GB2145651A - Concrete structures - Google Patents

Concrete structures Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2145651A
GB2145651A GB08323305A GB8323305A GB2145651A GB 2145651 A GB2145651 A GB 2145651A GB 08323305 A GB08323305 A GB 08323305A GB 8323305 A GB8323305 A GB 8323305A GB 2145651 A GB2145651 A GB 2145651A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
concrete
mould
mix
process according
facing
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB08323305A
Other versions
GB8323305D0 (en
GB2145651B (en
Inventor
Glyndwr Eirwyn Rees
Alex William Manson
Phillip John Collier
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Norcros Investments Ltd
Original Assignee
Norcros Investments Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Norcros Investments Ltd filed Critical Norcros Investments Ltd
Priority to GB08323305A priority Critical patent/GB2145651B/en
Publication of GB8323305D0 publication Critical patent/GB8323305D0/en
Publication of GB2145651A publication Critical patent/GB2145651A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2145651B publication Critical patent/GB2145651B/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS; SHAPING SLAG; SHAPING MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B1/00Producing shaped prefabricated articles from the material
    • B28B1/14Producing shaped prefabricated articles from the material by simple casting, the material being neither forcibly fed nor positively compacted
    • B28B1/16Producing shaped prefabricated articles from the material by simple casting, the material being neither forcibly fed nor positively compacted for producing layered articles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS; SHAPING SLAG; SHAPING MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B11/00Apparatus or processes for treating or working the shaped or preshaped articles
    • B28B11/04Apparatus or processes for treating or working the shaped or preshaped articles for coating or applying engobing layers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS; SHAPING SLAG; SHAPING MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B7/00Moulds; Cores; Mandrels
    • B28B7/0064Moulds characterised by special surfaces for producing a desired surface of a moulded article, e.g. profiled or polished moulding surfaces
    • B28B7/0073Moulds characterised by special surfaces for producing a desired surface of a moulded article, e.g. profiled or polished moulding surfaces with moulding surfaces simulating assembled bricks or blocks with mortar joints
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS; SHAPING SLAG; SHAPING MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B7/00Moulds; Cores; Mandrels
    • B28B7/34Moulds, cores, or mandrels of special material, e.g. destructible materials
    • B28B7/346Manufacture of moulds
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/30Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure

Abstract

A process for manufacturing a pre-cast concrete structure comprises the steps of arranging a plurality of bricks, brick slips, or other material with a bond or jointing pattern corresponding to the required simulated bond, pouring a liquefied elastomeric material whereby to produce a mould corresponding to the form of the brickwork or other facing required. The mould is then arranged with the pattern uppermost and a layer of pigment is applied to the face of the mould together with granite or other stone chippings. A first concrete mix incorporating a pigment is then poured into the mould to a depth corresponding to the depth of the jointing spacings and subsequently a second concrete mix providing a main load-carrying portion of the structure is poured after the first mix has adequately cured.

Description

SPECIFICATION Concrete structures This invention relates to a process for the manufacture of pre-cast concrete structures which have at least one facing simulating the appearance of brickwork or other conventional building material and to the structures manufactured by this process.
Of recent years there has been a demand by the general public and by architects for buildings which have a brickwork facing which gives a traditional appearance even if the basic structure of the building is concrete or steel. This demand has arisen largely on aesthethic grounds and particularly because concrete and manyotherfacing materials do not weather well. In contrast, even in adverse ambient conditions brickwork is not usually affected to any great extent.
It follows from this demand that concrete buildings with brick facings have been constructed and in some instances to cut costs brick slips, i.e. bricks having a thickness little more than that of a tile have been used. Although this results in some economy, the site labour is not materially reduced. Bricklayers are becoming even more costly because of the long training necessary and hence there is a need for brickwork without bricks or bricklayers.
According to the present invention there is provided a process for manufacturing a pre-cast concrete structure with at least one facing simulating brickwork or other facing building material, said process comprising the steps of arranging a plurality of bricks, brick slips or other facing building material with a bond corresponding to the required simulated bond of the concrete structure including spacings corresponding to the jointing layers, pouring a liquified material which when set has elastic properties whereby to produce an elastic mould corresponding to the form of brickwork or other facing required, applying a layer of pigment to the face of the mould corresponding to the brick-simulating or other facing material simulating face of the final concrete structure together with granite or other stone clippings, pouring into the mould a first concrete mix incorporating a pigment to a depth corresponding substantially to the depth of the said jointing spacings, pouring a second concrete mix corresponding to a main load-carrying portion of the concrete structure, allowing at least partial curing of both concrete mixes and removing the cured or partially cured concrete from the mould.
The process in accordance with the invention will now be described with reference to one specific embodiment and modifications thereto.
A number of brick slips are produced from bricks of a quality which it is desired to simulate and these slips are arranged in the desired bond pattern. For example all the slips may be arranged with stretchers forming the visible surface, but it should be emphasized that any conventional bond may be selected, even highly complex decorative bonds which are rarely used because of the exceptional skill and supervision required sometimes allied with costly, handmade bricks.
The slips are conveniently laid on an accurately plane surface, but to avoid an unnaturally uniform appearance, it is not necessary that the slips themselves should be of identical thickness, and indeed there is some merit in a degree of non-uniformity.
The surface will normally be a sheet of material, for example wood, corresponding in thickness and other dimensions to the backing of the structure as a whole. Effectively, by these steps the exact form of the finally produced concrete structure will have been assembled. A coating of mould release agent is then applied to this assembly and a rubber latex solution is applied in conjunction with an outline former which will define the outer boundaries of the mould. For large panels or other structures the rubber latex will be reinforced with multiple layers of glass fibre mesh or plastics mesh such as fibrillated polypropylene which mesh ensures adequate strength for use of the mould up to 200 or 300 times without impairing the essential elasticity.
This elasticity which is provided by use of a rubber latex is necessary to avoid the need to produce special brick slips with a draw angle. A rigid mould material would effectively prevent the release of the cured mould material because of the gaps required by the spacings and the inherent rough texture of the brick slips.
Although natural rubber latex, with or without reinforcement is the preferred material for the mould, other, synthetic elastic materials having properties similar two latex, can be used.
Again, the mould release agent used will be dependent upon the bricks or brick-slips employed.
For very rough textures the amount and viscosity of the agent will be quite different to that required for smoothsurfaced bricks. Indeed it may even be possible to omit the mould release agent where smooth bricks, such as engineering or glazed bricks are employed.
Once prepared the mould will be placed on a vibrator table such as is conventionally used in the precast concrete industry and a sprinkling of granite or other stone chippings is applied to the mould surface apart from the "lands" which correspond to the mortarjonts of the simulated brickwork. A dusting of pigment of the required colour, such as in conventionally used in coloured concrete paving slabs is then applied over the chippings, but it is also possible to apply both chippings and pigment simultaneously. The pigment may be incorporated in glass fibre of short staple both to improve integrity of the surface over very long use periods and to ensure pigment stability. For special purposes glass chipping may be substituted or partially substituted for the stone granite chippings.
After the surface coating has been fully applied to the mould, a first concrete mix is applied of a thickness substantially corresponding to the depth dimensions of the spacings formed between the brick slips. The ratio of cement to sand may be in the ratio 1:1.5 to 1:5 and a coloured pigment may be added up to approximately 5% by weight. If extreme low cost is essential the pigment may be omitted but obviously the simulated brick effect will then be more readily detected, especially on close inspec tion. The first concrete mix is effectively a mortar and if a virtually complete simulation is desired the spacings may be filled with natural or coloured mortar, but this step will add appreciably to the cost.
The first concrete mix (or mortar) is left for about one hour so that it cures partially and then the second mix is applied so that the mould is filled. The mix is preferably a conventional 30/40 mix concrete, but it should be emphasixed that the mixes for both first and second concretes will be dictated by normal considerations according to duty of the finished product. After pouring, the whole mould and contents are subjected to modest vibration for about five minutes and after the second mix has cured suffi cientlyto be demoulded, the whole is steam cured in accordance with conventional curing practice.
Each mould will be cleaned after each use, if necessary making use of a "brick clean"fluid (a water-based detergent and weak acid solution). The moulds are relatively inexpensive but can be used many times for standard products. For special contracts, the moulds will be used for relatively fewer operations.
For heavy duty panels, columns and other loadbearing structures, the second mix will incorporate reinforcing rods and other conventional reinforcing materials such as short lengths of fibrillated polypropylene film to provide impact resistance.
The final product will be monolithic and its strength will not be in anyway inferior to equivalent conventional concrete structures. The product can be incorporated as main structural members, curtain walling, internal partitioning, and other building components. Additionally, it can be made two faced so that it can be used as independent boundary walling of exceptionally low cost. If supported between posts, it can be made as thin two faced or single faced panelling.
If water-proofing is required the simulated brick structures in accordance with the invention can be treated with silicones under factory conditions thus ensuring maximum uniformity of coating and minimum risk of water penetration.
If desired the amount of silicon used can be increased to such an extent that a glaze is produced.
By a simple extension, the process could be used for the purpose of producing simulated tiles. The pro cuss would be essentially the same, but biscuit tiles (i.e. without glaze) would be used in place of bricks or brick slips in the mould-making process. The conventional glaze of the simulated tiles being applied after the assembly has been completed, but before steam curing. However, for certain silicones the glaze may be added after steam curing.
As will be apparent simulated glazed tiles/bricks can be used as floors and possibly even ceilings. For the latter use the risk of the "tiles" falling off is eliminated owing to the monolithic nature of the structure.
The cost advantages of simulated brick and tile structures are substantial even when compared with factory produced concrete structures which incorporate bricks or brick slips. Even when comparing such previously used structures which incorporate medium quality facing bricks, the cost of equivalent structures in accordance with the invention is about 25%. Very high quality hand made facing bricks can be simulated in very little extra cost. Similar remakrs apply to plain coloured tiles. Patterned tiles will clearly involve extra cost but techniques which are conventionally used for tile making can be adapted for the process in accordance with the invention.
Although reference has been made herein only to essentially plane concrete structures, the process can be applied also to arcuate section structures, or indeed any other shape which can be accommodated by a flexible mould.
The process in accordance with the present invention can also be adapted to producing simulated stone buildings by substitution of slips of stone blocks so that it becomes readily possible to simulate any kind of stone conventionally used in building construction including highly polished granite. In the latter case however, it may be desirable to use granite slips of rough texture in the preparation of the moulds and the chippings added to the mould prior to the first concrete mix will need careful selection and preparation. Silicone treatment may also need special care to ensure the high gloss and exceptional smoothness of polished granite.

Claims (16)

1. A process for manufacturing a pre-cast concrete structure with at least one face simulating brickwork or other facing building material, said process comprising the steps of arranging a plurality of bricks, brick slips or other facing building material with a bond or other jointing pattern corresponding to the required simulated bond, pouring a liquefield molten material which when set has elastic properties whereby to produce a mould corresponding to the form of the brickwork or other facing required, arranging the mould with the required pattern uppermost, applying a layer of pigment to the face of the mould corresponding to the brick or other facing material simulating face of the final concrete structure together with granite or other stone chippings, pouring into the mould a first concrete mix incorporating a pigment to a depth corresponding substantially to the depth of the jointing spacings, subsequently piuring a second concrete mix corresponding to a main load-carrying portion of the concrete structure allowing at least partial curing of both concrete mixes and removing the cured or partially cured concrete from the mould.
2. A process according to claim 1 wherein the elastic mold is of latex rubber.
3. A process according to claim 2 wherein the latex rubber has a reinforcement of glass fibre or of a fibrillated polypropylene mesh.
4. A process according to any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein the mould is subjected to vibration after pouring of the concrete mixes.
5. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein glass fibre of short staple is added to the pigment and chippings.
6. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the first concrete mix is a cement and sand mix having a ratio 1:1.5 to 1:5 and the coloured pigment is added up to approximately 5 per cent by weight to the first concrete mix
7. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein reinforcing elements are present in the mould and are incorporated in the second mix.
8. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the facing simulation is effected on two faces of a concrete panel formed by the second concrete mix.
9. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the surface, at least, of the completed structure is treated with a silicone.
10. A process according to claim 9 wherein the amount of silicone applied is sufficient to produce a glaze.
11. A pre-cast concrete structure when produced by a process according to any one of the preceding claims.
12. A pre-cast monolithic concrete structure having at least one face in the form of simulated brickwork,stone,tilesorotherfacing building material.
13. A pre-cast monolithic, concrete structure with at least one face which simulates brickwork, stone or other facing material comprising a facing of a first concrete mix coloured to correspond substantially to the material to be simulated and having a surface layer of pigment and granite or other chippings, and a second concrete mix below the first mix, said second mix providing the required structural strength of the structure as a whole.
14. A structure according to claim 13, wherein the surface layer includes glass or other fibre reinforcement.
15. A structure according to claim 13 or claim 14, wherein the second concrete mix incorporates a reinforcement.
16. A structure according to any one of claims 13 to 15 wherein there are two similar simulated faces.
GB08323305A 1983-08-31 1983-08-31 Concrete structures Expired GB2145651B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08323305A GB2145651B (en) 1983-08-31 1983-08-31 Concrete structures

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08323305A GB2145651B (en) 1983-08-31 1983-08-31 Concrete structures

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB8323305D0 GB8323305D0 (en) 1983-10-05
GB2145651A true GB2145651A (en) 1985-04-03
GB2145651B GB2145651B (en) 1986-10-08

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2227705A (en) * 1988-11-29 1990-08-08 Ecc Construction Materials Disposable plastic mould
GB2236315A (en) * 1989-07-24 1991-04-03 James Lamb Moulded ceramic fibre products; Kiln linings
US5630305A (en) * 1991-08-26 1997-05-20 Hlasnicek; Richard S. Surface covering unit methods of use and manufacture
EP0844104A2 (en) * 1996-11-25 1998-05-27 Jens Gessner Process for making decorative elements and the decorative elements produced by the process
GB2381277A (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-04-30 Raymond Price Precast facing panel, resembling stone wall, e.g. for gabion
US20160010346A1 (en) * 2014-07-11 2016-01-14 Advanced Formliners, Llc Visually Enhanced Concrete

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB766896A (en) * 1954-04-14 1957-01-30 South Western Stone Company Lt A new or improved method of and apparatus for the production of reconstructed or cast stone
GB1592382A (en) * 1977-05-10 1981-07-08 Salter Ltd Thomas Production of toy building blocks
GB2072156A (en) * 1978-09-18 1981-09-30 Tile Pty Ltd U Novel slab, manufacture and applications thereof
GB2111897A (en) * 1981-12-14 1983-07-13 Bomanite Making patterns on concrete

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB766896A (en) * 1954-04-14 1957-01-30 South Western Stone Company Lt A new or improved method of and apparatus for the production of reconstructed or cast stone
GB1592382A (en) * 1977-05-10 1981-07-08 Salter Ltd Thomas Production of toy building blocks
GB2072156A (en) * 1978-09-18 1981-09-30 Tile Pty Ltd U Novel slab, manufacture and applications thereof
GB2111897A (en) * 1981-12-14 1983-07-13 Bomanite Making patterns on concrete

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2227705A (en) * 1988-11-29 1990-08-08 Ecc Construction Materials Disposable plastic mould
GB2227705B (en) * 1988-11-29 1992-07-08 Ecc Construction Materials Improvements in or relating to moulds
GB2236315A (en) * 1989-07-24 1991-04-03 James Lamb Moulded ceramic fibre products; Kiln linings
GB2236315B (en) * 1989-07-24 1993-09-01 James Lamb Moulded ceramic fibre components
US5630305A (en) * 1991-08-26 1997-05-20 Hlasnicek; Richard S. Surface covering unit methods of use and manufacture
EP0844104A2 (en) * 1996-11-25 1998-05-27 Jens Gessner Process for making decorative elements and the decorative elements produced by the process
EP0844104A3 (en) * 1996-11-25 1999-02-10 Jens Gessner Process for making decorative elements and the decorative elements produced by the process
GB2381277A (en) * 2001-10-24 2003-04-30 Raymond Price Precast facing panel, resembling stone wall, e.g. for gabion
US20160010346A1 (en) * 2014-07-11 2016-01-14 Advanced Formliners, Llc Visually Enhanced Concrete
US10119280B2 (en) * 2014-07-11 2018-11-06 Advanced Formliners, Llc Form liner for visually enhanced concrete

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB8323305D0 (en) 1983-10-05
GB2145651B (en) 1986-10-08

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Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
732 Registration of transactions, instruments or events in the register (sect. 32/1977)
PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee

Effective date: 19920831