneconomic at current prices . Tests have shown that a combination of thin sheets (for example three) instead of a thick sheet of the same nominal thickness, provides improved protection.

Applications The principle application is in the field of protection; the material when tested as three plates together offers in one material both ballistic and stab protection, which it is believed is unique. It should further be noted that three thin sheets are better than a thick sheet of the same total thickness.

The material may be used to form damage resistant plates and is particularly suitable where not only is the weight of the component important but also the material needs to have good fire resistance including zero halogen, low smoke and toxicity. Application herefore exist in transport (planes, boats, trains, underground etc.) and the mining, oil industry and chemical industries.

It should be noted that the inclusion of glass cloth could offer a substantial advantage, because in addition to the inherently good characteristics of poly phenylene sulphide the glass cloth would provide a fire barrier.

Example 1 A composite plate was made up of the following components: 5 layers of poly amide resin sheet 0.26 mm thick and containing continuous E glass reinforcing fibres uniaxially orientated and in which the nominal volume fraction of glass was 28%.

4 layers of a woven glass fabric about 0.2 mm thick and having a nominal areal mass of 285 g m-2.

Layers of polyamide and glass fabric were arranged sequentially with the angles between the major axes of two consecutive layers being +45, 0, -45, 0, -45, 0.

Consolidation was achieved using a proprietary technique, the resultant composite plate having a thickness of 1.8 mm, and a density of 1600 Kg m3.

The final plate demonstrated a significant improvement in impact resistance compared with a plate in which the resin was poly propene and a polyamide plate of the same thickness but not containing layers of glass fabric.

Claims (18)

1. A sheet of protective material comprising a laminate of layers of polymeric material having generally parallel fibre reinforcement.
2. A sheet as claimed in Claim 1, wherein the laminate further comprises a layer of fabric between at least two of the fibre reinforced layers.
3. A sheet as claimed in Claim 1, wherein the fabric is at least partially impregnated with polymeric material.
4. A sheet as claimed in Claim 3, wherein the fabric is impregnated with the polymeric material of the layers.
5. A sheet as claimed in any one of the preceding claims wherein the polymeric material is thermosetting or thermoplastic.
6. A sheet as claimed in Claim 5, wherein the polymeric material is a poly alkene, polyamide, poly phenylene sulphide, epoxy resin, phenolic polyester or a polyurethane.
7. A sheet as claimed in any of the preceding claims, wherein the fibres are glass, carbon, aramid, or of the polymeric material.
8. A sheet as claimed in Claim 2 or any of Claims 3 to 7 as dependent on Claim 2 wherein the fabric is made from glass, carbon, aramid, textile or of the polymeric material.
9. A sheet as claimed in Claim 2 or any of Claims 3 to 8 as dependent on Claim 2, wherein the fabric is woven, knitted or non-woven.
10. A sheet as claimed in any one of Claim 2 or Claims 3 to 10 as dependent on Claim 2, wherein there are alternate layers of fibre reinforced material and fabric.
11. A sheet as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the layers are made of a number of plies and wherein the fibres in one ply are at an angle (for example 450) into the fibres of another ply.
12. A sheet as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the average volume fraction of polymeric material in the whole sheet is between 20% to 80% and/or the volume fraction of polymeric material in the fibre reinforced layers lies between 25% and 80%.
13. A sheet as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the layers are consolidated together by moulding and/or curing.
14. A sheet substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
15. A composite plate comprising a plurality of sheets as claimed in any one of the preceding claims.
16. A composite plate as claimed in Claim 15, wherein at least one sheet is spaced from the other.
17. A protective article manufactured or consisting of sheets or plates as claimed in any of the preceding claims.
18. An article as claimed in Claim 18, comprising an article of clothing or a protective panel or shield.
GB9024069A 1990-11-06 1990-11-06 Protective sheet material Withdrawn GB2250470A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9024069A GB2250470A (en) 1990-11-06 1990-11-06 Protective sheet material

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB9024069A GB2250470A (en) 1990-11-06 1990-11-06 Protective sheet material

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB9024069D0 true GB9024069D0 (en) 1990-12-19
GB2250470A true true GB2250470A (en) 1992-06-10

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2697626A1 (en) * 1992-11-03 1994-05-06 Gallet Sa Armoured material, esp. for protective helmet - has several layers of filaments in different directions, impregnated or coated with a resin matrix
GB2276933A (en) * 1993-04-07 1994-10-12 Courtaulds Aerospace Ltd Composite ballistic armour
EP0719635A2 (en) * 1994-12-26 1996-07-03 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Laminated structure of fiber reinforced plastics and shock-absorbing structure
EP0769258A1 (en) * 1995-10-18 1997-04-23 Alpinestars S.p.A. Method for producing a protective element for sports shoes and/or items of clothing and product obtained with said method
US5709925A (en) * 1994-02-09 1998-01-20 R+S Stanztechnik Gmbh Multi-layered panel having a core including natural fibers and method of producing the same
EP1178925A1 (en) * 1999-03-20 2002-02-13 Survival Incorporated Ballistic resistant panel and method of making
EP2063214A1 (en) * 2007-11-23 2009-05-27 Tda Armements S.A.S. Ballistic protective device

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105172256A (en) * 2015-09-14 2015-12-23 浙江理工大学 Preparation method for bulletproof plates different in lamination proportion of reinforcing materials

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1364076A (en) * 1972-08-29 1974-08-21 British Aircraft Corp Ltd Structural materials
US4416929A (en) * 1981-07-02 1983-11-22 Proform, Inc. Multilayer stitched knitted fiberglass composite
EP0141603A2 (en) * 1983-11-07 1985-05-15 Imperial Chemical Industries Plc Method of forming reinforced thermoplastic composites
GB2151185A (en) * 1983-12-14 1985-07-17 British Aerospace Fibre reinforced composite element
EP0259121A2 (en) * 1986-09-02 1988-03-09 Toray Industries, Inc. Light-weight composite material
EP0265550A1 (en) * 1986-10-31 1988-05-04 Erna Roth Multilayered ballistic armour
US4820568A (en) * 1987-08-03 1989-04-11 Allied-Signal Inc. Composite and article using short length fibers
US4883700A (en) * 1987-08-03 1989-11-28 Allied-Signal Inc. Composite and article using short length fibers at oblique angles

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1364076A (en) * 1972-08-29 1974-08-21 British Aircraft Corp Ltd Structural materials
US4416929A (en) * 1981-07-02 1983-11-22 Proform, Inc. Multilayer stitched knitted fiberglass composite
EP0141603A2 (en) * 1983-11-07 1985-05-15 Imperial Chemical Industries Plc Method of forming reinforced thermoplastic composites
GB2151185A (en) * 1983-12-14 1985-07-17 British Aerospace Fibre reinforced composite element
EP0259121A2 (en) * 1986-09-02 1988-03-09 Toray Industries, Inc. Light-weight composite material
EP0265550A1 (en) * 1986-10-31 1988-05-04 Erna Roth Multilayered ballistic armour
US4820568A (en) * 1987-08-03 1989-04-11 Allied-Signal Inc. Composite and article using short length fibers
US4883700A (en) * 1987-08-03 1989-11-28 Allied-Signal Inc. Composite and article using short length fibers at oblique angles

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2697626A1 (en) * 1992-11-03 1994-05-06 Gallet Sa Armoured material, esp. for protective helmet - has several layers of filaments in different directions, impregnated or coated with a resin matrix
GB2276933A (en) * 1993-04-07 1994-10-12 Courtaulds Aerospace Ltd Composite ballistic armour
GB2276933B (en) * 1993-04-07 1997-01-08 Courtaulds Aerospace Ltd Composite ballistic armour
US5709925A (en) * 1994-02-09 1998-01-20 R+S Stanztechnik Gmbh Multi-layered panel having a core including natural fibers and method of producing the same
EP0719635A2 (en) * 1994-12-26 1996-07-03 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Laminated structure of fiber reinforced plastics and shock-absorbing structure
EP0719635A3 (en) * 1994-12-26 1998-04-08 Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Laminated structure of fiber reinforced plastics and shock-absorbing structure
EP0769258A1 (en) * 1995-10-18 1997-04-23 Alpinestars S.p.A. Method for producing a protective element for sports shoes and/or items of clothing and product obtained with said method
EP1178925A1 (en) * 1999-03-20 2002-02-13 Survival Incorporated Ballistic resistant panel and method of making
EP1178925A4 (en) * 1999-03-20 2002-09-11 Survival Inc Ballistic resistant panel and method of making
EP2063214A1 (en) * 2007-11-23 2009-05-27 Tda Armements S.A.S. Ballistic protective device
FR2924210A1 (en) * 2007-11-23 2009-05-29 Tda Armements Sas Soc Par Acti A ballistic protection
US7846854B2 (en) 2007-11-23 2010-12-07 Tda Armements Sas Ballistic safety device

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