GB2167626A - Self-adaptive array repeater and electronically steered directional transponder - Google Patents

Self-adaptive array repeater and electronically steered directional transponder Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2167626A
GB2167626A GB8528429A GB8528429A GB2167626A GB 2167626 A GB2167626 A GB 2167626A GB 8528429 A GB8528429 A GB 8528429A GB 8528429 A GB8528429 A GB 8528429A GB 2167626 A GB2167626 A GB 2167626A
Authority
GB
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
antenna
array
elements
source
coupled
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB8528429A
Other versions
GB8528429D0 (en )
GB2167626B (en )
Inventor
Lee Alvin Meadows
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Raytheon Co
Original Assignee
Raytheon Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q3/00Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system
    • H01Q3/26Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an antenna or antenna system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture
    • H01Q3/2605Array of radiating elements provided with a feedback control over the element weights, e.g. adaptive arrays
    • H01Q3/2647Retrodirective arrays
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field

Abstract

A radio frequency transponder/repeater has an array 12 of receiving antenna elements 14a-14n coupled to an array 16 of transmitting antenna elements 18a-18n to provide a directional Van Atta antenna system, and includes additionally an internal radio frequency source 34 which can be also coupled to the array of transmitting antenna elements. An internally generated signal provided by the radio frequency source 34 may be transmitted using the transmitting array 16 of the Van Atta system, the source 34 being controlled by a receiver and logic section 30 coupled to one of the receiving antenna elements 14a. In a further embodiment (Figure 2) each receiving antenna element 14a-14n is coupled via a beam forming network (31) to receivers (40a-40n) and by measuring the relative amounts of energy received at feed points (38a-38n) the direction or angle of arrival of a source of radio frequency energy may be determined. <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Integrated self-adaptive array repeater and electronically steered directional transponder The invention relates generally to radio frequency energy systems and more particularly to radio frequency energy repeaters and transponders.

As is known in the art, radio frequency energy repeaters and transponders have a wide variety of applications. One type of radio frequency energy repeater is a retro-directive repeater where a retrodirective antenna array in combination with other elements may be used, either with orwithout amplification, to return received electromagnetic energy to a transmitting source. For example, the well known "Van Atta" array, in which pairs of antenna elements are connected together by transmission lines of appropriate lengths, has an inherent ability to "retro-direct" received electro-magnetic energy back to the source of such energy.

Another type of retro-directive system is described in U.S. Patent No. 3,715,749, issued February 6, 1973, entitled "Multi-Beam Radio Frequency System" inventor Donald H. Archer, and assigned to the same assignee as the present invention. Here, a pair of radio frequency multi-beam array antennas are connected together to provide a system which may operate in either an active mode or a passive mode, which may be operated selectively to respond to predetermined ones of spatially separated interrogating sources, and which may be equally and simultaneously responsive to interrogating signals from any one of a number of directions.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a system is provided for use in a radio frequency transponder/repeater wherein an array of receiving antenna elements is coupled to an array of transmitting antenna elements to provide an antenna system and including additionally an internal radio frequency source which is also coupled to the array of transmitting antenna elements. With such arrangement, an internally generated signal provided by the radio frequency source may be transmitted using the transmitting array of a Van Atta System.

The above mentioned aspects and other features of the invention are explained more fully in the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 1 is s block diagram of a radio frequency repeater/transponder according to the invention; and Figure 2 is a block diagram of a radio frequency repeater/transponder according to an alternative embodiment of the invention.

Description of the preferred embodiments Referring now to Figure 1, a radio frequency repeater/transponder 10 is shown to include a linear array 12 of receiving antenna elements 14a-14n coupled to a linear array 16 of transmitting antenna elements 18a-18n through electrical paths 20a-20n of equal electrical lengths. Disposed in each of the electrical paths are three serially coupled amplifiers 22a, 24a, and 26a through 22n, 24n, and 26n, respectively, as shown. Amplifier 24a is here a gated amplifier for reasons to be described hereinafter.

Thus, when gated amplifiers 24a is enabled by a control signal fed thereto on line 28, the arrays 12, 16 and amplifiers 22a-22n, 24a-24n and 26a-26n are arranged as a conventional Van Atta system having the inherent ability to "retro-direct" received electromagnetic energy from a source within the beam, or radiation antenna pattern, ofthe array 12; here, after the received energy has been amplified by amplifiers 22a-22n, 24a-24n, and 26a-26n.

Here the radio frequency repeater/transponder 10 is also adapted to receive energy from a second source outside of the relatively narrow beam, or radiation antenna pattern provided by array 12, but within a broader beam, or radiation antenna pattern provided by a single one of, or more generally, a portion of, the antenna elements 14a-14n in array 12 and retro-direct such energy back to the second source. For example, here a selected one of the receiving antenna elements 14a-14n, here antenna element 14a is coupled through amplifier 22a to both gated amplifier 24a and a receiver and logic section 30 via a directional coupler 32, as shown. An internal signal source 34, activated by receiver and logic section 30 via line 36, and the output of gated amplifier 24a are coupled to transmitting antenna element 18a through amplifier 26a via a directional coupler 40, as shown.Thus, it is noticed that when internal source 34 is not activated by the receiver and logic section 30, energy received from the second source, i.e., a source outside of the narrower beam of array 12, but within the broader beam of single element 14a is retro-directed back to the second source because of the relatively broader beam portion of single transmitting antenna element 18a (as compared with the narrower beam of array 16).Further, it is note that when energy from this second source is coupled to receiver and logic section 30 via directional coupler 32, such section 30 determines, in response to the detection of such signal and in accordance with any predetermined criterion stored in the logic of such section 30, whether two activate internal source 34 and thereby either: super-impose information in such source 34 onto the received signal (as when gated amplifier 24a is enabled by a control signal on line 28a); or merely transmit to the second source the information in source 34 (as when gated amplifier 24a is disabled by the control signal on line 28).Thus, with the arrangement shown in Figure 1, the repeater transponder may be configured as a retro-directive repeater and/or a broad beam transponder, both of which have a common receiving antenna array 12 and a common transmitting array 16.

Referring now to Figure 2, a radio frequency repeater/transponder 10' is shown to also include a linear array 12 of receiving antenna elements 14a14n coupled to a linear array 16 of transmitting antenna elements 18a-18n through paths 20a-20n of equal electrical lengths with serially coupled amplifiers 22a, 24a, 26a through 22n, 24n, 26n disposed in such paths 20a-20n, respectively, as shown to again provide a Van Atta antenna system, as described above in connection with Figure 1. Here, however, the amplifiers 24a-24n are all gated amplifiers.

Further, here the outputs of amplifiers 22a-22n are coupled to a beam forming network 31, here a multi-beam lens 32 of the type described in the above-referenced U.S. Patent No 3,715,749, adapted to provide a plurality of, here m, simultaneous existing antenna patterns, or beams, as well as to the input of gated amplifiers 24a-24n via directional couplers 34a-34n, as shown. Thus, as described in such U.S. Patent No.3,715,749, the linear array 12 of receiving antenna elements 14a-14n, the electrical lengths from such antenna elements 14a-14n to array ports 36a-36n, and the configuration of lens 32 is such that the electrical lengths of the paths from any one of the m feed ports, 38a-38m, to points along a planar wavefront of radio frequency energy in any one of the m beams thereof are the same.

That is, the length of the electrical path from any one of the m feed ports 38a-38m to the planar wavefront of a corresponding one of the m beams is the same for radio frequency energy entering any one of the antenna elements 14a-14n. Thus, the energy from each of the m beams may be considered as being "focussed" to a corresponding one of the m feed ports 38a-38m. Thus, it follows that the beam forming network is adapted to provide a direction finder, and by measuring the relative amount of energy received at the feed ports 38a-38m the direction, or angle of arrival of, a source of radio frequency energy may be determined. Thus, here a portion of the energy received at each one of the feed ports 38a-38m is coupled via directional couplers 39a-39m, to a corresponding one of a plurality of receivers 40a-40m, respectively, as shown.The outputs of the receivers 40a-40m are coupled to a logic section 40, as shown, and the remaining portions of the signals at feed ports 38a-38m are coupled to a switch 42; a selected one of such feed ports 38a-38m being coupled to a coherent modulator/source 44, such one of the feed ports 38a-38m so coupled being in accordance with control signal fed to such switch 42 via bus 46. Thus, here receivers 40a-40m and logic section 40 are used to, inter alia, determine which one of the feed ports 38a-38n received the signal from the source and, in response to such determination, couples the output of such one of the feed ports 38a-38m through switch 42 to the coherent modulator 44.

The coherent modulator 44 is activated by a control signal fed thereto from logic section 40 via control line 48. The coherent modulator 44 is adapted to either allow the signal fed thereto from switch 42 to pass to the output of the coherent modulatorlsource either modulated or unmodulated. The output of coherent modulator 44 is fed to the input of a switch 50 along with the output of an internal source 34 via a directional coupler 52, as shown. Internal source 34 is equivalent to that described above in connections with Figure 1, and is thus activated by a control signal on line 36, here supplied by logic section 40.

The signal fed to the input of switch 50, which may be either the second signal modulated, the second signal unmodulated, or the internally generated signal (which may be superimposed onto the modulated received signal or the received unmodulated signal) is coupled to a selected one of m feed ports 60a-60m of multi-beam lens 62 of a beam forming network 64. The array ports 66a-66n are coupled to the inputs of amplifiers 26a-26n, respectively, along with the outputs of gated ampifiers 24a-24n, respectively, through directional couplers 68a-68n, respectively, as shown. Beam forming network 64 is configured to provide m simultaneously existing beams from transmitting array 16.That is, just as beam forming network 31 produces m simultaneously existing, differently directed beams from a ommon linear array 12 of receiving antenna element 14a-14n, beam forming network 64 produces m simultaneously existing, different directed beams from a common linear array 16 of transmitting antenna elements. It is noted that each one ofthe m receiving beams has the same direction of one of the m transmitting beams, and more particularly, the beams focussed to feed ports 38a-38m have the same directions as the beams produced by energy at feed ports 60a-60m, respectively. That is, for example, the one of the m received beams focussed to feed ports 38a has the same direction as the one of the beams produced by feeding energy to feed port 60a, as described in the above-referenced U.S.

Patent No. 3,715,749. Thus, for example, if it is desired to retransmit received energy back to the source but modulated, or superimposed with internal source information, switch 50 is activated by control signals on bus 70 from logic section 40 to couple the signal fed to switch 50 to the corresponding one of the feed ports 60a-60m associated with a beam having the same direction as the source.

Alternatively, switch 50 may be activated by control signals to transmit the signal at the input to switch 50 to a different direction and hence would couple such signal to a non-corresponding one of the feed ports 60a-60n. In any event, it is noted that both the retro-directive Van Atta system and the multi-beam system are a common receiving array 12 of receiving antenna elements 14a-14n, and a common transmitting array 16 of transmitting antenna elements 18a-18n. Thus, system 10' may be configured as a retro-directive repeater and/or a directional beam transponder, or a coherent transponder having common transmit and receive antenna arrays 12, 16.

The flexibility of the disclosed systems will now become immediately apparant to one of skill in the art. Thus, for example, while a retro-directive antenna system is shown where energy is directed back towards the source, in other applications the energy may be directed to a separate station. Further, it is now apparent that the system in Figure 2, for example, may be modified so that the lenses 32,62 are coupled to only a portion of the antenna elements 1 4a-1 4n, 1 8a-1 8n as when the particular beam pattern desired for the internal source 34 is to be different from the beam pattern of the entire arrays 12, 16. If it is desired to increase the beam width during reception, for example, the number of input array ports 36a-36n coupled to array 12 can be reduced by using gated amplifiers for amplifiers 22a-22n are enabling a portion of such gated ampli fiers. Likewise, for transmission, a wide or broader beam may be generated by using gated amplifiers for amplifiers 26a-26n and disabling a portion of such gated amplifiers, and when narrow beams are desired for both receive and transmit, common gating signals may be fed to these gated amplifiers.

It is felt, therefore, that this invention should not be restricted to its disclosed embodiments, but rather should be limited only by the spirit and scope of the inventive concept.

Claims (6)

1. A radio frequency antenna system, comprising: (a) an antenna system having an array of transmitting antenna elements coupled to an array of receiving antenna elements; and, (b) a radio frequency source means coupled to or decoupled from the antenna elements in the transmitting array of antenna elements selectively in response to a control signal.
2. A radio frequency system conprising: (a) a retro-directive antenna array system comprising an array of transmitting antenna elements coupled to an array of receiving antenna elements through electrical paths having equal electrical lengths; and, (b) a radio frequency energy source coupled to at least one of the antenna elements in the array of transmitting antenna elements.
3. The radio frequency system recited in Claim 2 including a receiver means coupled to at least one of the antenna elements in the array of receiving antenna elements for controlling operation of the radio frequency source.
4. The radio frequency system recited in Claim 3 wherein the one of the electrical paths between said at least one of the antenna elements in the array of receiving antenna elements coupled to the receiver means and the at least one of the antenna elements in the transmitting array of antenna elements includes a switching means responsive to a control signal produced by the receiving means, for opening or closing such one of the electrical paths selectively in accordance with such control signal.
5. The radio frequency antenna recited in Claim 2 including: a first radio frequency bus having a plurality of array ports coupled to the array of receiving antenna elements; a receiver section coupled to an array of radio frequency buses having a plurality of array ports coupled to the transmitting array of antenna elements; switch means coupled between the plurality of feed ports of the first radio frequency bus and the feed ports of the second radio frequency buses; and wherein the receiver means includes means for producing a control signal for the switch means.
6. An integrated self-adaptive array repeater and electronically steered directional transponder, substantially as described hereinbefore with reference to Figure 1 or Figure 2 of the accompanying drawings.
GB8528429A 1984-11-20 1985-11-19 Radio frequency antenna systems Expired GB2167626B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US67344684 true 1984-11-20 1984-11-20

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB8528429D0 GB8528429D0 (en) 1985-12-24
GB2167626A true true GB2167626A (en) 1986-05-29
GB2167626B GB2167626B (en) 1988-08-17

Family

ID=24702695

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB8528429A Expired GB2167626B (en) 1984-11-20 1985-11-19 Radio frequency antenna systems

Country Status (2)

Country Link
DE (1) DE3541239A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2167626B (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0308830A2 (en) * 1987-09-22 1989-03-29 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna system
US5257030A (en) * 1987-09-22 1993-10-26 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna system
WO1997042720A1 (en) * 1996-05-09 1997-11-13 Lg Products Ab Channel-selective repeater for mobile telephony
GB2427789A (en) * 2005-06-24 2007-01-03 Toshiba Res Europ Ltd Repeater comprising directional antenna arrays to reduce received interference

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3150320A (en) * 1962-05-18 1964-09-22 Ibm Space satellite communications system employing a modulator-reflector relay means
GB1017123A (en) * 1961-11-03 1966-01-19 Georges Valensi Colour television transmission systems for transmission by means of at least one satellite
GB1027008A (en) * 1961-12-26 1966-04-20 Western Electric Co Improvements in or relating to antenna systems
US3711855A (en) * 1969-10-15 1973-01-16 Communications Satellite Corp Satellite on-board switching utilizing space-division and spot beam antennas
GB1403997A (en) * 1968-02-29 1975-08-28 Ibm Waveform communication system
US4144495A (en) * 1977-02-23 1979-03-13 Communications Satellite Corporation Satellite switching system

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1017123A (en) * 1961-11-03 1966-01-19 Georges Valensi Colour television transmission systems for transmission by means of at least one satellite
GB1027008A (en) * 1961-12-26 1966-04-20 Western Electric Co Improvements in or relating to antenna systems
US3150320A (en) * 1962-05-18 1964-09-22 Ibm Space satellite communications system employing a modulator-reflector relay means
GB1403997A (en) * 1968-02-29 1975-08-28 Ibm Waveform communication system
US3711855A (en) * 1969-10-15 1973-01-16 Communications Satellite Corp Satellite on-board switching utilizing space-division and spot beam antennas
US4144495A (en) * 1977-02-23 1979-03-13 Communications Satellite Corporation Satellite switching system

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0308830A2 (en) * 1987-09-22 1989-03-29 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna system
EP0308830A3 (en) * 1987-09-22 1990-05-02 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna system
US5257030A (en) * 1987-09-22 1993-10-26 Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha Antenna system
WO1997042720A1 (en) * 1996-05-09 1997-11-13 Lg Products Ab Channel-selective repeater for mobile telephony
GB2427789A (en) * 2005-06-24 2007-01-03 Toshiba Res Europ Ltd Repeater comprising directional antenna arrays to reduce received interference
GB2427789B (en) * 2005-06-24 2008-04-23 Toshiba Res Europ Ltd Repeater apparatus

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE3541239A1 (en) 1986-05-28 application
GB8528429D0 (en) 1985-12-24 grant
GB2167626B (en) 1988-08-17 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4044359A (en) Multiple intermediate frequency side-lobe canceller
US3670335A (en) Arrays with nulls steered independently of main beam
US3295134A (en) Antenna system for radiating directional patterns
US6717516B2 (en) Hybrid bluetooth/RFID based real time location tracking
US5953659A (en) Method and apparatus for producing delay of a carrier signal for implementing spatial diversity in a communications system
US5596326A (en) Secondary surveillance radar interrogation system using dual frequencies
US4032922A (en) Multibeam adaptive array
US5515060A (en) Clutter suppression for thinned array with phase only nulling
US4679046A (en) Transponder systems
US5377035A (en) Wavelength division multiplexed fiber optic link for RF polarization diversity receiver
US20030090765A1 (en) Free-space optical communication system
US6163296A (en) Calibration and integrated beam control/conditioning system for phased-array antennas
US20040061644A1 (en) CCE calibration with an array of calibration probes interleaved with the array antenna
US6084545A (en) Near-field calibration system for phase-array antennas
US5214410A (en) Location of objects
US6127966A (en) Method and device for antenna calibration
US5471647A (en) Method for minimizing cross-talk in adaptive transmission antennas
US4553146A (en) Reduced side lobe antenna system
US4090067A (en) Optical data communication system
US20050113138A1 (en) RF ID tag reader utlizing a scanning antenna system and method
EP0881782A2 (en) Maximum-ratio synthetic transmission diversity device
US4727590A (en) Mobile radio communication system with repeater station grid
US6034641A (en) Antenna device
US4314249A (en) Radar reflector with variable electric reflectivity
US5894598A (en) Radio communication system using portable mobile terminal

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee

Effective date: 19921119