GB2180677A - Card and card system - Google Patents

Card and card system Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2180677A
GB2180677A GB08520196A GB8520196A GB2180677A GB 2180677 A GB2180677 A GB 2180677A GB 08520196 A GB08520196 A GB 08520196A GB 8520196 A GB8520196 A GB 8520196A GB 2180677 A GB2180677 A GB 2180677A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
card
display
means
receiver
acard
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
GB08520196A
Other versions
GB8520196D0 (en
Inventor
Kevan Henry Smith
Original Assignee
Kevan Henry Smith
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Kevan Henry Smith filed Critical Kevan Henry Smith
Priority to GB08520196A priority Critical patent/GB2180677A/en
Publication of GB8520196D0 publication Critical patent/GB8520196D0/en
Publication of GB2180677A publication Critical patent/GB2180677A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F7/00Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus
    • G07F7/08Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus by coded identity card or credit card or other personal identification means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/067Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components
    • G06K19/07Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips
    • G06K19/0723Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips the record carrier comprising an arrangement for non-contact communication, e.g. wireless communication circuits on transponder cards, non-contact smart cards or RFIDs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/067Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components
    • G06K19/07Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips
    • G06K19/077Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier
    • G06K19/07701Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier the record carrier comprising an interface suitable for human interaction
    • G06K19/07703Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier the record carrier comprising an interface suitable for human interaction the interface being visual
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/067Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components
    • G06K19/07Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips
    • G06K19/077Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier
    • G06K19/07749Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier the record carrier being capable of non-contact communication, e.g. constructional details of the antenna of a non-contact smart card
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/067Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components
    • G06K19/07Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips
    • G06K19/077Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier
    • G06K19/07749Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier the record carrier being capable of non-contact communication, e.g. constructional details of the antenna of a non-contact smart card
    • G06K19/07773Antenna details
    • G06K19/07777Antenna details the antenna being of the inductive type
    • G06K19/07779Antenna details the antenna being of the inductive type the inductive antenna being a coil
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/067Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components
    • G06K19/07Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards also with resonating or responding marks without active components with integrated circuit chips
    • G06K19/077Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier
    • G06K19/07749Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier the record carrier being capable of non-contact communication, e.g. constructional details of the antenna of a non-contact smart card
    • G06K19/07773Antenna details
    • G06K19/07777Antenna details the antenna being of the inductive type
    • G06K19/07779Antenna details the antenna being of the inductive type the inductive antenna being a coil
    • G06K19/07783Antenna details the antenna being of the inductive type the inductive antenna being a coil the coil being planar
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/0008General problems related to the reading of electronic memory record carriers, independent of its reading method, e.g. power transfer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/38Payment protocols; Details thereof
    • G06Q20/40Authorisation, e.g. identification of payer or payee, verification of customer or shop credentials; Review and approval of payers, e.g. check credit lines or negative lists
    • G06Q20/403Solvency checks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07BTICKET-ISSUING APPARATUS; FARE-REGISTERING APPARATUS; FRANKING APPARATUS
    • G07B15/00Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points
    • G07B15/02Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points taking into account a variable factor such as distance or time, e.g. for passenger transport, parking systems or car rental systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07BTICKET-ISSUING APPARATUS; FARE-REGISTERING APPARATUS; FRANKING APPARATUS
    • G07B15/00Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points
    • G07B15/02Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points taking into account a variable factor such as distance or time, e.g. for passenger transport, parking systems or car rental systems
    • G07B15/04Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points taking into account a variable factor such as distance or time, e.g. for passenger transport, parking systems or car rental systems comprising devices to free a barrier, turnstile, or the like
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00007Access-control involving the use of a pass
    • G07C9/00111Access-control involving the use of a pass the pass performing a presence indicating function, e.g. identification tag or transponder
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07FCOIN-FREED OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • G07F7/00Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus
    • G07F7/08Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus by coded identity card or credit card or other personal identification means
    • G07F7/0866Mechanisms actuated by objects other than coins to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus by coded identity card or credit card or other personal identification means by active credit-cards adapted therefor

Abstract

A card for use in credit control and security, displays a message indicating the invalidity of the card when it recognises its own number among numbers transmitted by radio. <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Card and card system This invention relates to a card and/or card system.

The invention relates to a card such as a credit card (ie a card which enables a customerto purchase goods on crediteg VISA or Access), a charge card (a card which allows a customerto purchase goods on credit for a limited period oftime eg American Express or Diners), an authorisation card (a card which enables the holderto, for example, withdraw cash from a suitable machine, operate a car park barrier our undo a lock) our a card which is purchased for a certain amount of money and is then used for various purchases, the amount of money recorded in the card being reduced by each purchase.Although generally all of such cards are flat plastic cards there may be some variation in overall shape, particularly in respect of the so-called cards which are used to operate car park barriers and electronic locks.

All of said cards allowthe user access to money or creditorto premises and are therefore useful and valuable. Theft and consequential use by unauthorised persons, or invalid use of said cards, has become a considerable problem.

The present invention provides, according to one aspect, a card as herein defined in which the card includes means to provide an indication that the card is notvalid. The means to provide an indication may be, for example, wires which burn a visible indication on the surface ofthe card (such as the word "void" or "invalid") or may comprise an electronic display (such as an LED (light emitting diode)]. The electronic display may also be arranged to displaythe words "void" or "invalid".

The means to provide an indication that the card is not valid may be operated in a variety of ways. For example in the case of a conventional credit card, when the credit card is used and passed through a machine to authorise the purchase of a particular article, the machine may have inserted therein a list of the numbers of cards which are to be rendered invalid and maythereby operate on the card to produce the necessary indication.

However, the preferred method of operating the card to provide the indication will be described inac- cordance with the second aspect of the invention to follow. According to a second aspect of the invention,there is provided a card control system comprising and one or more transmitters and cards as herein defined each including a receiver, the cards each carrying a unique code, thetransmittertransmitting the code of invalid cards and the cards, on receiptof such a signal, being invalidated.Thus in a preferred arrangement to be described the cards will each include a radio frequency receiver, electronic logic, and an electronic indicator, and transmitters will be provided for various localities, for example shops where the card is to be used, and the card, on entering the area in which a signal may be received from the transmitter will receive therefrom coded information. If the coded numberorinformation received by a particular card corresponds to the unique code of the card then the electronic logic of the card will switch the electronic display so asto display an indication that the card is invalid,forexample, bydisplaying the words "void" or "invalid".

A preferred arrangement of the invention will now be described by way of example only and with refer ence to the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 1 is a frontview of a card according tothe invention showing a logic diagram of some of the electronic components within, Figure2 shows the card system in diagrammatic form, Figure 3 shows a system by which an operator can cause the transmitter to transmit the code of a card to be invalidated, Figure4shows a simplified circuit diagram ofa transmitter, and, Figure 5shows a "hand-shake" transmitterfor use in an alternative arrangement.

Referring to Figure 1 there is shown a card as herein before defined which comprises a generally rectangular piece of plastic, generally comprising two or more sheets of plastic attached face to face. On the front surface of the card 10is provided a display 11 in the form of a liquid crystal matrix. Embedded in the card isa receiver aerial 12 in the form ofa printed coil, the receiver aerial being connected to a tuned circuit 13, the output of the tuned circuit 13 being passed to a data decoder 14. The output of the data decoder 14 is passed to a switch 16 which operates the liquid crystal matrix 11. Power is supplied bya battery 17.

The battery is a flat battery and may comprise, for example, an ultra thin lithium battery CS1364 manufactured by Toshiba. The components 13, 14 and 16 may comprise solid state electronic components and the switch 16 is a standard type of switch circuit utilised to switch the individual components of a liquid crystal matrix to give a desired display of words.

The data decoder incorporates a memory and the memory includesacoded signal uniquetothepart- icular card.

Figure 2 illustrates a card system according to the invention There is provided a radio transmitter 18 which transmits a series of coded signals which relatetothe unique coded signals ofthose cardswhich are invalid. When the card 10 receives a signal from the transmitter in which the tuned circuit 13 and aerial 12 act as a receiver, the signal is passed to the decoder 14where it is compared by means ofthe parity encoder 15with the unique coded signal in the memory and if the two signals match then a signal is passed to the switch 16 to operate the liquid crystal matrix 11 to display the word "void".

In an alternative arrangement (not illustrated) in place of the liquid crystal matrix 11 there may be provided wires beneath the surface ofthe plastic which, will be connected to the battery when the card is to be invalidated, and thereby become heated and will burn in the surface of the card the necessarywording "void".

The transmitter may of course be a powerful transmittercovering a considerable area but in an alternative arrangement there may be provided a plurality of less powerful transmitters, for example, a transmitterin each shop orshopping complex. The signals to be transmitted by the transmitterwill be provided by the credit card company, either by a direct landline orvia atelephone line which may be continuously connected to the credit card company or may be connected at interva Is, the information being stored in a suitable memory at the transmitter.

Figure 4 illustrates the electronic circuit of a preferred low powerVLF type transmitter which operates from a mains supply but has a battery back-up. The encoder consists of a 12-bit binary code and is addressed by sending a binary code which is received down the telephone line from the credit card company. The transmitter is a carrier modulated type and may include an internal aerial which may be housed in a small plastic box which may be discreetly placed in a shop.

With regard to the card, in view of the low power output required the battery is expected to last for some years, certainly longerthan the card should be in the hands of the user. The battery is in fact flexible to a very large extent so that normal use of the card is permitted.

When the battery is close to the end of its life the display will automatically be activated to invalidate the card but before this, means may be arranged so that a segment of the liquid crystal display may be activated to indicate that approximately 3 to 4weeks of life is left in the card. Such an arrangement is also activated if the card is bent through more than 30", thus acting as a safety feature against possible fraud.

In addition to this the liquid crystal display may have a small segment which is switched on and offto flash at one second intervals so long as the card is valid and the electronics within the card have not been tampered with or damaged in anyway. Thus there may be provided electronic logic circuits within the card to check the operation ofthe electronics.

In an additional arrangement, the card may include a hand-shake transmitter. Thus when the card is invalid and the display is actuated a small transmitter will send an identical code backtothetransmitterin the shop showing that the card has acted upon the instructions received and it is thus no longerneces- sary to transmit the coded signal relating to that card.

Clearly after a period oftime the number of invalid cards increases and it is necessary to try to delete from the system those cards which have been rendered invalid. Figure 5 shows a circuitforthe shop or remotetransmitterwhich also incorporates a re ceiverfor receiving messages from credit cards.

If necessary, the card may continuously communicatewith such atransmitterand receiverto indicate thattheparticularcard is still valid or is invalid.Thus the system may be used to keep a check on cards at all times if necessary, although the battery power required to enable the credit card to transmit continuouslywould be great and in practice the trans missionwouldonlytake place at regularintervals.

The liquid crystal matrix may be used to display other messages as desired.

It is intended that a frequency of75kHzwill be used to send data or code from the transmitterto the credit card. The code may be sent by transmitter in a binary form by pulse code modulation. The card contains a digital to analogue converter to convert the binary digital code into an analogue numbercode.Asmall amount of noise is introduced whilst doing this and so the code number should include a parity check which will check the signal received against the next signal received. If the two digital codes are the same then the invalidating operation will be commenced.

Claims (6)

1. An electronic credit card capable of displaying by means of a liquid crystal display a message or code which may be interpreted to provide information about the card holders status of account, by means of a remote transmitter which encodes information and transmits by means of electro magneticwaves to the said receiver contained within the said card.
2. Acard as claimed in claim 1 in which a receiving element capable of decoding said information and showing a code or message on a display only when said transmitter transmits a code interpreting said message type.
3. Acard as claimed in claim 1 or2 in which said receiver contains within its thickness a minature battery providing said receiver with electric energy providing several years of use before expiryto supply said decoder and display with electric current.
4. Acard as claimed in claim 3 in which an elec tronicvoltage detectersystem is setto a predetermined voltage reference and connected to said display showing when battery is no longer of use a permanent void or other means of indication on said display.
5. Acard as claimed in any preceding claims where as a plurality of cards may be used with only a few transmitters or any number of transmitters pla cud within the boundary of a country providing a network of encoders over a large area and controlled by a remote means from a computer or other control unit.
6. A card or any other type of compact instrument provided with a receiver responsiveto said transmit- ter device as claimed in claim 1.
GB08520196A 1985-08-12 1985-08-12 Card and card system Withdrawn GB2180677A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08520196A GB2180677A (en) 1985-08-12 1985-08-12 Card and card system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08520196A GB2180677A (en) 1985-08-12 1985-08-12 Card and card system

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB8520196D0 GB8520196D0 (en) 1985-09-18
GB2180677A true GB2180677A (en) 1987-04-01

Family

ID=10583666

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB08520196A Withdrawn GB2180677A (en) 1985-08-12 1985-08-12 Card and card system

Country Status (1)

Country Link
GB (1) GB2180677A (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2642200A1 (en) * 1989-01-24 1990-07-27 Commissariat Energie Atomique Badge for entry into an area with regulated access, equipped with active means for visually displaying the right of access thereto
EP0479058A2 (en) * 1990-10-01 1992-04-08 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Transponder for a remote identification system
US5412192A (en) * 1993-07-20 1995-05-02 American Express Company Radio frequency activated charge card
GB2298302A (en) * 1995-02-25 1996-08-28 Accupage Ltd Security device
US5637848A (en) * 1993-06-04 1997-06-10 Jean-Claude Decaux Payment installation for a transport network
EP0799463A1 (en) * 1994-10-05 1997-10-08 Avid Marketing, Inc. Universal electronic identification tag
EP0845695A2 (en) * 1996-11-30 1998-06-03 Lüder, Ernst, Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Method of manufacturing of liquid crystal displays on plastic films using bistable liquid crystals
WO1998058353A1 (en) * 1997-06-17 1998-12-23 Wow Company S.A. Novel devices for controlling access or occupation time of places or premises
EP1204903A1 (en) * 2000-05-30 2002-05-15 Seiko Epson Corporation Hand-held electronic device
WO2008060430A2 (en) * 2006-11-10 2008-05-22 Keystone Technology Solutions, Llc Tracking systems, passive rfid's, methods of locating and identifying rfid's, and methods of tracking items
US7737851B2 (en) 1999-07-29 2010-06-15 Round Rock Research, Llc Radio frequency identification devices, remote communication devices, identification systems, communication methods, and identification methods

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3906460A (en) * 1973-01-11 1975-09-16 Halpern John Wolfgang Proximity data transfer system with tamper proof portable data token
GB1505715A (en) * 1974-03-25 1978-03-30 Innovation Ste Int Systems for the transfer of data
GB1543601A (en) * 1975-05-13 1979-04-04 Innovation Ste Int Systems for storing and transferring data
GB2015221A (en) * 1978-02-27 1979-09-05 Philips Nv Reservation system
EP0060650A1 (en) * 1981-03-04 1982-09-22 Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company Credit control systems

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3906460A (en) * 1973-01-11 1975-09-16 Halpern John Wolfgang Proximity data transfer system with tamper proof portable data token
GB1505715A (en) * 1974-03-25 1978-03-30 Innovation Ste Int Systems for the transfer of data
GB1543601A (en) * 1975-05-13 1979-04-04 Innovation Ste Int Systems for storing and transferring data
GB2015221A (en) * 1978-02-27 1979-09-05 Philips Nv Reservation system
EP0060650A1 (en) * 1981-03-04 1982-09-22 Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company Credit control systems

Cited By (23)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2642200A1 (en) * 1989-01-24 1990-07-27 Commissariat Energie Atomique Badge for entry into an area with regulated access, equipped with active means for visually displaying the right of access thereto
EP0479058A2 (en) * 1990-10-01 1992-04-08 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Transponder for a remote identification system
EP0479058A3 (en) * 1990-10-01 1992-07-08 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Transponder for a remote identification system
US5642103A (en) * 1990-10-01 1997-06-24 Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha Transponder used in a remote identification system
US5637848A (en) * 1993-06-04 1997-06-10 Jean-Claude Decaux Payment installation for a transport network
US5412192A (en) * 1993-07-20 1995-05-02 American Express Company Radio frequency activated charge card
EP0799463A4 (en) * 1994-10-05 2000-05-24 Avid Identification Syst Inc Universal electronic identification tag
EP0799463A1 (en) * 1994-10-05 1997-10-08 Avid Marketing, Inc. Universal electronic identification tag
GB2298302B (en) * 1995-02-25 1998-04-01 Accupage Ltd Security device
GB2298302A (en) * 1995-02-25 1996-08-28 Accupage Ltd Security device
EP0845695A2 (en) * 1996-11-30 1998-06-03 Lüder, Ernst, Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Method of manufacturing of liquid crystal displays on plastic films using bistable liquid crystals
EP0845695A3 (en) * 1996-11-30 1998-12-23 Lüder, Ernst, Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Method of manufacturing of liquid crystal displays on plastic films using bistable liquid crystals
WO1998058353A1 (en) * 1997-06-17 1998-12-23 Wow Company S.A. Novel devices for controlling access or occupation time of places or premises
US8004407B2 (en) 1999-07-29 2011-08-23 Round Rock Research, Llc Radio frequency identification devices, remote communication devices, identification systems, communication methods, and identification methods
US8253565B2 (en) 1999-07-29 2012-08-28 Round Rock Research, Llc Radio frequency identification devices, remote communication devices, identification systems, communication methods, and identification methods
US8487766B2 (en) 1999-07-29 2013-07-16 Round Rock Research, LLP Radio frequency identification devices, remote communication devices, identification systems, communication methods, and identification methods
US7737851B2 (en) 1999-07-29 2010-06-15 Round Rock Research, Llc Radio frequency identification devices, remote communication devices, identification systems, communication methods, and identification methods
EP1204903A1 (en) * 2000-05-30 2002-05-15 Seiko Epson Corporation Hand-held electronic device
EP1204903A4 (en) * 2000-05-30 2005-05-04 Seiko Epson Corp Hand-held electronic device
US7181179B2 (en) 2000-05-30 2007-02-20 Seiko Epson Corporation Hand-held electronic device
WO2008060430A3 (en) * 2006-11-10 2008-07-24 Keystone Technology Solutions Tracking systems, passive rfid's, methods of locating and identifying rfid's, and methods of tracking items
US7855643B2 (en) 2006-11-10 2010-12-21 Round Rock Research, Llc Tracking systems, passive RFIDs, methods of locating and identifying RFIDs, and methods of tracking items
WO2008060430A2 (en) * 2006-11-10 2008-05-22 Keystone Technology Solutions, Llc Tracking systems, passive rfid's, methods of locating and identifying rfid's, and methods of tracking items

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB8520196D0 (en) 1985-09-18

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