GB2116908A - Hologram identification device - Google Patents

Hologram identification device Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2116908A
GB2116908A GB8307269A GB8307269A GB2116908A GB 2116908 A GB2116908 A GB 2116908A GB 8307269 A GB8307269 A GB 8307269A GB 8307269 A GB8307269 A GB 8307269A GB 2116908 A GB2116908 A GB 2116908A
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
hologram
emulsion
device
colour
film
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB8307269A
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GB2116908B (en )
Inventor
Jeffrey Blyth
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Jeffrey Blyth
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/02Details of features involved during the holographic process; Replication of holograms without interference recording
    • G03H1/024Hologram nature or properties
    • G03H1/0248Volume holograms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/04Processes or apparatus for producing holograms
    • G03H1/18Particular processing of hologram record carriers, e.g. for obtaining blazed holograms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/22Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from holograms
    • G03H1/24Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from holograms using white light, e.g. rainbow holograms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/06Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code
    • G06K19/08Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means
    • G06K19/10Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means at least one kind of marking being used for authentication, e.g. of credit or identity cards
    • G06K19/16Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the kind of the digital marking, e.g. shape, nature, code using markings of different kinds or more than one marking of the same kind in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means at least one kind of marking being used for authentication, e.g. of credit or identity cards the marking being a hologram or diffraction grating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/0005Adaptation of holography to specific applications
    • G03H1/0011Adaptation of holography to specific applications for security or authentication
    • G03H2001/0027Being copy-protected against fraudulent replication, e.g. by layering a filter rejecting laser lines
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/04Processes or apparatus for producing holograms
    • G03H1/18Particular processing of hologram record carriers, e.g. for obtaining blazed holograms
    • G03H2001/186Swelling or shrinking the holographic record or compensation thereof, e.g. for controlling the reconstructed wavelength
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/22Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from holograms
    • G03H1/2202Reconstruction geometries or arrangements
    • G03H2001/2223Particular relationship between light source, hologram and observer
    • G03H2001/2231Reflection reconstruction
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/22Processes or apparatus for obtaining an optical image from holograms
    • G03H1/2249Holobject properties
    • G03H2001/2263Multicoloured holobject
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2250/00Laminate comprising a hologram layer
    • G03H2250/33Absorbing layer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2250/00Laminate comprising a hologram layer
    • G03H2250/34Colour layer
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2250/00Laminate comprising a hologram layer
    • G03H2250/40Printed information overlapped with the hologram

Abstract

An identification and/or security device which incorporates a multicoloured hologram visible in natural reflected light, the multiple colours being produced due to a permanent deformation of the film emulsion which selectively varies the spacings between the interference fringes producing the holographic image.

Description

SPECIFICATION Hologram identification device This invention relates generally to identification devices, and in particular to devices such as identification and/or security cards, labels, tags and like devices which are offered or presented for examination to identify or authenticate (against counterfeiting) a person and/or object with whom the device is associated, e.g. the card holder.

Identification cards are well known, both for visual and machine inspection. In the latter case, it is relatively easy to build codes into the card, which codes may not be visually apparent, to enable the machine to verify only an authentic card, and it can readily be made extremely difficult to forge a card which will deceive the machine.

However, identification cards for visual inspection by the human eye to verify the holder can more readily be forged, because it is difficult to incorporate into the card a unique feature which, although readily apparent to the eye, is not readily reproducible.

It is an object of this invention to provide an identification and/or security device which substantially overcomes the above-described problem.

According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided an identification and/or security device which incorporates a multi-colour hologram, the colours of which are visible by reflection of incident natural light.

The term "reflection", as used above and hereinafter, is employed in the conventional context applicable to holography, wherein images are seen by light returned from the hologram to the same side thereof from which the light is incident, although it will be understood that the "reflected" images are in fact produced by a special case of diffraction.

The images and colours of the hologram will readily be apparent in any artificial or other "white" or non-monochromatic light, including natural light.

In practice, in order to provide the hologram with colours which are visible in reflected light, the film emulsion is permanently deformed, selectively in different regions of the area of the hologram. The interference fringes generated with a hologram viewed by reflected light normally lie in layers parallel to the substrate, and the spacings between these layers of fringes, in the direction normal to the substrate, are altered at the regions of deformation.

The effect of this is to change the wavelength of the reflected light emanating from these regions of the hologram.

Thus, according to another aspect of the invention, there is provided an identification and/or security device which incorporates a hologram visible by reflection of incident natural light, wherein the film emulsion has been permanently deformed to alter the spacings between the layers of interference fringes from the spacings which exist with a nondeformed emulsion, thereby to change the wavelength of light visible by reflection from the hologram.

Selective deformation can produce a multi-colour hologram. This results in a hologram which is virtually non-reproducible, even by the most practical method, which is the Denisyuk single beam system using a tunable dye laser, because if the laser is initially tuned to one colour to effect reproduction at regions of the hologram of that colour, other regions of the hologram or different colour will become "fogged" and reproduction at these latter regions then produces a very unsatisfactory result to the would-be forger, even if the laser is subsequently retuned to the different colour.

Absolute security is afforded by a hologram having an emulsion which has a graduated permanent deformation, e.g. to appear as one colour shading into another colour, because this effectively also eliminates the possibility of reproduction in stages, using suitable masking techniques.

Furthermore, it should be mentioned that, at the present time, a silver halide film, necessary to practical use of the hologram in, for example, a heat sealed cover, is not available for producing a bright hologram image, in the green or blue portions of the spectrum, using the single beam technique.

It will thus be appreciated that, under circumstances which will result in a colour corresponding to which a film is not available for reproduction purposes, a coloured hologram for a security card or the like can be produced by a uniform deformation of the film emulsion over the entire area of the hologram.

It will also be appreciated that, when a security card or the like incorporates a multi-coloured hologram, the term "multi-coloured" extends to shades of the same colour which differ in wavelength sufficiently that reproduction is impossible using a laser tuned to a single frequency.

In practice, the hologram may be incorporated in a sealed, flat transparent cover, together with means identifying the holder such as a photograph. The authenticity of the card, when presented, will be verified by inspection of the hologram, which will present to the eye a plurality of images, which may in themselves be rendered difficult to forge, and which will also show distinctive colouring. For the reasons expiained above, it is the latter that is the especially valuable feature for the purpose of authenticity, because the colouring is incorporated during the step of processing the film emulsion containing the hologram, and is not optically reproducible.

The pattern in which the colours are introduced also imparts a visually apparent authenticity. For example, if a striped pattern of two or more colours is introduced, the thickness and spacing of the stripes may be checkable by application of a ruler or the like to the hologram.

It will also be clear that the wide variety of variations which may be incorporated in the multicolour hologram can enable the production of holograms which readily distinguish between users belonging to different organisations, users of differing categories, users operating within or having access only to certain areas, and even individual users within these different classes. Furthermore, the identification device, in the form of a lable, tag or like device, may be applied to objects such as vehicles, documents, valuable works of art, passports and the like in any situation where it is desirable to be able to identify the object for authenticity without risk of forgery or counterfeiting.

A particular example of identification and/or security device in accordance with the invention will now be described by way of example.

This device comprises an identification card comprising a hologram and a photograph of the holder within a sealed transparent cover.

The hologram is a multi-colour hologram presenting a plurality of images, say at least four, which may be all the same, two or more the same, or all different. In accordance with another important aspect of the present invention, at least one or more of these images may also be partly or wholly parts or pieces of other holograms. The colours and images of the hologram are visible when the card is inspected in white light reflected from the hologram.

The less difussed the light, the clearer the images will be.

Two colours, e.g. gold and green, are incorporated in the process hologram film as a pattern of parallel, spaced stripes. Of course, any other colours, possibly more than two, and any other pattern, may be incorporated instead.

The hologram has a coating of black paint on the back which, if desired, may be adhered to the cover when the hologram is inserted prior to sealing the cover.

The hologram is preferably produced by deformation of the film emulsion during processing, thereby to alter the spacings of the layers of interference fringes from the spacings present with a nondeformed emulsion, and thereby to determine a changed wavelength of light which is seen when the security device is inspected. Selective deformation produces a multi-coloured hologram, including shade variations of the same colour. Graduated deformation to produce shading from one colour into another is especially valuable. If, as previously explained, the emulsion is deformed uniformly to produce a hologram of a colour which is inherently non-reproducible due to non-availability of suitable film, then multiple colouring can be dispensed with.

Example An exposed hologram is developed in Kodak D-19 developer to a maximum optical density of between 2 and 3.0. The development is then stopped by rinsing in 5% acetic acid solution.

A permanent differential strain in the gelatin emulsion, from one end of the hologram to the other, is achieved as follows.

The hologram is placed in an upright position in an empty vessel. A 5% (w/w) solution of hypo (sodium thiosulphate) is then poured slowly into the vessel until the liquid level reaches, say, the top edge of the hologram. If this level is reached after the pouring has taken place over a minute, say, then this means in effect that the bottom edge of the hologram has been immersed for a minute whereas the top edge has been immersed for only a few seconds or not at ail, and all intermediate levels have had different immersion periods in the hypo solution. This means that the undeveloped silver halide grains in the emulsion will have been removed by different degrees according to the immersion time.

If the hologram is now "bleached", as is the common practice, for example in Agfa-Gevaert formulation GP-432 (see page 151 of "Holograms" by Graham Saxby, published by Focal Press Ltd.).

then the variation level of residual silver halide will mean that the finished hologram will produce a green image in the area which has been immersed in hypo solution the longest, gradually changing to an orange or red image at the other end, depending on how much gelatin has "collapsed" between the original interference fringes, for example as recorded under red laser light.

An alternative physical means of obtaining the same effect comprises altering the moisture content of the holographic emulsion by a varying degree from one end to the other, prior to the exposure.

Moist holographic emulsion can be almost 50% thicker than well-dried emulsion, so that after normal processing, with the gelatin in an equally relaxed state over the area of the hologram, then the fact that the interference fringes were originally recorded in swollen gelatin means that their final spacing will be closer together than in areas where the emulsion was unswollen. Hence the former areas will give green or blue images, whereas the latter areas will give red images because the fringe spacing has not changed.

Modifications A multi-coloursubstantially non-reproducible hologram can also be produced in other ways. In one method, the basic hologram, having a non-deformed emulsion, is effectively "laminated" in selected regions of its area with coloured filters. Laminating can be achieved by wetting the film emulsion with water or a hydrophilic chemical. In another method, the basic hologram is coloured in selected regions of its area with photographic dyes. With these two methods also, it may be possible to dispense with multiple colouring if the hologram is uniformiy coloured, as to the green or blue portions of the spectrum, to a colour which is not optically reproducible owing to the lack of availability of films which process to that colour.

It will be apparent that various other modifications of the above-described card are possible within the scope of the invention.

Claims (15)

1. An identification and/or security device which incorporates a multi-colour hologram, the colours of which are visible by reflection in incident natural light.
2. An identification and/or security device which incorporates a hologram visible by reflecting in incident natural light, wherein the film emulsion has been permanently deformed to alter the spacings between the layers of interference fringes from the spacings which exist with a non-deformed emulsion, thereby to change the wavelength of light visible by reflection from the hologram.
3. A device as claimed in claim 1, wherein the film emulsion has been selectively deformed differently in different areas of the hologram.
4. A device as claimed in claim 2 or claim 3, wherein the film emulsion has been deformed during development after exposure.
5. A device as claimed in claim 2 or claim 3, wherein the film emulsion has been deformed prior to exposure.
6. A device as claimed in any preceding claim wherein the colour of the hologram is gradually shaded from one end of the hologram to the other.
7. A device as claimed in any of claims 1 to 5, wherein the hologram has a striped coloured pattern.
8. A device as claimed in any of claims 1 to 7, incorporating a plurality of holographic images.
9. A device as claimed in claim 8, wherein at least one of said images is an image of at least part of another hologram.
10. A device as claimed in any of claims 1 to 9, in the form of a security card comprising a multicoloured hologram sealed in a cover having a transparent window for viewing the hologram.
11. A device as claimed in claim 10, wherein the card also includes within the cover a second security device such as a photograph.
12. A method of producing an identification and/or security device according to which a film emulsion is, in either order, exposed to carry one or more holographic images, and deformed to vary the colour of the hologram over its area.
13. A method according to claim 12, wherein the film emulsion is deformed after exposure.
14. A method according to claim 13, wherein the film emulsion is developed by a step which includes contact with an active reagent for differing time periods at differing areas of the hologram.
15. An identification and/or security device and method of making the same substantially as hereinbefore described.
GB8307269A 1982-03-18 1983-03-16 Hologram identification device Expired GB2116908B (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8207944 1982-03-18
GB8307269A GB2116908B (en) 1982-03-18 1983-03-16 Hologram identification device

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8307269A GB2116908B (en) 1982-03-18 1983-03-16 Hologram identification device

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GB2116908A true true GB2116908A (en) 1983-10-05
GB2116908B GB2116908B (en) 1985-06-05

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0177852A2 (en) * 1984-10-11 1986-04-16 Holtronic GmbH Method for producing a black and white embossable hologram with white light reconstruction
EP0179741A2 (en) * 1984-10-26 1986-04-30 ILFORD Limited Method for producing a hologram
GB2181993A (en) * 1985-10-31 1987-05-07 Bpcc Holographic Security Syst Method and means for preventing counterfeiting of documents
FR2590997A1 (en) * 1984-06-14 1987-06-05 Blyth Holographics Ltd Color Control Method in holograms and holograms obtained
FR2597220A1 (en) * 1986-04-15 1987-10-16 Sadoun Henry Method for authenticating distinctive signs and signs obtained thereby
EP0247471A2 (en) * 1986-05-16 1987-12-02 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Security diffraction devices difficult to exactly duplicate
GB2273998A (en) * 1992-12-29 1994-07-06 De La Rue Holographics Ltd Hologram composition
GB2412208A (en) * 2004-02-10 2005-09-21 Courtenay Group Theft deterrent method and security device

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1501900A (en) * 1974-10-31 1978-02-22 Unitec Gmbh & Co Kg Identification document and display unit therefor
GB1517840A (en) * 1975-11-17 1978-07-12 Landis & Gyr Ag Security documents
GB1541917A (en) * 1975-01-16 1979-03-14 Siemens Ag Identity cards
GB1558364A (en) * 1975-10-14 1979-12-28 Siemens Ag Identity cards
GB2092952A (en) * 1981-02-18 1982-08-25 Silver David Selwyn Identification method

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1501900A (en) * 1974-10-31 1978-02-22 Unitec Gmbh & Co Kg Identification document and display unit therefor
GB1541917A (en) * 1975-01-16 1979-03-14 Siemens Ag Identity cards
GB1558364A (en) * 1975-10-14 1979-12-28 Siemens Ag Identity cards
GB1517840A (en) * 1975-11-17 1978-07-12 Landis & Gyr Ag Security documents
GB2092952A (en) * 1981-02-18 1982-08-25 Silver David Selwyn Identification method

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2590997A1 (en) * 1984-06-14 1987-06-05 Blyth Holographics Ltd Color Control Method in holograms and holograms obtained
EP0177852A3 (en) * 1984-10-11 1988-03-23 Holtronic GmbH Method for producing a black and white embossable hologram with white light reconstruction
EP0177852A2 (en) * 1984-10-11 1986-04-16 Holtronic GmbH Method for producing a black and white embossable hologram with white light reconstruction
US4656106A (en) * 1984-10-26 1987-04-07 Ciba-Geigy Ag Method of preparing a multicolored holographic image
EP0179741A3 (en) * 1984-10-26 1987-05-06 ILFORD Limited Method for producing a hologram
EP0179741A2 (en) * 1984-10-26 1986-04-30 ILFORD Limited Method for producing a hologram
GB2181993A (en) * 1985-10-31 1987-05-07 Bpcc Holographic Security Syst Method and means for preventing counterfeiting of documents
FR2597220A1 (en) * 1986-04-15 1987-10-16 Sadoun Henry Method for authenticating distinctive signs and signs obtained thereby
EP0247471A2 (en) * 1986-05-16 1987-12-02 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Security diffraction devices difficult to exactly duplicate
EP0247471A3 (en) * 1986-05-16 1988-10-05 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Security diffraction devices difficult to exactly duplicate
US4832445A (en) * 1986-05-16 1989-05-23 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Security diffraction devices difficult to exactly duplicate
GB2273998A (en) * 1992-12-29 1994-07-06 De La Rue Holographics Ltd Hologram composition
GB2412208A (en) * 2004-02-10 2005-09-21 Courtenay Group Theft deterrent method and security device
US7414531B2 (en) 2004-02-10 2008-08-19 Nicholas Charles Davies Theft deterrent system

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