GB2115287A - Devices for replacing or assisting the heart - Google Patents

Devices for replacing or assisting the heart Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2115287A
GB2115287A GB8218603A GB8218603A GB2115287A GB 2115287 A GB2115287 A GB 2115287A GB 8218603 A GB8218603 A GB 8218603A GB 8218603 A GB8218603 A GB 8218603A GB 2115287 A GB2115287 A GB 2115287A
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Prior art keywords
heart
means
invention
compressor
blood
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GB8218603A
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GB2115287B (en )
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Devendra Nath Sharma
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Devendra Nath Sharma
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/1037Pumps having flexible elements, e.g. with membranes, diaphragms, or bladder pumps
    • A61M1/1046Drive systems therefor, e.g. mechanically, electromechanically or skeletal muscle drive means
    • A61M1/1053Drive systems therefor, e.g. mechanically, electromechanically or skeletal muscle drive means using non-rotary electrical means
    • A61M1/1055Electromagnetic means, e.g. solenoids or ferro-fluids, magnetostrictive means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/1008Tubes; Connections therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/1037Pumps having flexible elements, e.g. with membranes, diaphragms, or bladder pumps
    • A61M1/1067Pumps having flexible elements, e.g. with membranes, diaphragms, or bladder pumps using a blood vessel as flexible element
    • A61M1/1068Pumps having flexible elements, e.g. with membranes, diaphragms, or bladder pumps using a blood vessel as flexible element using the heart as flexible element
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/12Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps implantable into the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/10Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps
    • A61M1/12Blood pumps; Artificial hearts; Devices for mechanical circulatory assistance, e.g. intra-aortic balloon pumps implantable into the body
    • A61M1/127Energy supply devices, converters therefor

Abstract

A device which may operate alone or in conjunction with the natural heart, comprises electromagnetically controlled blood pumping means.

Description

SPECIFICATION Artificial heart This invention relates to devices substituting for or assisting the heart, either corporally or extracorporally.

The bloodsupplytotheheartmuscle occursviathe coronary circulation. Defects in this area of the circulatory system are among the most common afflictions of mankind. When an increased amount of work is required of the heart, an increase in coronary blood flow must occur to provide for the additional oxygen requirements of the muscle fibers. The vessels in the coronary system differ from those in most of the rest of the body in that the major branches lie within contracting muscle fibers. External pressure by the myocardium during ventricular systole compresses the vessels and decreases blood flow, even though the aortic pressure is increased, 70 percent of coronary arterial flow therefore occurs during diastole.Compression of the vessels, however, hastens the discharge of venous blood due to squeezing on the veins. Outflow from the coronary veins is therefore greater in systole than in diastole.

The left coronary artery supplies most of the left ventricle and the anterior portion oftheventricular septum. The right coronary arterysuppliesthe right ventricle and the posterior portion of the septum.

Since the left coronary artery supplies a large portion of the left ventricle, occlusion of a major branch generally seriously damages the pumping ability of this high pressure chamber. The right coronary arterial system on the other hand, supplies a chamber that needs to produce only low pressures and may suffer considerable damage without significant impairment of its pumping ability. Branches from the right coronary system supply the SA (sino-atrial) and AV (atriojventricular) nodal areas, however, and damage to these areas may produce life-threatening arrhythmias. In terms of relative flow distribution, about 85 percent of total coronary blood flow occurs through the left coronary artery and about 15 percent through the right coronary artery.Most of the venous return from the left coronary artery occurs through the great coronaryvein into the coronary sinus in the rightatrium; from the right coronary artery, venous return is via the anterior cardiac vein to the right atrium.

Cardiac muscle, like smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and nerve, possesses a resting electrical potential relative to the ion distribution across the cell membrane. Like these tissues, it also has the ability to depolarize; depolarization (and repolarization) is manifested by a change in the electrical potential across the cell membrane. Most ofthe areas ofthe heart can depolarize spontaneously and thereby can contractwithout external nerve stimulation. This property of myocardial tissue is termed automaticity.

Normally, the depolarization and repolarization processes proceed in an orderly fashion through the hearttissue, producing a characteristic electrocardiographic pattern. The SA node, a group of specialized muscle cells derived from the area of junction of the embryonic sinusvenosus and the atrium, lies at the junction of the right atrium and the superiorvena cava. These cells tend to depolarize spontaneously faster than those in any other area of the heart. Hence they normally control the heart rate and are called pacemaker cells. If for some reason this area fails to be the most rapidly depolarizing, the pacemaker site shifts to other areas, such as theAV node, which lies at the lower posterior, right side of the atrial septum and gives rise to a group of specialized muscle fibers.

All of these specialized muscle cells have the property of automaticity and serveto conduct the electrical impulse rapidlythrough the heart.

Once the cell potential reaches threshold, the characteristic rapid action potential is produced. This action potential spreads out from the SA node over the surface of the atria, activating the normally quiescent atrial cells. These cells in turn depolarize, andthe impulse isthus passed totheAV nodal area.

The specialized cells in the AV node respond poorly, and conduction through this area is very slow. In somecasesthe impulse maynotgetthroughatall, resulting in a dropped beat or a shift to another pacemaker site. Normally, however, after a short delay, the impulse spreads outto activate the ventricular muscle. The action potentials of the conduction bundles and ventricular muscle cells differ from those ofthe pacemaker and atrial areas in possessing a long plateau phase of depolarization.

During this time the cell cannot be stimulated by another incoming action potential. This plateau phase lasts until the muscle contraction has been completed. Thus, unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle cannot showtetanic contraction. This refractory ability is important in the heart's action as a mechanical pump to allow adequate time forfilling to occur.

Various abnormalities in the electrical activity of the heart resulting from damage to the SV orAV nodal areas are a primary cause of ineffectual contraction ofthe heart and subsequent death.

Representative arrhythmias include a rapid, but regular, atrial rate (atrialtachycardia),which in some instances may be associated with a premature beat, before the normal diastolictime interval has passed, resulting in an earlier and usually less effective ventricular beat. In atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation the atrial rate is even more rapid. Flutter refers to a condition in which a rapid depolarization ofthe right atrium appears to occur in a circle around its junction with the superior and inferiorvanae cavae (circus depolarization}; the resu ltantwave of electrical depolarization spreads out overthe surface of the atria, causing rapid atrial contraction.Fibrillation refers to an even faster rate, in which there is no coordinated activity; rather, it appears that each small area of the muscle has a circus movement of its own, thereby producing no effectual contraction. In atrial fibrillation, the atrial rate is so fast that the ventricles respond at totally irregulartimesto an occasional impulse passing through the AV node.

The ventricular rate may not be the same as the atrial rate; i.e., the atrial beat may not be propagated through the AV node to the ventricle, or, contrariwise, the ventricle may initiate extra beats. If beat originates in the ventricles, the resultant pattern of depolarization is abnormal. Ventricular premature beats or permatureventricularcontractions (PVC's), are instances in which a single beat-or a short run of beats-occurs abnormally from a ventricular pacemaker site. If the ventricle is still in a depolarized statewhenthe nextatrial depolarization wave reaches it, there will be no response, and a com pensatory pause will occuruntil the second normal atrial beat arrives.Rapidly firing ventricular sites produce ventricular tachycardia, an extremely dangerous condition, which may progress to ven tricularfibrillation. In this condition no coordinated contraction occurs, andthusthere is no effective pumping of blood. This may be treated effectively only by electrically depolarizing the entire heart muscle (defibrillating) and hoping to restartitfrom a single pacemaker site.

While advances in medical science have succeeded in counteracting some effects of such abnormalities, devices such as pacemakers have proved not entirely effective in regulating cardiac contractions, and are known in some instances to actually induceventricu larfibrillation. Further, heart transplants have had disappointing results, and are also extremely expen sive.

This invention provides an artificial heartandlora natural heart strengthening device, useful either corporally or extracorporally, comprising compress or means associated with a mammalian heart for compressing the cardiac muscle to simulate the normal pumping action thereof, and control means forelectromagneticallycontrolling the operation of said compressor means.

It is accordingly an object of this invention to provide an artificial heart or heart strengthening device to simulate the natural heart pulsation of mammals by electromagnetic means which may operate alone or in conjunction with the natural heart.

It is a further object ofthis invention to provide an electromagnetized artificial heart including means for generating and controlling electromagnetic induc tion fields to induce pulsatory motion for pumping blood comparableto that ofthe natural mammalian heart.

It is an additional object of the invention to provide an artificial heart which controls ventricular fibrilla- tion ofthe heart muscle by electromagnetic means.

It is yet another object of the invention to provide an artificial heart which is electrically-synchronized with the natural sino-auricular or auricular-ventricular nodal activityforconcerted action of the natural and artificial hearts.

It is still further an object of this invention to provide an artificial heartwhich is simple and effective in alleviating the ravages of heart disease throughout the world.

It is still another object of this invention to provide an artificial heart which is flexible in operation.

Fig. 1 isaperspectiveviewoftheartificial heart device of the invention; Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of the artificial heart of Fig.1; Fig. 3 is a view similar to that of Fig. 1 illustrating an alternate embodiment of the device of the invention; Fig. 4 is a schematic illustration of a further embodiment of the device ofthe invention; Figs. 5 and 6 schematically illustrate exemplary control means and actuating meansforthedevice of the invention; Fig 7 is a schematic illustration of the artificial heart of the invention; Fig. 8 schematically represents the operating scheme of the artificial heart of Fig. 7; Fig. 9 illustrates schematically an alternate embody ment of the artificial heart of Fig. 7; and Fig. loins a schematic illustration of an exemplary actuating meansforthe artificial heart of Fig. 9.

Schematic of Fig. 2 illustrates method of compressing the Aorta and other blood carrying vessels to assistthe circulation of blood.

With particularreferenceto Fig. 1,a mammalian heart compressing a cardiac muscle is schematically illustrated at 1, showing the associated major coron ary vessels compressing the superior vena cava 2, the interiorvena cava 3, the pulmonary artery4,the pulmonaryvein 6 and the aorta 7 and other vessels (not designated). The artificial heart device of the invention, generally designated at 8, is shown in association with the heart 1.The device 8 includes compressor means generally indicated at 10for compressing the cardiac muscle 1 to simulate normal pumping action of this muscle, comprising first and second compressor components 9 and 11 disposed on the surface of the heart t and conforming to the contoursthereof. The components 9 and 10 are disposed so that they are in spaced relationship as shown, when the heart 1 is relaxed, or in a rest mode and so that they are in mating relationship when the heart 1 is in a pumping mode (contracted); preferably the components 9 and 10 are pivotallyjoined, as by a hinge 15. In the illustrated embodiment, the components Sand 10 are fabricated from sheets of a metal such as steel, gold, or platinum, perforated to reduce theweightthereof, or stainless steel net. Alternate materials include biocompatible-plastics such as polyurethane, silicone or natural or synthetic rubber, optionally impregnated with particles of a ferrous metal oran alloy thereof.

The device 8 further includes control means generally indicated at 12 for electromagnetically controlling the operation of compressor means 10, comprising a plurality of electromagnets 13 disposed on compressor component 9. Each electromagnet 13 includes an active pole element 14 disposed for electromagnetic interaction with a corresponding passive pole element 16 disposed on second com pressorcomponentl I when the electromagnets 13 are actuated. Actuating means generally indicated at 14 for actuating the electromagnets 13 comprises an electrical circuit 16 including a powergeneratorsuch as a rechargeable battery 17 and a transformer 18for regulating the amountof power and currentsupplied to the electromagnets 13 by the battery 17.Preferably, the circuit 16 further includes vibratory means such as a vibrator 19 for regulating the actuations of the electromagnets 13to provide a pulsating current in the circuit 16 of, for example, 50 to 200 pulses per minute to correspond with the natural pulsations of the heart 1. The vibrator 19, or other electric vibratory means similar to an electric door bell condenser and battery arrangement, such as a rotary motor having suitable distribution contacts or an alternating vibratory current or vibratory unit, is controlled by an on/off switching mechanism 21. The device 8 may further include means generally indicated at 22 for triggering the SAorAV nodal activity ofthe heart 1.

The device 8 of Fig. 1 is schematically illustrated in Fig. 2,further including a coil delay unit 23. An exemplary supporting system for supporting the device 8 within the mammalian body is illustrated in Fig. 3, comprising a supportive loop 24 secured to ribs 26 and carrying spring-loaded hinges 15a pivotally connecting compressor components 9 and 11, and biasing them in the resting mode illustrated. The compressor components or shrouds 9 and 11 may, in an alternate embodiment (not illustrated) be divided into four segments adjacent or alternating with the active or passive pole elements 14 or 16, respectively; the segments may, if desired, be associated only with the ventricular portions of the heart 1.

In operation,the switching mechanism 21 is activated, and current is generated by the battery 17 and supplied to the electromagnets 13 as regulated bythevibratorl9.Astheelectromagnets 13 are energized, the associated active pole elements 14 are activated, attracting corresponding pole elements 16.

Thecompressorcomponents9and 11 arethus pivotally drawn together on hinge 1 5to thereby compress the heart 1 andforce bloodthroughthe associated vessels 2-7 in a rhythm according to the pulsating current supplied through the circuit 16.

When the switch 21 is turned off, the electromagnets 13 are de-activated, andthe heart 1 returns to the normal position illustrated in Fig. 1 by its natural resilience optionally assisted by hinges 15a (Fig. 3) spring biasing com ponents 9 and 11 into spaced relationship. The action of components 9 and 11 are optionally synchronized with the natural SA and AV nodal rhythms ofthe heart 1 by current supplied by vibrator 19 to the triggering mechanism 22 simul taneously with the actuation of electromagnets 13.

In an alternate embodiment of the invention illustrated in Fig.4, an electromagnet 13a is disposed outside the mammalian body, partially defined by body wall 26. On actuation ofthe electromagnet 13a, associated active pole elements 1 4a are activated to attract passive pole elements 1 6a and operate compressor component 11 a to compress the heart Ia. On de-actuation of the electromagnet 1 3a, the component 11 a is returned to open position as by spring 27 biasing the component 11 a in open position, as illustrated. The embodiment illustrated is particularly effective in controlling ventricularfibrillation by compression of the heart 1 byactuationofthe electromagnet 1 3a at a predetermined rate to elimin ate the fibrillation.This is accomplished bysequential activation of the vibrator (not shown) regulating cu rrentto the electromagnet 13a. Figs. Sand 6 illustrate schematicallythe control means 12 and actuating means 14 for the device 8 described supra in connection with Figs. 1-4. In the embodiment of Fig. 5, numeral 28 designates a battery-operated small rotary motor for switching the electromagnets 13 on or off by its rotary motion through contacts 29 associated with mounting means 31. Fig. 6 illustrates schematically control and actuating means 12 and 14, respectively, useful in connection with the embodi mentillustrated in Fig. 4.

In a further embodiment of the invention, Fig. 7 illustrates an artificial heart incorporating the com pressormeans 10, control means 12,andactuating means 14Ofthe previous embodiments, here dis- posed, however, outside the mammalian body.

Referring to Fig. 7 in detail schematically illustrated is a pair of lungs 35 and a heart 1 b including right and left ventricles 33 and 34 respectively; right and left atria 36 and 37 respectively; and an aorta 7a. Also schematically illustrated is an artificial heart generally indicated at 38, including right and left ventricles 39 and 47, respectively; and rig htand left atria 42 and 43 respectively. The artificial heart 38 further includes control valves 44 and 46 for controlling the flow of blood between natural heartlbandartificialheart38.

The arrows indicate the flow of blood controlled by valves 44 and 46 through the natural and artificial hearts 1 and 38 brought about by electromagnets 13b and pole elements 14b by the magnetic attraction of pole elements 1 6b. Artificial heart 38 further includes connecting elements 47 and 48 between the pole elements 14b and 1 6b. A body wall 49 separates heart 1 6b and 38.

The mechanism of the artificial heart is operated by a vibratory unit 19b which operates the electromagnets 1 3b provided with pole elements 1 4b. A coil delay unit 23a controls the frequency of the vibratory movement and provides synchronism with the natural heart pulsations via switches 52 at, for example, 70 to 100 beats per minute.

It is apparent that when electromagnets 13b are energized by the vibratory unit 1 9b, they attract pole elements 1 6b and when de-energized, the artificial heart38will return to its normal position due to its natural resilience assisted by biasing springs 51. Pole elements 16b may project outside the body ofthe animal, for example, by creating a non-leakable arrangement by surrounding the horizontal parts of connecting elements 47 and 48 supporting the pole elements, by a pole (not shown).

Thus, a rhythmic beat is created in unison with the natural heart 1 b. The letter "A" represents used blood from the body, and the letter "Z" indicates fresh blood supply to the body.

Figure 8 schematically illustrates the operating scheme of Fig. 7, wherein the heart 38 is placed outside the mammal's body. The numeral 49 representsthe bodywall and numeral 53the artificial metal or plastic platform supported by the ribs and the animal's body on which is mounted a plug 56 with a channel 57 for receiving blood from the body; a channel 58 for transferring into the lungs (not shown); a channel 59 for transporting blood from the lungs to the left ventricle (not shown); and a channel 61 for transference of the blood to the aorta (not shown).

Outside the body are situated corresponding chan nels to the compressor means 1 Ob. Also shown is the regulating vibrator 1 9cfor activating orswitching off the compressor 1 orb. Numeral 1 7b represents a battery, eliminator, or rechargeable battery for sup plying the appropriate power for the operation of the artificial heart 38.

Figure 9 iilustrates a similar a rtificial heart38b.A channel 62 equipped with a control valve 63 receives blood from the body; a diaphragm 64 is fitted with a valve 66; 65 is the fulcrum of diaphragm 64. Avalve 67 controls blood being pumped to the lungs 35; and channel 68 supplies blood to the lungs 35. As the electromagnets 1 3c are energized from vibrator 1 7c, the pole elements 14c become magnets and attract diaphragms or extensions 64 and 69 alternately; the movement of the diaphragms 64 and 69 is indicated by the arrows.

Similarly, blood received from the lungs 35 at 72 is forced by diaphragm 69 including valve 64, and assisted by controlling valve 71; 68 represents the fulcrum of diaphragm 69. The movement of the diaphragm 69 is indicated by arrows as it is actuated by electromagnets 13c and pole elements 14c. The blood isthus pumped to the aortas 7c and controlled byvalve 73.

Figure 10 is a power supply diagram illustrating the electrical power supplied to vibrator 1 9d, which can be adjusted to vibrate atfrequencies ranging from about 50to 200.

The power supply system illustrated includes a coil 74, an electromagnetic coil 76 and pole elements 1 4d which alternately attract movable pole elements 1 6d coupled to a spring 77, which may be replaced by an electromagnet 13d. In this embodiment, the numeral 49a represents the body wall.

Various components outside the body may be enclosed in a suitably shaped container provided with several vacuum cups to hold it in position assisted by a brassiere or a holster.

Body tissues may be rendered capable of being attracted to a magnet by superimposing stainless steel gauze ora thin stainless steel plate by a surgical operation, or by depositing very fine stainless steel filings inside the animal tissue by projecting them from an injector gun.

It is apparentthatthe natural and artificial hearts 1 and 38 may be used in conjunction with one another, or singly operated by control means 12 described supra.

Claims (16)

1. An artificial heart device incorporating means for generating and controlling electromagnetic fields by alternate activation and switching off of electro magnetic and associated apparatus control means to render pulsatory compressor motion or movement for pumping blood similarto a mammalian heart.
2. An artificial heart device comprising compress or means associated with a mammalian heartfor compressing the cardiac muscleto simulatethe normal pumping action thereof and control means forelectromagnetically controlling the operation of said compressor means.
3. The invention of claims 1 and 2, wherein at least compressor means are juxtaposed with said heart muscle.
4. The invention of claims 1 and 2, wherein the said device is disposed outside the mammalian body.
5. The invention of claims 1 and 2, wherein said control means functions to synchronize the action of said compressor means with the atrial and ventricular rhythmic contraction ofthe normal heart.
6. The invention of claims 1 and 2, wherein said compressor means comprise a pair of first and second compressor components disposed on the surface of the heart in spaced relationship for electromagnetic interaction to compress said cardiac muscle on actuation of said compressor means.
7. The invention of claim 6, wherein each of said components comprises a metal sheet conforming to a portion ofthe said heart muscle.
8. The invention of claim 6, wherein the first compressor component includes a set of pole elements disposed for electromagnetic interaction with a set of corresponding pole elements on the second compressor component.
9. The invention of claims 1, 2 and 8 wherein the actuation of the said pole elements is regulated by vibratory means for producing rhythmic electromagnetic interaction of said pole elements to compress said cardiac muscle synchronisticallywith the normal pumping action.
10. The invention of claims 1 and 2,whereinthe control means comprises of an electromagnet disposed outside the mammalian body and said compressor means comprises a compressor component disposed adjacent to the heart within the body for electromagnetic interaction with said control means to rhythmically compress said cardiac muscle and simulate the normal pumping action of the heart in responsetothe electrical actuation of said electromagnet.
11. The invention of claims 1 and 2, wherein said device supplements the action of a defective heart muscle.
12. The invention of claims 1 and 2, wherein said device replaces the inherent action of the mammalian heart.
13. An artificial heart for affecting blood circulation within a mammalian body comprising a) means for receiving blood from the body, and transferring means for transferring this received blood to the lungs; and b) means for receiving blood from the lungs and transferring means fortransferring this received blood to the aorta, said transferring means comprising electromagnetically operated compressor meansfor pumping blood thus received.
14. The invention as claimed in claims 1 and 2, wherein the compressor means are utilized for compressing the aorta and otherbloodvessals associated with the mammalian heart.
15. An artificial heart device as claimed in any of the previous claims, wherein the body tissues are capable of being attracted by an electromagnet by superimposing stainless steel gauze or plate fabri cated from said metal or by depositing very fine stainless steel filings inside the animal tissues by projecting them from an injector gun.
16. An artificial heart device as described and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
GB8218603A 1981-06-29 1982-06-28 Devices for replacing or assisting the heart Expired GB2115287B (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8119920 1981-06-29
GB8200231 1982-01-06
GB8200974 1982-01-14
GB8218603A GB2115287B (en) 1981-06-29 1982-06-28 Devices for replacing or assisting the heart

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8218603A GB2115287B (en) 1981-06-29 1982-06-28 Devices for replacing or assisting the heart

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GB2115287A true true GB2115287A (en) 1983-09-07
GB2115287B GB2115287B (en) 1985-10-30

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4314269A1 (en) * 1993-04-30 1994-11-03 Georg Dr Berg Device for supporting the heart and/or for replacing myocardial power
US5800528A (en) * 1995-06-13 1998-09-01 Abiomed R & D, Inc. Passive girdle for heart ventricle for therapeutic aid to patients having ventricular dilatation
WO2000012152A1 (en) * 1998-08-28 2000-03-09 Herrero Juan Hernandez Apparatus aiding physiologic systolic and diastolic dynamics of cardiac cavities
US6432039B1 (en) 1998-12-21 2002-08-13 Corset, Inc. Methods and apparatus for reinforcement of the heart ventricles
US6540659B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-04-01 Abiomed, Inc. Cardiac assistance systems having bi-directional pumping elements
US6547716B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-04-15 Abiomed, Inc. Passive cardiac restraint systems having multiple layers of inflatable elements
US6572534B1 (en) 2000-09-14 2003-06-03 Abiomed, Inc. System and method for implanting a cardiac wrap
US6602182B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-08-05 Abiomed, Inc. Cardiac assistance systems having multiple fluid plenums
US6616596B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-09-09 Abiomed, Inc. Cardiac assistance systems having multiple layers of inflatable elements
US6626821B1 (en) 2001-05-22 2003-09-30 Abiomed, Inc. Flow-balanced cardiac wrap
US6695769B2 (en) 2001-09-25 2004-02-24 The Foundry, Inc. Passive ventricular support devices and methods of using them
US6846296B1 (en) 2000-09-14 2005-01-25 Abiomed, Inc. Apparatus and method for detachably securing a device to a natural heart
US7060023B2 (en) 2001-09-25 2006-06-13 The Foundry Inc. Pericardium reinforcing devices and methods of using them
US7736299B2 (en) 2002-11-15 2010-06-15 Paracor Medical, Inc. Introducer for a cardiac harness delivery
US7976454B2 (en) 2002-01-07 2011-07-12 Paracor Medical, Inc. Cardiac harness
US8192351B2 (en) 2007-08-13 2012-06-05 Paracor Medical, Inc. Medical device delivery system having integrated introducer

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA2402504A1 (en) 2000-03-10 2001-09-20 Paracor Surgical, Inc. Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure
US6702732B1 (en) 1999-12-22 2004-03-09 Paracor Surgical, Inc. Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure

Cited By (19)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4314269A1 (en) * 1993-04-30 1994-11-03 Georg Dr Berg Device for supporting the heart and/or for replacing myocardial power
US5800528A (en) * 1995-06-13 1998-09-01 Abiomed R & D, Inc. Passive girdle for heart ventricle for therapeutic aid to patients having ventricular dilatation
US6508756B1 (en) 1995-06-13 2003-01-21 Abiomed, Inc. Passive cardiac assistance device
US6224540B1 (en) 1995-06-13 2001-05-01 Abiomed, Inc. Passive girdle for heart ventricle for therapeutic aid to patients having ventricular dilatation
WO2000012152A1 (en) * 1998-08-28 2000-03-09 Herrero Juan Hernandez Apparatus aiding physiologic systolic and diastolic dynamics of cardiac cavities
US6432039B1 (en) 1998-12-21 2002-08-13 Corset, Inc. Methods and apparatus for reinforcement of the heart ventricles
US6846296B1 (en) 2000-09-14 2005-01-25 Abiomed, Inc. Apparatus and method for detachably securing a device to a natural heart
US6572534B1 (en) 2000-09-14 2003-06-03 Abiomed, Inc. System and method for implanting a cardiac wrap
US6540659B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-04-01 Abiomed, Inc. Cardiac assistance systems having bi-directional pumping elements
US6547716B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-04-15 Abiomed, Inc. Passive cardiac restraint systems having multiple layers of inflatable elements
US6616596B1 (en) 2000-11-28 2003-09-09 Abiomed, Inc. Cardiac assistance systems having multiple layers of inflatable elements
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