GB2106490A - Process and apparatus for electro-flotation treatment of effluent - Google Patents

Process and apparatus for electro-flotation treatment of effluent Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2106490A
GB2106490A GB08128726A GB8128726A GB2106490A GB 2106490 A GB2106490 A GB 2106490A GB 08128726 A GB08128726 A GB 08128726A GB 8128726 A GB8128726 A GB 8128726A GB 2106490 A GB2106490 A GB 2106490A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
clarifier
sludge
pipe
filter
impurities
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB08128726A
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GB2106490B (en
Inventor
Laszlo Hegedus
Istvan Banvolgyi
Zoltan Banvolgyi
Sandor Tuka
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VIZGEPESZETI VALLALAT
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VIZGEPESZETI VALLALAT
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Publication date
Priority to SE8105197A priority Critical patent/SE445036B/en
Application filed by VIZGEPESZETI VALLALAT filed Critical VIZGEPESZETI VALLALAT
Priority to GB08128726A priority patent/GB2106490B/en
Publication of GB2106490A publication Critical patent/GB2106490A/en
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Publication of GB2106490B publication Critical patent/GB2106490B/en
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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/465Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis by electroflotation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/001Processes for the treatment of water whereby the filtration technique is of importance
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • C02F1/463Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis by electrocoagulation

Abstract

An effluent purification process and apparatus are described, wherein the effluent is introduced tangentially via a pipe 10 into a clarifier 2 which has a conical bottom, the latter being connected via a pipe 12 with a sludge densifier 3 beneath it. A pipe 11 serves to remove clarified water via an overflow to a tank 7 connected by a pipe 13 to a filter space 14 beneath the sludge densifier 3. Below space 14 is a filter 8 and below that is a purified water storage tank 9. A pipe 4 removes flotated contaminants from the top of the clarifier 2, the latter containing an electrode unit 6 to effect electrical flotation which may be augmented by the use of chemicals. <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Process and apparatus for the purification of effluents containing oily or other contaminants The invention relates to a process for the artificial purification of effluents containing oily (fatty) or other contaminants and impurities, wherein the effluent or waste water is flotated, sedimented or filtered. The invention also concerns apparatus for carrying out the process, and includes a clarifier, a filter and storage tanks for oil sludge and for purified water.
Demand for industrial waters has recently been constantly growing throughout the world, with, of course, an attendant increase in the quantities of effluents produced.
The protection of living (natural) waters and the limitation of the available water supply makes the purification of industrial waste waters and reusage of the purified waters increasingly necessary.
It is generally known that mechanical processes are employed in the purification of the effluents that contain oil and solid matter from certain industrial and/or manufacturing plants, such as washing and precipitate waste waters of petroleum processing plants, auxiliary plants of the automobile industry; or in the purification of process waters and oily cooling waters of rolling mills, effluents of metal working plants containing scaly impurities as well as for the preliminary cleaning waste waters of meat processing plants and slaughterhouses.
The average quantity of floating or suspended materials in waste waters is 50-5000 mg/l and that of emulsified droplets of oily (fatty) impurities is 1 50-3000 mg/l. The major part of the floating material is solid with particle diameters of over 80-100 y and fine colloidal impurities with a particle diameter of under 80 y.
Depending on the required efficiency of purification, various methods of purification are applied. Generally, all methods are based and developed on a process-technology described below. To catch mechanical impurities, so called sand-traps, drum-filters or screens are used. In most cases the sand-traps are oblong basins with a longitudinal throughflow or passage of the water. The coarse oily (fatty) impurities are separated by oil (fat)-traps, which are mainly in the form of separators of horizontal throughflow.
The finer floating materials are separated by sedimenters with horizontal or vertical throughflow. The chemical treatment of waste waters is carried out with reagents in clarifiers which are, in the majority of applications, rotary constructions, working in vertical countercurrent flow. The finest impurities are separated mainly by filters.
In order to obtain the prescribed grade of purity, the effluents are fed into supplementary purification plants. Generally, these are singlestage or multi-stage biological purifiers.
In more recently developed process-technology it is customary to use flotation instead of filtration, i.e. to apply laminar or layer-structured vacuum filters or filters with sludge elutriation instead of sand-trap filters. Supplementary components of a complete purification plant include various facilities for dissolving chemicals, reagent dispensers, mixers, pumps and compressors. The separated sludge is transferred by means of a pump into sludge collectors where it is subjected to further processing.
In chemical methods sulphuric acid, lime, chlorides or sulphates of aluminium and iron are used as coagulants. The dwell or residence period of the waste water in the purification system is 2-6 hours, which in the case of a supplementary purifying plant may extend up to 2 days.
Closed waste water purifier systems are employed for a daily output of 5000-8000 m3 and open systems are used if larger quantities of waste water are to be purified.
Since the quantity of impurities and the degree of pollution of the effluent discharged from places of use vary considerably with time, the known purification systems are in most cases uneconomic because the purification plants have to be built to cope with the maximum contaminants, i.e. to suit to the most unfavourable conditions; the dimensions and size of the artefacts are therefore such that their capacity is mostly not fully utilized. Owing to the variations in the quantity and properties of the waste water, there is an element of uncertainty in the technology applied, and the efficiency of the purification is not uniform.
An aim of the invention is to eliminate or reduce the drawbacks described and to provide a process and apparatus by the application of which purified water of uniformly good quality can be obtained, quite independently from the sometimes spasmodically appearing load fluctuations and from smaller changes in the technology, and by the aid of which an easily controllable and economic operation of the purifier system is assured.
The essence of the process according to the invention is that the waste water or effluent is introduced tangentially into the top of clarifier vessel provided with a conical bottom, in the sedimentation space or chamber the oils (fats) or other contaminants are precipitated from the waste water by means of electrical or electric chemical reagent flotation, the clarified water is drained from the lower conical part of the clarifier vessel and fed to a filter, the sludge is collected from the bottom and discharged downwardly therefrom, while the flotated impurities are discharged from the surface of the liquid contained in the clarifier vessel via an overflow.
The essence of the operation of the tangential electro-flotation clarifier unit is that the pretreated water containing very fine floating materials with particle diameters of less than 0.1-0.5 mm, colloids, particulate, dispersed and emulsified oils (fats), is caused to enter into the upper part of the vessel tangentially at a predetermined depth below the water level which coincides with the level of a funnel for skimming off the flotated impurities.
An electrode system consisting of concentric cylinders is located at such a depth below this level of entry of the water between the upper rim of the electrode system and the inlet aperture as well as the height of the skimming funnel ensures the floating up of the granular and dispersed oils (fats), and of the very fine floating materials and the major portion of the colloids as well as of the smaller flakes which are formed in the upper part of the electrode system from the colloids and metal hydroxides and which bind the emulsified oils (fats); the floating is promoted by upward propulsion by the generated H2 and O3 gases.
The height of the concentric electrode cylinders is determined by the residence time required for the formation of flakes of an adequate size that can reliably be settled out. The height of the purified water outlet aperture, which is fitted with a cone for protection against sludge, is determined by the residence time required for flake settlement in a unidirectional and transverse flow (for the arrival of the flakes at the conical surface of the vessel), while its diameter is determined by the radius of swirl of the flakes sedimenting along a spiral track.
The sedimented flakes are discharged via a sludge-concentrator pipe connected to the bottom of the vessel to a sludge storage tank, while the upwardly swimming or floating impurities are removed via the skimming funnel into the storage unit for the oily sludge from where they can be discharged by gravity.
In the purifier unit, under constant rotation or swirl of the liquid, simultaneously there is an upward swim or flotation of oils (fats) the very fine floating materials as well as the small flakes in countercurrent flow, skimming off, in transverse flow, intensive contacting between the concentric electrode cylinders of colloidal materials that have not floated up and residual emulsified oils (fats) with metal hydroxides (the intensity of contact is greatly enhanced by the generated gases), the uniform growth of flakes, and their subsequent settlement. first simultaneously in unidirectional and transverse flow, but from the height of the water outlet pipe, settlement in countercurrent flow and finally discharge of the purified water from below upwardly.
The process expediently combines the tangential capturing of oils (fats) with flotation; more particularly, in view of the de-emulsifying effect with electroflotation. This combination results in the technical synergism that in a single step it assures highly efficient trapping of oils (fats) both for granular and dispersed oils (fats) and for emulsified oils (fats). Moreover, the process according to the invention combines the tangential capture of oils (fats) and their electrochemical clarification in one single purification unit, expediently using either consumable or, less frequently, stable (i.e. scarcely consumable) electrodes providing for the above-described flotation. Stable electrodes are used when there is an a priori possibility of perikinetic coagulation, i.e.
when from the beginning the metal ions are present in the water as one of the impurities so that a separate introduction of metal ions is not necessary or might even be detrimental, e.g. in the case of the oily (fatty) effluents of electroplating plants. The process of orthokinetic coagulation between stable electrodes starts immediately.
The positioning of the electrode system according to the invention enables only those impurities to pass into the "heavy" phase, i.e.
settling out after flocculation, which have not risen to the surface under the effects of gravitational and centrifugal forces as well as of electroflotation and have not been discharged into the skimming funnel. The very small flakes in the upper range of the flocculation space, composed from very fine colloidal materials with emulsified oils (fats) bound on their surfaces, rise to the surface together with bubbles of gas formed in the process.
The major portion of the dispersed oils (fats) and of the emulsified oils (fats) as well as a large portion of the very fine floating materials and colloids pass into the "light" phase and so do not require sedimentation.
The extra technological effect ("synergism") of the positioning of the electrode-system of the purifier unit is that, due to the separation of the impurities as described above, the surface load (expressed as solid matter) of the clarifier part of the purifier unit according to the invention, within the limits of the load range of industrial operation is only about 40% of the total surface load of the purifier unit, or of the surface load of the traditional clarifiers which do not exploit the separating effect. Assuming that all other circumstances remain unchanged, then due to this effect the content of floating material in the purified water is reduced to 3.
Thus one group of impurities does not even enter into the electrode system, while in another group, although it enters into the upper part of the electrode system, the small flakes that are formed are lifted up to the surface by gas bubbles generated during the process. The upward motion of the flakes grow in size naturally during their rise and the maximisation of their number that floats to the top is decisively influenced not only by the intensity of flotation but also by the abovedescribed positioning of the electrode system, i.e.
by the correct selection of the length of the "path of the flotation" and by the immediate skimmingoff of the flakes flotated to the surface, since even in the case of minimal dwell, the small flakes agglomerate into large flakes and sink, thus going over into the so-called "heavy phase".
These two groups from the light phase" or which are continuously removed via the skimming funnel into the oil sludge storage unit.
A third group of impurities grows in size between the electrodes and is sedimented in the form of large flakes, heavy phase".
The preconditions for the above-described separation of the impurities are: A) Continuous flotation carried out prior to and simultaneously with the initial phase of electroflotation. (The function of additional electroflotation or electric clarification using chemicals is to promote the growth of the flakes.) B) In the interest of prevention of the intermixing of the light and heavy phases immediate and continuous removal of the light phase is effected. This is because in the case of a certain critical dwelling time and/or mixing, a large number of small flakes of the light phase grow into large flakes which therefore belong to the heavy phase and are as such sedimentable.
They adsorb a large portion of oils (fats) which otherwise would be part of the light phase.
Consequently, the load of contaminants in the space of the sedimenter remains not only unchanged but also triggers off the desorption of the oils (fats) bound to the surface during the sedimentation. This greatly impairs the quality of the purified water, and makes the application of a separate after-purifier necessary.
The water in the clarifier of the purifying apparatus flows from the top downwardly to the bottom under constant circulation. The sedimentation takes place in a unidirectional and transverse current flow and commences already in the flocculation space. Thereafter, the purified water is discharged after a change of direction of flow, i.e. from the bottom to the top. Since the water flows out in countercurrent flow as well as due to the "suction" effect of the space of the oily sludge storage tank (created by appropriately controlling the quantity of water decanted from the upper part of the sludge storage tank) the outlet aperture of the purified water provided with a conical sludge-shield as it were "sucks" the water off the sedimenting flakes that are advancing towards the sludge concentrator along a spiral track on the conical mantle surface.
A precondition of sedimentation. is that those flakes that do not pass from the upper part of the electrode system into the light phase should continue to grow during their downward continuously rotary motion to a size such that, on leaving the flocculation space and advancing towards the cylindrical or conical surface, the sediment at the height of the water discharge pipe on a spiral track of greater diameter than that of the inlet aperture of the water discharge pipe. The space required by the sedimenter meeting the requirements is substantially smaller than usual.
The apparatus according to the invention includes a clarifier, a filter and tanks for the storage of oily sludge and purified water. The essence of the apparatus is that the clarifier is provided with a cone-shaped bottom in which an electrode is placed to generate electroflotation, an effluent inlet is tangentially joined to the clarifier, while one end of a clarified water discharge pipe is positioned in the region of the conical bottom part of the clarifier.
In the apparatus according to the invention the clarifier, the filter and the storage tank for the purified water are expediently arranged on top of one another and a sludge concentrator is connected between the clarifier and the filter.
The invention is further described in detail by reference to a preferred embodiment illustrated in the accompanying purely schematic drawing, which is a sectional diagrammatic view of the apparatus according to the invention and at the same time represents also a flow diagram of the process according to the invention.
The apparatus essentially consists of a storage vessel 9 for clarified water, a filter 8, a sludge concentrator or densifier 3 and a clarifier 2, all of circular cross-section, superposed on each other.
A A tangential effluent inlet 10 is connected to the upper part of the clarifier 2. The clarifier 2 is provided with a conical bottom from the lower part of which a pipe 12 leads to the sludge densifier 3, positioned beneath the clarifier 2. One end of a pipe 11 for discharging clarified water is arranged in the conical lower part of clarifier 2, while the other end of the pipe 1 1 is an overflow outlet into a tank 7. A pipe 13 at the bottom of tank 7 leads into a space 14 located above the filter 9.
A consumable metal electrode 8 for the generation of the electroflotation is arranged inside the clarifier 2. In the preferred illustrated embodiment of the invention an overflow pipe 4 is centrally positioned inside the the clarifier 2 and discharges into a tank 5 for the storage of oily sludge. As a possible variant of this embodiment, a hydrocyclone 1 is connected before the clarifier 2.
Further details, such as various pipes, couplings and valves will be referred to in connection with the description of the operation of the apparatus according to the invention.
Effluent is pumped over from a collector pit by a diving pump (not shown) via a slide valve and a non-return valve, (which are also not illustrated) into the hydrocyclone 1. The floating impurities with a particle diameter of over 80-100 ,u separated in the hydrocyclone 1 and transferred therefrom via a controlled slide valve and a 3-way valve as well as via a pipe 21 pass into the sludge densifier 3 or into a separate sludge reservoir.
The waste water flow through the upper outlet aperture of the hydrocyclone 1, a control valve and a a pipe 10 and then tangentially into the clarifier 2.
For the control of the preset quantity of water purified a water meter is fitted to the clarified water pipe. The amperage required for an effective electro-chemical purification of the waste water in the clarifier 2 is provided by a non-illustrated power supply unit housed in a separate building.
The need to replace the consumable electrode 6 is indicated by a change of the current. The impurities flotated by means of the electrode unit 6 6 rise to the surface and are transferred by means of an overflow system including the overflow pipe 4 into the oily sludge storage tank 5. The tank 5 can be discharged by gravity through a connecting pipe 22. The necessity of a discharge is indicated by a control lamp on the switchboard installed in the operational control room housed in a separate building. The sludge passing downwardly from the clarifier 2 into the sludge densifier 3 is periodically dishcarged therefrom by gravity through a pipe 23. The necessity of such a discharge is determined by way of comparative sampling from a separate sampling pipe.
The purified water flows from the clarifier 2 via pipe 11 into tank 7 which acts as a level regulator, and from there via pipe 13 into the space 14 above the filter 8. From the space 14 the water flows to the filter 8.
The regenerated water flows from filter 8 via means not shown in detail into the purified water storage tank 19. The attainment of a water level corresponding to the maximum permissible load (resistance) of the filter 8 and the necessity of flushing is indicated by an indicating lamp on the switchboard, which is lit up by the signal received from a level control switch arranged in tank 7. The flushing water is pumped from the purified water storage tank 9 to the filter unit 8 and is discharged therefrom via pipe 14 into the collector pit. After completion of the water flushing an air valve 25 is opened thus letting flushing air into the filter unit 8. The flushing air is discharged from filter 8 together with the waste water via pipe 24. The loosening-up by aeration is followed by further flushing as described before.
The regenerated water flows from the purified water storage tank 9 via pipe 26 to the place of intended use. The water level in the purified water storage tank 9 is controlled by a level indicator.
The most important measures of the invention are: ~the realization of tangential capture of oil (fat) by means of electroflotation; ~The continuous and simultaneous separation of the components of impurities preceding their flocculation and the instant separation of the light phase, and therefore a considerable reduction (60%) of the load (stress) of the surface expressed as in the quantity of the solid materials present in the clarifier (sedimenter); ~realization of a new system of sedimentation with reduced space requirement; - a positive and synchronous application and combination of the described processes mutually complementing one another by means of a continuously operating apparatus of simple design;; ~the realization of the possibility of discharging all impurities without the application of any kind of mechanical equipment, but purely by gravity; ~the size and expedient design of the buffer space above the filter provided with a deaerator assures the attenuation and equalization of fluctuating loads after shorter or longer stoppages of the operation, thus preventing the rupture of the filter often occurring in customary fast filters on re-starting the operation.
By the application of the process and apparatus according to the invention, industrial waste waters containing large quantities of solids and floating materials as well as oily (fatty) and other impurities can be purified and regenerated with low losses. Thereafter the water can be recirculated into the system of general water management.
The purified water produced according to the process and the apparatus according to the invention has a uniformly high quality and is obtained independently from fluctuating loads and variations of the technology applied.

Claims (10)

1. A process for the purification of effluents containing oily (fatty) and/or other contaminants, comprising feeding effluent tangentially into the upper part of a clarifier provided with a conical bottom, floating and/or flocculating the oily (fatty) and/or other contaminants in the clarifier are by means of electric or electric and chemical flotation, draining the clarified water from the lower conical region of the clarifier and feeding it to a filter, removing the sludge from the bottom of the clarifier, while removing the flotated impurities in the clarifier unit from the surface of the liquid by means of an overflow.
2. A process according to claim 1 wherein the electric or electrochemical flotation is accomplished by the use of consumable metal electrodes.
3. A process according to claim 1 wherein the electroflotation is accomplished by the application of stable metal electrodes.
4. A process according to any preceding claim wherein the reduction of the volume of the vertical clarifier and the increase of its output is achieved by continuous and simultaneous separation of the impurities prior to or synchronously with their flocculation in the clarifier.
5. A process according to any preceding claim wherein the reduction of the volume or the increase of the output of the vertical clarifier is achieved by a downwardly directed sedimentation in a unidirectional and transverse flow.
6. A process for the purification of effluents substantially as herein described with reference to and as shown in the accompanying drawing.
7. Apparatus for carrying out the process according to any preceding claim comprising a clarifier, a filter, and a storage tank for purified water, wherein the clarifier is provided with a conical bottom and accommodates electrode means to generate electro-flotation therein, an effluent inlet tangentially connected to the clarifier, while in the said conical bottom are arranged a pipe for draining clarified water, sludge discharge pipe effective to operate as a sludgedensifier and a pipe for the removal of the flotated impurities.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the electrode means is a consumable metal electrode unit constructed of concentric cylinders.
9. Apparatus according to claim 7 wherein the electrode means is a stable metal electrode unit constructed of concentric cylinders.
10. Apparatus according to any of claims 7 to 9 wherein the clarifier, the filter and the purified water storage tank are arranged on top of one another and a sludge densifier is connected to the clarifier and an oily sludge storage tank connected to the clarifier is arranged between the clarifier and the oily sludge storage tank.
1 Apparatus for the purification of effluents substantially as herein described with reference to and as shown in the accompanying drawing.
GB08128726A 1981-09-02 1981-09-23 Process and apparatus for electro-flotation treatment of effluent Expired GB2106490B (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE8105197A SE445036B (en) 1981-09-02 1981-09-02 DEVICE WATER CLEANING DEVICE INCLUDING OIL AND / OR OTHER POLLUTANTS
GB08128726A GB2106490B (en) 1981-09-02 1981-09-23 Process and apparatus for electro-flotation treatment of effluent

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE8105197A SE445036B (en) 1981-09-02 1981-09-02 DEVICE WATER CLEANING DEVICE INCLUDING OIL AND / OR OTHER POLLUTANTS
GB08128726A GB2106490B (en) 1981-09-02 1981-09-23 Process and apparatus for electro-flotation treatment of effluent

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GB2106490A true GB2106490A (en) 1983-04-13
GB2106490B GB2106490B (en) 1985-06-12

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5382358A (en) * 1993-03-24 1995-01-17 Yeh; George C. Apparatus for dissolved air floatation and similar gas-liquid contacting operations
US5510039A (en) * 1993-04-17 1996-04-23 Sulzer-Escher Wyss Gmbh Method for separating off solid materials
WO1996017666A1 (en) * 1994-12-07 1996-06-13 Richard Mozley Limited Apparatus for reducing the pressure in a liquid stream
DE102017101658A1 (en) 2017-01-27 2018-08-02 Envirochemie Gmbh grease trap

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111592067B (en) * 2020-05-13 2022-02-22 珠海巨涛海洋石油服务有限公司 Double-cavity rotational flow air flotation device

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5382358A (en) * 1993-03-24 1995-01-17 Yeh; George C. Apparatus for dissolved air floatation and similar gas-liquid contacting operations
US5462669A (en) * 1993-03-24 1995-10-31 Yeh; George C. Method for dissolved air floatation and similar gas-liquid contacting operations
US5510039A (en) * 1993-04-17 1996-04-23 Sulzer-Escher Wyss Gmbh Method for separating off solid materials
WO1996017666A1 (en) * 1994-12-07 1996-06-13 Richard Mozley Limited Apparatus for reducing the pressure in a liquid stream
DE102017101658A1 (en) 2017-01-27 2018-08-02 Envirochemie Gmbh grease trap
DE102017101658B4 (en) * 2017-01-27 2019-05-16 Envirochemie Gmbh grease trap

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB2106490B (en) 1985-06-12
SE8105197L (en) 1983-03-03
SE445036B (en) 1986-05-26

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