GB2117053A - Gas turbines and engines - Google Patents

Gas turbines and engines Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2117053A
GB2117053A GB8303675A GB8303675A GB2117053A GB 2117053 A GB2117053 A GB 2117053A GB 8303675 A GB8303675 A GB 8303675A GB 8303675 A GB8303675 A GB 8303675A GB 2117053 A GB2117053 A GB 2117053A
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GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
oxygen
gas
combustion chamber
air
method
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB8303675A
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GB2117053B (en
GB8303675D0 (en
Inventor
David James Graham
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BOC Group Ltd
Original Assignee
BOC Group Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB8204836 priority Critical
Application filed by BOC Group Ltd filed Critical BOC Group Ltd
Priority to GB8303675A priority patent/GB2117053B/en
Publication of GB8303675D0 publication Critical patent/GB8303675D0/en
Publication of GB2117053A publication Critical patent/GB2117053A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2117053B publication Critical patent/GB2117053B/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04763Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used
    • F25J3/04769Operation, control and regulation of the process; Instrumentation within the process
    • F25J3/04775Air purification and pre-cooling
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/16Enhanced recovery methods for obtaining hydrocarbons
    • E21B43/20Displacing by water
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/34Arrangements for separating materials produced by the well
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/20Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid using a special fuel, oxidant, or dilution fluid to generate the combustion products
    • F02C3/22Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid using a special fuel, oxidant, or dilution fluid to generate the combustion products the fuel or oxidant being gaseous at standard temperature and pressure
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04006Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit
    • F25J3/04012Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit by compression of warm gaseous streams; details of intake or interstage cooling
    • F25J3/04018Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit by compression of warm gaseous streams; details of intake or interstage cooling of main feed air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04006Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit
    • F25J3/04012Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit by compression of warm gaseous streams; details of intake or interstage cooling
    • F25J3/0403Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit by compression of warm gaseous streams; details of intake or interstage cooling of nitrogen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04006Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit
    • F25J3/04109Arrangements of compressors and /or their drivers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04006Providing pressurised feed air or process streams within or from the air fractionation unit
    • F25J3/04109Arrangements of compressors and /or their drivers
    • F25J3/04115Arrangements of compressors and /or their drivers characterised by the type of prime driver, e.g. hot gas expander
    • F25J3/04127Gas turbine as the prime mechanical driver
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04248Generation of cold for compensating heat leaks or liquid production, e.g. by Joule-Thompson expansion
    • F25J3/04284Generation of cold for compensating heat leaks or liquid production, e.g. by Joule-Thompson expansion using internal refrigeration by open-loop gas work expansion, e.g. of intermediate or oxygen enriched (waste-)streams
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/044Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air using a single pressure main column system only
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04521Coupling of the air fractionation unit to an air gas-consuming unit, so-called integrated processes
    • F25J3/04527Integration with an oxygen consuming unit, e.g. glass facility, waste incineration or oxygen based processes in general
    • F25J3/04533Integration with an oxygen consuming unit, e.g. glass facility, waste incineration or oxygen based processes in general for the direct combustion of fuels in a power plant, so-called "oxyfuel combustion"
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04521Coupling of the air fractionation unit to an air gas-consuming unit, so-called integrated processes
    • F25J3/04563Integration with a nitrogen consuming unit, e.g. for purging, inerting, cooling or heating
    • F25J3/04569Integration with a nitrogen consuming unit, e.g. for purging, inerting, cooling or heating for enhanced or tertiary oil recovery
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04521Coupling of the air fractionation unit to an air gas-consuming unit, so-called integrated processes
    • F25J3/04593The air gas consuming unit is also fed by an air stream
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04763Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used
    • F25J3/04769Operation, control and regulation of the process; Instrumentation within the process
    • F25J3/04812Different modes, i.e. "runs" of operation
    • F25J3/04836Variable air feed, i.e. "load" or product demand during specified periods, e.g. during periods with high respectively low power costs
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/04Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream for air
    • F25J3/04763Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used
    • F25J3/04866Construction and layout of air fractionation equipments, e.g. valves, machines
    • F25J3/04951Arrangements of multiple air fractionation units or multiple equipments fulfilling the same process step, e.g. multiple trains in a network
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
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    • F25J3/04763Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used
    • F25J3/04866Construction and layout of air fractionation equipments, e.g. valves, machines
    • F25J3/04951Arrangements of multiple air fractionation units or multiple equipments fulfilling the same process step, e.g. multiple trains in a network
    • F25J3/04957Arrangements of multiple air fractionation units or multiple equipments fulfilling the same process step, e.g. multiple trains in a network and inter-connecting equipments upstream of the fractionation unit (s), i.e. at the "front-end"
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
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    • F25J3/04763Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used
    • F25J3/04866Construction and layout of air fractionation equipments, e.g. valves, machines
    • F25J3/04975Construction and layout of air fractionation equipments, e.g. valves, machines adapted for special use of the air fractionation unit, e.g. transportable devices by truck or small scale use
    • F25J3/04987Construction and layout of air fractionation equipments, e.g. valves, machines adapted for special use of the air fractionation unit, e.g. transportable devices by truck or small scale use for offshore use
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    • F25J2200/72Refluxing the column with at least a part of the totally condensed overhead gas
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2205/00Processes or apparatus using other separation and/or other processing means
    • F25J2205/24Processes or apparatus using other separation and/or other processing means using regenerators, cold accumulators or reversible heat exchangers
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2230/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams
    • F25J2230/24Multiple compressors or compressor stages in parallel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
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    • F25J2230/40Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams the fluid being air
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    • F25J2230/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams
    • F25J2230/42Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams the fluid being nitrogen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2230/00Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams
    • F25J2230/50Processes or apparatus involving steps for increasing the pressure of gaseous process streams the fluid being oxygen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2290/00Other details not covered by groups F25J2200/00 - F25J2280/00
    • F25J2290/62Details of storing a fluid in a tank

Abstract

The combustion chambers 30 of gas turbine units 6(a) to 6(c) (or equivalent piston engines) are supplied with fuel gas via pipe 26 and in order to compensate for a substantial decline in the calorific value of the fuel gas over a period of time, commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air is supplied to each combustion chamber 30. The fuel gas may comprise associated gas separated in separator 22 from crude oil obtained from a production well by a method employing nitrogen to enhance the recovery of oil from the well. The oxygen or oxygen-enriched air is taken from a cryogenic air separation unit 10 which produces the nitrogen for the enhanced recovery of the oil, air being supplied to the separation unit 10 by compressors 4(a), (b) driven by gas turbine unit 6(a). <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Gas turbines and engines This invention relates to gas turbines and to a method of operating a gas turbine or engine. It is particularly concerned with industrial power generating machinery comprising a powergenerating gas turbine having associated therewith its own gas generator. Such machinery shall be referred to herein as a gas turbine-cumgas generator. The gas generator typically comprises a jet engine adapted to generate gas. A gas turbine-cum-gas generator is a known piece of machinery and examples of such machinery are described by V Beglinger and F Porchet in a paper entitled "Primo - a new Sulzer lightweight gas turbine family in the 10 to 20 MW power range", Sulzer Technical Review 3, 1978, PP 109 to 118.

As described by Beglinger and Porchet, the gas generator may comprise a suitably adapted Rolls Royce Avon or RB 211 engine adapted to produce gas. A gas turbine may typically be a heavy duty gas turbine for power generation. Gas turbines- cum-gas generators have typically been used to drive gas compressors or for power generation at sites remote from sources of electrical power, for example, on off-shore installations. A gas generator typically has an internal combustion chamber in which fuel is burnt. The gas generator and turbine are designed for a fuel having particular combustion characteristics and calorific value. If there is an appreciable change in the calorific value of the fuel, there is a substantial reduction in the efficiency of the gas turbine-cumgas generator and also a considerable reduction in the power produced.Normally, it is possible to operate a gas generator with a fuel of constant calorific value. There are, however, instances in which this is not possible. One such instance is when the gas turbine-cum-gas generator is used to drive a compressor or compressor forming part of a cryogenic air separation unit employed to produce nitrogen for the enhanced recovery of oil from an oil field, the gas generator being fuelled by the associated gas recovered with the oil.

The proportion of original oil in place which can be recovered from a deposit varies from one reservoir to another, and largely depends on the viscosity of the oil, thedepth and shape of the reservoir strata, and geological factors, such as the permeability and type of strata rock. For at least 30 years it has been established technology to inject water or natural gas to prevent the reservoir pressure falling to an undesirably low value, and therefore to enhance the recovery of oil. More recently, nitrogen has been injected into some reservoirs by itself, or mixed with natural gases so as to enhance the recovery of oil. Such nitrogen typically mixes with and dissolves in the oil, or displaces oil from parts of the' reservoir which water had not been able to reach, and reduces the tendency of the oil to cling to the reservoir rock.

Technology is available for producing nitrogen in the necessary tonnage quantities and at the pressure required for oil recovery. Typically for North Sea oil wells, 1,000 to 4,000 tonnes per day of nitrogen may be required at a pressure of 3,000 to 9,000 psig.

Methane and other gases such as propane, butane and ethane are generally recovered from the production well along with the crude oil. The oil/gas mixture is conventionally passed into a separator. The resulting methane which may be diluted by carbon dioxide or nitrogen is used to fuel the or each gas generator of one or more gas turbines-cum-gas generators used to drive one or more compressors forming part of a cryogenic air separation plant used to generate the necessary nitrogen for injection into the well.

Depending on the distance between the injection and production wells, among other factors, the proportion of nitrogen in the gas mixture obtained from the production well will increase after a period of several months or several years.

For reasons of efficiency in power output, gas generators are, as aforementioned, designed for fuels having relatively specific combustion characteristics. As the natural gas or methane becomes progressively more diluted by nitrogen, so the efficiency in power output for the gas turbine associated with the gas generator will tend to fall and eventually become unacceptable. The conventional solution to this problem has been to employ, in addition to a cryogenic air separation unit, a cryogenic unit for separating methane from nitrogen. Thus, substantially pure methane may be supplied to the gas generator throughout the period of time in which nitrogen is supplied to the well.The additional cost of the nitrogen/methane separation plant, or "nitrogen rejection" plant as it is sometimes known, may be justified when the separated methane can be supplied to a gas main for industrial or domestic consumption. However, in the North Sea, where the gas is often flared off, it would be particularly advantageous to avoid the use of such a plant or to limit the size of such a plant solely to that required for distribution to the gas mains.

It is to be appreciated that small changes in the combustion characteristics and calorific value of the fuel (say, up to 20 per cent in reduction in the calorific value) can be, at least in part, compensated for by increasing the flow rate of the fuel into the combustion chamber of the gas generator. However, this method is not suitable when there is a substantial change.

It is an aim of the present invention to provide a gas turbine-cum-gas generator (or reciprocating piston engine) having associated therewith means for compensating for substantial changes in the calorific value of the fuel fed to the generator in operation of the tubine-cum-generator (or engine), and a method of operating a gas turbine-cum-gas generator (or engine) which enables a substantial decrease in the calorific value of the fuel to be compensated for.

According to the present invention, there is provided a method of compensating for a reduction below specification in the calorific value of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber of the gas generator of a gas turbine-cum-gas generator, or to the combustion chamber of a reciprocating piston engine, which method comprises supplying, in addition to air from the atmosphere to support combustion of the fuel, sufficient oxygen or oxygen-enriched air to maintain the power output of the turbine or engine at levels substantially as specified.

The invention also provides a gas turbine-cumgas generator (or reciprocating piston engine) having means for supplying to the combustion chamber of the gas generator (or engine) commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air in addition to air from the atmosphere, whereby, in operation of the gas turbine-cum-gas generator (or engine), commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air may be supplied to the combustion chamber of the gas generator (or engine) so as to compensate for a reduction below specification in the calorific value of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber, and thereby maintain the power output of the turbine (or engine) at levels substantially as specified.

The commercially pure oxygen or oxygenenriched air is preferably introduced directly into the combustion chamber rather than being premixed with the air in the compressor section of the gas generator. Typically, the commerically pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air supplies up to 1 5 or 20% of the total molecular oxygen entering the combustion chamber during a period in which there is such oxygen or oxygen-enriched air addition to compensate for reduction in the calorific value of the fuel.

Preferably, one or both of the calorific value of the fuel and the power output of the tubine (or engine) are monitored. Upon one or both of the calorific value of the fuel and the power output of the turbine falling by chosen amounts, the supply of the oxygen or oxygen-enriched air may be commenced.

(If desired, there may be a small reduction made in the amount of atmospheric air supplied to the turbine at the same time provided the supply of oxygen overall is sufficient to meet the combustion requirements of the fuel.) The introduction of the oxygen or oxygen-enriched air would typically be controlled by a valve which may, if desired, be automatically operable by means of signals generated by a power output sensor associated with the turbine or a sensor of the calorific value of the fuel fed to the combustion chamber. Generally, however, such an automatic system will not be necessary.Typically, in the enhanced recovery of oil, the fall-off in power output of the turbine and decrease in the calorific value of the gaseous fuel fed to the combustion chamber is very gradual, and the initiation of the supply of oxygen or oxygen enriched air may await a refit of the turbine at a periodic shut-down of oil production for the purposes of routine equipment maintenance.

The source of commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air will typically be a cryogenic air separation plant which produces oxygen or oxygen-enriched air either as a product or a waste stream. In the example of the production of substantially pure gaseous nitrogen for the enhanced recovery of oil mentioned hereinabove, the gas turbine-cum-gas generator(s) (or engines), according to the invention, may be employed to drive one or more compressors forming a part of the cryogenic separation plant. Indeed, there may be two or more such gas turbines-cum-gas generators included in the plant. Typically, nitrogen will be produced by the plant as the main or only product stream, and there will be a waste oxygen stream which is normally vented to the atmosphere and may typically contain less than 50% by volume of oxygen (e.g., about 35% by volume).It is this stream that may be used to augment the air from the atmosphere supplied to the combustion chamber of the or each gas turbine-cum-gas generator incorporated in the cryogenic air separation plant.

If the source of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for the combustion chamber is a waste oxygenenriched air stream from a cryogenic air separation plant, it may be desirable to take precautions to avoid passing excessive quantities of carbon dioxide and water vapour into the combustion chamber during periods in which the waste stream contains relatively high proportions of these impurities. These separate periods typically occur soon after switching passages in a reversing heat exchanger forming part of the cryogenic air separation plant, or (if such reversing heat exchangers are not included) on switching regenerators.If desired, the waste stream may be vented to atmosphere for a chosen time after such a switch-over, and 3 smali store of compressed waste oxygen-enriched air (or other source of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air) can be substituted for the stream during each such period.

The application of the method and gas turbinecum-gas generator according to the invention is not limited to the kind of enhanced oil recovery described hereinabove. The method and combined gas turbine-cum-gas generator may be used in insitu combustion and in-situ steam generation for the enhanced recovery of oil. The gas turbinecum-gas generator is employed as part of a cryogenic air separation plant producing substantially pure oxygen (or oxygen-enriched air) for the in-situ combustion of a fuel deposit to produce carbon dioxide andior steam. The carbon dioxide produced in-situ would dilute the associated gas as does my nitrogen in attic oil or miscible recovery. A portion of the pure oxygen available in such examples may be used to enrich the combustion air supplied to the gas turbinecum-gas generator so as to compensate for increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the associated gas. Similarly, the gas turbine-cum-gas generator according to the invention may be employed in a plant to supply oxygen for underground coal gasification, the variable quality gas thereby produced being used as the fuel for the gas generator.

The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 1 is a schematic diagram showing a cryogenic air separation plant producing nitrogen for use in the enhanced recovery of oil, the plant including gas turbines-cum-gas generators according to the present invention; Figure 2 illustrates a modification to the plant showing Figure 1; and Figure 3 shows a cryogenic plant for separating nitrogen from air for use in the plant showing Figures 1 and 2.

Referring to Figure 1 of the drawings, the illustrated plant has an inlet pipe 2 for filtered air leading to two turbo-compressors 4(a) and 4(b) connected in parallel with one another. The outlet ends of the compressors 4(a) and 4(b) communicate with a substantially conventional cryogenic air separation 10 that produces substantially pure gaseous nitrogen and a waste oxygen-enriched air stream. The nitrogen product stream is drawn into a bank of three primary turbo-compressors 12(a), 12(b) and 12(c). The outlets of the primary nitrogen turbo-compressors are connected to a main feeding two secondary nitrogen turbo-compressors 120(a) and 120(b).

The primary and secondary nitrogen compressors raise the pressure of the nitrogen to a value in the order 3,000 to 9,000 psig depending on the depth of the oil reservoir to which nitrogen is supplied.

The compressed nitrogen then passes into a pipeline 1 6 communicating with an injection well associated with an oil field (which may be an offshore oil field). Typically, another pipeline 18 is provided for injection of water into the injection well. The injection of water and nitrogen into the injection well faciliates the release of oil from the reservoir into the production well (not shown).

Typically, the injection of the nitrogen follows the injection of the water and, if desired, separate injection walls may be employed. A mixture of crude oil, hydrocarbon gases and nitrogen flows up from the well into the pipeline 20 which leads to an oil/gas separator 22 in which the gas associated with the crude oil is separated from the oil. The separator 22 may be a chemical plant adapted to separate a range of desired products such as oil and other hydrocarbons from the associated gases and any sulphurous gases present. The oil is passed out of the separator 22 to a pipeline 24.

At least some of the associated gas separated from the oil is used to generate gas for at least one of the gas turbines used to drive the turbocompressors 4, 12 and 120. The air compressors 4(a) and 4(b) are driven by gas turbine-cum-gas generators 6(a) only one of which is shown in Figure 1. The rotary members of the compressors 4(a) and 4(b) are mounted on'the drive shafts of the respective turbines. The compressors 1 2(a), 12(b) and 12(c) are driven by gas turbine-cum-gas generators 6(b) only one of which is shown in Figure 1. The rotary members of the compressors 12(a), 12(b) and 12(c) are mounted on the drive shafts of the respective turbines. The compressors 120(a) and 120(b) are driven by a gas turbinecum-gas generators 6(c) only one of which is shown in Figure 1.The rotary members of the compressors 120(a) and 120(b) are mounted on the drive shaft of the respective turbines.

Each gas turbine-cum-gas generator comprises a jet engine 29 adapted for gas generation and a power turbine 31 for producing power. The jet engine may for example be a Rolls Royce Avon engine or RB2 11. The power turbine may for example be of the kind made by Sulzer.

Alternatively, each gas turbine-cum-generator may be packaged plant built by an individual manufacturer. Such packaged plants are commercially available from, for example, Ruston Turbines. For the purposes of ease of illustration of the invention, each gas generating jet engine 29 is shown as having an air compressor 33 at its inlet end leading to a combustion chamber 30 which feeds hot gas to the outlet or generator end 35 of the engine 29. Each jet engine (or gas generator) 29 is typically connected by a shaft to the air compressor 33.

Itis to be appreciated that the combustion chamber 30 is often internal to the engine 29 and not always an external feature as might be gathered from Figure 1. In operation, the air turbocompressor 33 draws in and compresses air and feeds it to the combustion chamber 30 in which fuel is burnt. The resulting hot gas passes into the hot gas generator 35 which comprises a turbine.

Expansion of the hot gases with the performance of work drives the air turbo-compressor 33. In addition, the hot gases leave the generator end 35 of the gas generator 29 and drive the power turbine 31 which in turn provides the necessary power for driving the compressors associated therewith. The necessary fuel gas for each combustion chamber 30 is supplied via pipeline 26 from the oil-gas separator 22. Typically the gas separated from the crude oil is required for the purposes of driving the gas turbine. The remaining gas may be supplied to pipeline 28 and then be treated in a manner as will be described below.

The injection of nitrogen and water into the injection well or wells will be performed in a manner well known in the art of enhanced oil recovery. The nitrogen pressure and flow rates will be selected in accordance with criteria that are well understood in the art. In general, injection of nitrogen becomes desirable only after the production well has been producing oil for a considerable period of time, say 5 or 6 years under UK conditions. A further period of time after nitrogen injection is started (this period may be a matter of months or years) there will begin to be an increase in the nitrogen concentration of the gas associated with the crude oil.This will eventually limit the thermal input of the fuel gas that is consumed by each gas generator-cumturbine with a consequent fall-off in power produced by the gas turbines 31, and hence a reduction in efficiency of the operation of the air separation unit 10. While the reduction in the concentration of fuel gas in the associated gas is minimal or relatively small, it is possible to compensate for it by increasing flow rate of gas into the combustion chambers 30 as is conventional in such industrial gas turbines. This involves operating flow-control valves 80(a), 80(b) and 80(c) so as to increase the flow of gas from the pipeline 26 into the respective combustion chambers 30.This increase in flow rate of the gas into the combustion chambers 30 may be made progressively until the power output of the gas turbines 31 cannot be kept up to specification by this means. It is then that the oxygen or oxygenenriched air may be supplied to the combustion chambers in accordance with the invention. The oxygen is taken from an oxygen or waste gas stream 36 produced by the cryogenic air separation unit 10. The oxygen stream is compressed by one or more oxygen compressors 40 to the pressure to which the air is compressed in the engine air compressors 33 and then distributed to the respective combustion chambers 30(a), 30(b) and 30(c) via pipelines 39(a), 39(b) and 39(c) having valves 38(a), 38(b) and 38(c) in them respectively.The valves 38 are set so as to supply sufficient oxygen to restore the power output of the turbines to their specified levels. As there are further reductions in the calorific value of the associated gas supplied to the pipeline 26, so fuel gas flow into each combustion chamber 30 is increased by further opening the valve 80. The rate of oxygen introduction into the combustion chamber may be stepped up by adjusting the settings of the valves 38. By this means it is possible to compensate for the reduction in calorific value of the associated gas until, for practical purposes, the oil well concerned has been fully worked.

It is a considerable advantage of the method according to the invention that nitrogen can be supplied to an off-shore oil well without the need to provide a cryogenic recovery unit for separating methane from the associated gas to provide substantially pure methane to the combustion chambers of the gas turbines-cum-gas generators.

Thus, the platform on which the plant shown in Figure 1 is situated can be smaller than would otherwise be required were there a need for a cryogenic recovery unit as mentioned above. Even if it is desired to supply substantially pure methane to a gas main, the size of the recovery unit needed will be much smaller as that proportion of the associated gas required for driving the turbines will not need to be fed through the recovery unit.

Again, a reduction in the size of the platform over that required for a full sized recovery unit is made possible. Thus, the proportion of the associated gas not supplied to the pipeline 26 may be supplied to the pipeline 28 leading to the gas main or a cryogenic recovery unit (not shown). Another alternative, particularly if the plant is to be operated in a remote offshore location, is for the surplus associated gas to be flared off. Typically, on off-shore installations, the plant shown in Figure 1 may be packaged in its individual sections, and be skid mounted upon the platform.

Typically, gas exhausted from the turbines 31 passes along pipelines 32 to a stack or to a heat recovery system (not shown).

Typically, from 20 to 60% of the available associated gas may be used for a fuelling the combustion chambers 30.

The cryogenic air separation unit used as part of the plant shown in Figure 1 may be of a conventional kind used to produce tonnage quantities of substantially pure nitrogen. An example of such a plant is now described with reference to Figure 3 of the accompanying drawings.

The plant includes the compressors 4 shown in Figure 1 together with the air inlet pip-e 2.

Typically there is a filter 160 at the inlet to the pipe 2. The outlets of the compressors 4 communicate with an after cooler 1 62 which in turn communicates with a surge drum 1 64. The outlet of the surge drum 164 communicates with reversing heat exchangers 166 and 168. Selection of the passages of the heat exchangers 166 and 168 in communcation with the surge drum 164 at any one time is controlled by the position of on-off valve 170 upstream of the heat exchanger 166.

Non-return valves 172 are positioned downstream of the heat exchanger 170 to prevent mixing of the separate gas stream. The outlet passages of the heat exchanger 168 for the compressed air stream communicate with a gas phase adsorber 174 which in turn communicates with the rectification column 176. In the column 176 an oxygen-rich liquid is produced which is expanded through a valve 1 78 and passed through a condensor 1 80 and then a liquefier 182 is return through the heat exchangers 168 and 166 counter-currently to the air stream. This stream then leaves the plant by way of the pipeline 1 84 as a low pressure waste stream.Gaseous nitrogen is taken from the top of the column 176 and part of it is returned to the top of the column as liquid after having been liquefied in the condensor 1 80 whereas the remainder of it passes through the liquefier 1 82 and then through the heat exchangers 1 68 and 1 66 counter-currently to the incoming air stream. This nitrogen is then passed to the compressor or compressors 12 (not shown in Figure 3). Addition cooling for the liquefier is provided by means of an expansion turbine 186. In addition, it is used to provide cooling for the heat exchanger. In operation, atmospheric air is drawn into the plant through the filter 60 and compressed to about 9 bars gauge in the compressors 4. The air is cooled in the after cooler 1 62 and surge drum 1 64 cushions only pressure surges during changeover of the passages of the reversing heat exchangers 1 66 and 1 68. These reversing heat exchangers cool the gas by continuous heat exchange with outgoing waste oxygen-enriched air and pure nitrogen. The heat exchangers 1 66 and 1 68 are typically of the plate-fin type. Carbon dioxide and water vapour from the air condense and freeze on the surface of the air passages in these heat exchangers and are re-sublimed into the waste oxygen-enriched air stream and automatic change-over of the incoming air stream and the outgoing waste oxygen-enriched air stream is effected by automatic actuation of the valve 170.The gaseous nitrogen product flows in a separate nonreversing pass and is not contaminated.

Acetylene and other hydrocarbon contaminants which typically enter the plant with the air feed during normal operation are removed in the gas phase adsorber 1 82.

In order to compensate for atmospheric heat in - leak and heat exchanger losses, high pressure waste gas is expanded in the expansion turbine 1 86. The exhaust gas from the turbine is passed through liquefier 1 82 where it is preheated before being passed into the reversing heat exchangers 166 and 168.

A portion of the high pressure waste gas flows through a separate pass in the cold end of the reversing heat exchanger system 166 and 1 68 to maintain thermal balance.

Air is liquefied by cooling against the waste gas and product nitrogen streams in the liquefier 1 82 before entering near the base of the rectification column 1 76. Oxygen-enriched liquid is fed from the base of the column 176 through the expansion valve 1 78 to the condensor 1 80 where a proportion of the gaseous nitrogen product from the top of the column is condensed and returned to the column 1 76 as reflux. The oxygen-enriched liquid is vapourised in the condenser 1 80 and passes directly to the liquefier 182where it is warmed by heat exchange with the purified air passing to a column 176 and by the turbine exhaust waste gas passing to the reversing heat exchanger 168.

The gaseous nitrogen product is taken from the top of the column 1 76 and passes through the liquefier 182 (in a similar manner to oxygen-rich liquid) before finally leaving the system through the non-reversing cast in the reversing heat exchangers 1 68 and 1 66. In returning through the reversing heat exchangers 1 68 and 1 66 the nitrogen profuct and waste gas are re-heated almost to the inlet air temperature. Practically all the heat extracted from the air entering the system in the course of the liquefaction and separation is thus returned to the gaseous product. If desired, some liquid nitrogen may be withdrawn from the top of the column 1 76.

If the air separation plant is to be operated offshore, it may be desirable to use a tubular heat exchanger employing sea water to cool the air leaving the compressors. In addition, it may be desirable to use regenerators rather than reversing heat exchangers due to the possibility of warmend corrosion by any salt that reaches that part of the plant. In addition, adsorbers may be employed to remove traces of moisture from air to prevent such corrosion. It will also be desirable to design the rectification column for duty under conditions in which it is likely to be vibrated and pitched. For example, more trays may need to be provided to counteract the effect of "slopping" on tray equilibria. In addition, baffles may be employed on the trays so as to limit such slopping.Another modification that may be made is to fit the air intake or intakes with inlets that face down wind so as to avoid intake of excessive spray and/or rain. It will also be desirable to make the plant of as rugged a construction as possible both in terms of mechanical strength and external corrosion resistance, and also, performance in very low temperatures.

The plant shown in Figure 3 is typically fully automatic with pneumatic power-operated valves controlling the flow. Any variation of the product demand causes a corresponding response in the plant to maintain product purity.

During the periods in which substantial portions of carbon dioxide and water vapour are being sublimed into the waste gas stream, it may be desirable to avoid passing this gas stream into the combustion chambers 30 shown in Figure 1, in view of its relatively high water and carbon dioxide stream. If desired, a small compressor 90 may communicate with pipeline 36 and the inlet to the compressor 90 may open at a chosen time before the valve 1 70 (see Figure 3). The compressor 90 may be actuated at the same time. The pressure vessel 92 is thus charged with waste gas. The vessel 92 may have an outlet passage 98 communicating with each one of the combustion chambers 30.Thus, each outlet 98 (only one shown in Figure 2) may have a valve 100 in it operable in a manner analogous to the valve 38 to set the flow rate of gas from the vessel 92 into the combustion chambers at the desired rate. By this means, the waste oxygen-enriched gas stream may be vented to the atmosphere during those periods when substantial quantities of carbon dioxide and water vapour are subliming into it without there being a cut-off in the supply of oxygen-enriched air to the combustion chambers 30.

It is possible to substitute for each of the gas turbine-cum-gas generators in Figure 1 a reciprocating gas engine (i.e., a piston engine) with internal or external combustion chamber. If such a substitution is made it will be necessary to use either reciprocating rather than rotary compressors to compress the incoming air and the product nitrogen or, if rotary compressors are employed, an intermediate gearbox. Oxygen or oxygen-enriched air may be supplied to the combustion chamber of at least one of the reciprocating engines in a manner fully analogous to that described hereinabove with reference to Figure 1.

Claims (20)

1. A method of compensating for a reduction below specification in the calorific value of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber of the gas generator of a gas turbine-cum-gas generator, or to the combustion chamber of a reciprocating piston engine, which method comprises supplying, in addition to air supplied from the atmosphere to support combustion of the fuel, sufficient commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air to maintain the power output of the turbine or engine at levels substantially as specified.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1, in which the commercially pure oxygen is introduced directly into the combustion chamber.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, in which the commercially pure oxygen or oxygenenriched air supplies up to 20% of the total molecular oxygen entering the combustion chamber.
4. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which one or both of the calorific value of the fuel and the power output of the turbine (or engine) are monitored, and upon one or both of the calorific value and the power output falling by chosen amount(s), the supply of the commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air is commenced.
5. A method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the source of the commercially pure oxygen oir oxygen-enriched air is a cryogenic air separation plant.
6. A method as claimed in claim 5, in which the gas turbine-cum-gas generator (or engine) is employed to drive one or more compressors forming part of the air separation plant.
7. A method as claimed in claim 5 or claim 6, in which said plant produces substantially pure gaseous nitrogen.
8. A method as claimed in claim 7, in which the nitrogen is supplied to an oil well to enhance the recovery of oil therefrom.
9. A method as claimed in claim 8, in which the oxygen-enriched air is taken from a waste oxygen stream which is produced by the plant and which contains less than 50% by volumn of oxygen.
10. A method of compensating for a reduction below specification in the calorific value of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber of the gas generator of a gas turbine-cum-gas generator, substantially as herein described with reference to Figure 1 of the accompanying drawings.
11. A method for the enhanced recovery of oil from an oil well, in which method substantially pure nitrogen produced by an air separation plant is supplied to an injection well, oil and associated gas are recovered from a production well associated with the injection well, the oil is separated from the associated gas, and the associated gas is supplied as fuel to the combustion chamber of at least one gas turbinecum-gas generator used to drive one or more compressors forming part of the said air separation plant, wherein in order to compensate for a reduction below specification in the calorific value of the fuel supplied to the said combustion chamber, the method claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5 and 10 is performed.
12. A method for the enhanced recovery of oil from an oil well, substantially as described herein with reference to the accompanying drawings.
1 3. Oil recovered from an oil well by the method claimed in claim 11 or claim 12.
14. A gas turbine-cum-gas generator (or reciprocating piston engine) having means for supplying to the combustion chamber of the gas generator (or engine) commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air in addition to air from the atmosphere, whereby, in operation of the gas turbine-cum-generator (or engine), commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air may be supplied to the combustion chamber of the gas generator (or engine) so as to compensate for a reduction below specification in the calorific value of fuel supplied to the combustion chamber, and thereby maintain the power output of the turbine (or engine) at levels substantially as specified.
1 5. A gas turbine-cum-gas generator (or reciprocating piston engine) as claimed in claim 14, in which the oxygen supply means enables the commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air to be supplied directly to the combustion chamber.
1 6. A gas turbine-cum-gas generator substantially as described herein with reference to, and as shown in, Figure 1 of the accompanying drawings.
1 7. A cryogenic air separation plant including at least one gas turbine-cum-generator or reciprocating piston engine as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 16, the said combustion chamber being able to be placed in communication with commercially pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air produced by the plant.
1 8. An air separation plant as claimed in claim 17, in which said combustion chamber is able to be placed in communication with a conduit through which in operation of the plant waste oxygen flows.
19. An air separation plant as claimed in claim 18, in which said combustion chamber is able to be placed in communication with a store of said waste oxygen containing relatively small proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapour, an addition to said conduit, these being means for supplying said waste oxygen from the said store to the combustion chamber during periods when the waste stream contains a relatively large proportion of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
20. An air separation plant substantially as herein described with reference to, and as shown in, the accompanying drawings.
GB8303675A 1982-02-18 1983-02-10 Gas turbines and engines Expired GB2117053B (en)

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EP0162368A2 (en) * 1984-05-19 1985-11-27 LGA Gastechnik GmbH Injection gas-generating device, particularly for charging mineral oil from its underground reservoirs
EP0165343A1 (en) * 1984-06-22 1985-12-27 Fielden Petroleum Development Inc. Process for selectively separating petroleum fractions
GB2339842A (en) * 1998-07-24 2000-02-09 Finch International Ltd Burning oils and fats in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere in an engine
GB2342390A (en) * 1998-10-02 2000-04-12 Finch International Ltd Providing an oxygen-rich atmosphere in the combustion chamber of a gas-fuelled compression-ignition engine
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