GB2081847A - Control valves - Google Patents

Control valves Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2081847A
GB2081847A GB8122269A GB8122269A GB2081847A GB 2081847 A GB2081847 A GB 2081847A GB 8122269 A GB8122269 A GB 8122269A GB 8122269 A GB8122269 A GB 8122269A GB 2081847 A GB2081847 A GB 2081847A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
control
valve
control element
piston
radially
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB8122269A
Other versions
GB2081847B (en
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Airbus Defence and Space GmbH
Original Assignee
Messerschmitt Bolkow Blohm AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19803028824 priority Critical patent/DE3028824C2/de
Application filed by Messerschmitt Bolkow Blohm AG filed Critical Messerschmitt Bolkow Blohm AG
Publication of GB2081847A publication Critical patent/GB2081847A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2081847B publication Critical patent/GB2081847B/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/44Feeding propellants
    • F02K9/56Control
    • F02K9/58Propellant feed valves

Abstract

A control valve, for adjustment of the quantities of propellant fed to the combustion chamber of a rocket propulsion unit of variable output performance, comprises a tubular control element E by which two annular and mutually coaxial feed channels 3 and 4 for two liquid propellants B and O flowing to the injection head are separated from each other up to the injection point where the injection flow cross sections are controlled. The tubular control element E is fixed in the housing of the propulsion unit. Centrally within the tubular control element E is a control piston K which controls the radially innermost feed channel 3 for one liquid propellant O, and coaxially outside the tubular control element E is a slide valve V, operatively connected with the control piston K and serving to control the radially outermost feed channel 4 for the other liquid propellant. The valve slide V and piston K are situated in such a way that they are adjustable in an axial direction. The valve slide V is provided on the outside as viewed in the radial direction with an annular piston 18 which slides in a cylinder 16 connected to a pressure system supplying the radially outermost feed channel 4 with the propellant B. <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Control valve for adjustment of quantities of propellants fed to rocket propulsion units This invention relates to a control valve for proportioning the quantities of propellant to rocket propulsion units having controllable performance, with a cylindrical control device by which two annular mutually coaxial feed channels for two liquid, and in particular hypergolic, propellants which flow to an injection head are separated from each other up to the injection zone, where the injection port cross sections are adjustable.

U.S. 3,232,049 describes a rocket propuslion unit which is operated with liquid propellants and in which the quantities of propellant are proportioned through a cylindrical control which is adjustable in an axial direction. In this system the control device separates two annular channels, which serve for the feed of the two propellant components to the injection head of the combustion chamber and moves across annular grooves wherein the cross sections are varied.

The control device is driven by a rack drive with the rack being connected to the control element by means of actuating rods passing through the housing of the propulsion unit. Two annular bellows, which are coaxial and between which the rods pass, are connected at the front ends to the rear of the control device and by their rears ends to the housing of the propulsion unit. In this arrangement the two hypergolic propellants which inevitably seep from radially inner and radially outer guides for the annular control element are separated from each other. One drawback that cannot be overlooked in bellows of this kind is the fact that they can only be guaranteed against failure up to a certain number of load flexures and are particularly sensitive to highfrequency vibrations.This known system is therefore not suitable for rocket propulsion units designed for long operating periods and subject to continual variation of performance during operation.

This occurs particularly with missiles having propulsion unit clusters and wherein the thrust vector direction is controlled by varying the power of the individual propulsion units such that in the zone of the new thrust direction selected performance is reduced or switched off altogether, according to the alteration in the direction of thrust, and the propulsion units situated opposite are operated at full power. A rack drive system uses a great number of mechanical parts which not only necessitates high driving forces with high-frequency adjustments for constant changes of direction, due to the relatively large masses, but is also subject to inertia which produces wear of the parts.

This invention seeks to provide a control valve, and a system for use therewith, which will prove substantially reliable in operation, ensuring that accurate control times are maintained over a long period and which will guarantee a long service life, even where high-frequency variations are encountered, thus providing a compact construction with reduced over-all weight.

According to this invention there is provided a control valve for adjustment of quantities of propellants fed to rocket propulsion units, the valve including a tubular control element defining two separated annular coaxial feed channels for respective ones of two liquid propellant components fed to an injection head, the components being separated from each other as far as the injection point into the combustion chamber where the injection cross section areas are adjustably controlled, the tubular control element being fixed in relation to a housing of the propulsion unit and having centrally therein a piston affecting control of a radially innermost feed channel for one liquid propellant and coaxially outside a cylindrical slide valve, rigidly connected with the said piston and serving to control a radially outermost feed channel for the other liquid propellant, the piston and slide valve being adjustable in an axial direction, the slide valve being provided on the outside with an annular piston which moves within an adjusting cylinder operatively connected to a feed system supplying the radially outermost feed channel with propellant.

The control valve according to the invention is characterized by a compact construction which, owing to the direct drive used, operates accurately over a long period and has a good service life. Even with the use of propellants reacting with each other hypergolically the system is reliable, as no propellant can pass from the adjusting cylinder to the radially outermost annular propellant groove or vice versa.

Preferably a first split ring is positioned in a radially inner position on the control element and bears against the inside of the control element with a second split spring ring positioned at a radially outer position on the control element and bearing on the control element, separated radially inner and radially outer rows of control grooves being provided in a control zone of the control element which is operatively associated with the two spring rings.

This ensures that by simple mechanical components of known reliability, that is the two slit spring rings forming a control ring, a wear-resistant control device can be provided which offers clearancefree contact between surfaces as well as accurate dosage of propellants and ease of movement.

Preferably a radially inner spacer ring is associated with the radially inner split ring, leaving a slight radial gap, and a radially outer spacer ring associated with the radially outer split ring, leaving a slight radial gap, the two firmly clamped spacer rings having a somewhat greater axial length by comparison with the split rings.

The two split rings are thus made freely movable in the radial clamping plane to give easy movement for the motion accompanying the control operation as well being free of play, in addition to which, being a simple mechanical component, failure is rare.

In order to cope with the disproportionate nonlinear increases in the quantities of propellant required for higher performances the control grooves increase in cross section towards the combustion chamber.

The fixed connection between the outer slide valve and the central control piston may be provided by means of a mushroom distributor head provided with swirl imparting vanes and serving to initiate a spiral flow within the combustion chamber, the type of distributor head being constructionally associated with the central control piston and the vanes forming a bridge connection between the distributor head and the tubular control slide element.

An embodiment according to this invention is shown by way of example in the accompanying drawings wherein Figure 1 shows a longitudinal section through part ofthe injection head zone in a liquid-propellant rocket propulsion unit, Figure 2 shows a detail of Figure 1 and Figure 3 shows a section on Ill-Ill of Figure 2.

The two propellants, in this case oxidizer S and fuel B, are fed to an injection head 1 of a combustion chamber 2 through two annular and coaxial feed channels 3 and 4. The entire valve system for proportioning the quantities of propellant mainly comprise a fixed control element E which separates the two annular feed channels 3 and 4 and which is provided with control grooves 7 and 8, and a central control piston K adjustable in both axial directions with a control ring 5 and a tubular valve slide V movable in an axial direction and having a control ring 6. The control grooves 7 and 8 are formed in the end of the tubular control element E which is nearer to the combustion chamber and are separate from each other and, as shown more clearly in Figure 3, positioned in two rows extending peripherally.The cross section progressively increasing in a direction towards the combustion chamber 2 (Figure 2). The two control rings 5 and 6 are split spring rings, and have a transverse break so that they are not continuous in a circumferential direction. The radially inner most ring 5 presses against the inner surface of the control element E, while the radially outermost ring 6 presses against the control element E.

In order to give the two rings 5 and 6 a small freedom of movement in a radial direction, they are provided with spacer rings 10 and 11, which are slightly longer. The radially innermost spacer ring 10 is secured in relation to the control piston K by means of a screw nut 12 and the radially outermost spacer ring 11 is secured in relation to the valve slide V by means of a clamping sleeve 13. A separating gap 14 is provided between the ring 5 and the ring 10 and also between the ring 6 and the ring 11.

In the direction of the combustion chamber 2 the control piston K is fitted with a mushroom-type distributor head 9 of a kind shown and having swirl vanes 15. The control piston K and the valve slide 5 are rigidly interconnected by means of these vanes.

On the outside, as viewed in the radial direction, the valve slide 5 has an annularsliding piston 18 which moves in adjusting cylinder 16. By introducing a pressure medium, in this case fuel B, in front of or behind the annular piston 18 same is moved. When the control valve is displaced towards the combustion chamber 6 and free cross sections of the control grooves 7 and 8 are increased and when the valve is moved back the cross sections are reduced.

During operation of the combustion chamber 2 the two propellants B and S undergo a preliminary mixing in the initial swirl chamber 17 and if they are hypergolic propellants a partial reaction takes place here. The mixture of propellants then enters the combustion chamber 2 through the vane chambers positioned between the swirl vanes 15 and an accelerated spiral flow is produced.

As shown in Figure 1, the annular feed channel 4 and the adjusting cylinder 16 are fed with the same pressure medium which in this instance is the fuel B from the fuel storage tank 19 and through the pump 20. A reversing valve 21 is provided to ensure that the chambers of the adjusting cylinder 16 which are in front of and behind the piston 18 are respectiveiy fed alternately with pressure medium. The liequid displaced from the respective pressure chamber flows back to the tank 19 through return pipes 22 and 23.

As previously mentioned, the adjusting cylinder 16 need not be completely closed-off from the annular feed channel 4 or from the combustion chamber 2 on the other. Simple less costly sealing devices 24 can therefore be used which will inevitably allow a certain amount of leakage to take place.

Claims (8)

1. A control valve for adjustment of quantities of propellants fed to rocket propulsion units, the valve including a tubular control element defining two separated annular coaxial feed channels for respective ones of two liquid propellant components fed to an injection head, the components being separated from each other as far as the injection point into the combination chamber where the injection cross section areas are adjustably controlled, the tubular control element being fixed in relation to a housing of the propulsion unit and having centrally therein a piston effecting control of a radially innermost feed channel for one liquid propellant and coaxially outside a cylindrical slide valve rigidly connected with the said piston and serving to control a radially outermost feed channel for the other liquid propellant, the piston and slide valve being adjustable in an axial direction, the slide valve being provided on the outside with an annular piston which moves within an adjusting cylinder operatively connected to a feed system supplying the radially outermost feed channel with propellant.
2. A control valve in accordance with Claim 1, wherein a first slit spring ring is positioned in a radially inner position on the control element and bears against the inside of the control element, a second slit spring ring positioned at a radially outer position on the control element and bearing on the control element, separated radially inner and radially outer rows of control grooves being provided in a control zone of the control element which is operatively associated with the two spring rings.
3. A control valve in accordance with Claim 2, wherein a radially inner spacer ring is associated with the radially inner spring ring with a small radial gap therebetween, and a radially outer spacer ring is associated with the radially outer spring ring with a small radial gap therebetween, the two fixed spacer rings having a greater axial length than the respective spring rings whereby the two spring rings are movable freely in the radial planes.
4. A control valve in accordance with Claim 3, wherein the radially inner spacer ring is secured in relation to the central control piston by a screw nut, the radially outer spacer ring being secured in relation to the slide valve by a clamp sleeve screw connected to the slide valve.
5. A control valve in accordance with any one of Claims 1 to 4, wherein the control element has control grooves associated with each feed channel said grooves increasing in cross section area in a direction of flow towards the combustion chamber.
6. A control valve in accordance with any preceding claim, wherein a mushroom shape distributor head has swirl imparting vanes provided on the central control piston and secured by the vanes to the slide valve.
7. A control valve assembly for a rocket combustion chamber substantially as herein described with reference to and as shown in the accompanying drawings.
8. A rocket combustion chamber incorporating a control valve as herein described and claimed and with reference to the accompanying drawings.
GB8122269A 1980-07-30 1981-07-20 Control valves Expired GB2081847B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19803028824 DE3028824C2 (en) 1980-07-30 1980-07-30

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB2081847A true GB2081847A (en) 1982-02-24
GB2081847B GB2081847B (en) 1984-01-25

Family

ID=6108431

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB8122269A Expired GB2081847B (en) 1980-07-30 1981-07-20 Control valves

Country Status (3)

Country Link
DE (1) DE3028824C2 (en)
FR (1) FR2489420B1 (en)
GB (1) GB2081847B (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0614006A1 (en) * 1993-02-26 1994-09-07 SOCIETE EUROPEENNE DE PROPULSION (S.E.P.) Société Anonyme dite: Intermitting propergol injection system
GB2296311A (en) * 1994-12-21 1996-06-26 Moog Inc Dual concentric poppet valves
FR2734025A1 (en) * 1995-05-11 1996-11-15 Europ Propulsion Pulsed liquid property pulse motor
US5941062A (en) * 1995-05-11 1999-08-24 Societe Europeenne De Propulsion Pulse rocket engine
EP1983183A3 (en) * 2007-04-17 2012-07-04 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Inc. Ultra-compact, high-performance aerovortical rocket thruster
EP2365203A3 (en) * 2010-03-12 2014-09-24 United Technologies Corporation Injector assembly for a rocket engine

Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1228463B (en) * 1962-01-10 1966-11-10 North American Aviation Inc Metering apparatus for Stroemungsmittel particularly in a rocket motor
FR1359447A (en) * 1962-01-10 1964-04-24 North American Aviation Inc A variable thrust nozzle and
US3232049A (en) * 1962-05-04 1966-02-01 Gen Motors Corp Fluid injection apparatus
US3790088A (en) * 1967-08-29 1974-02-05 Us Army Propellant splash plate having flow directing means
US3998051A (en) * 1975-01-02 1976-12-21 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Sustainer-injector slot-alignment

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0614006A1 (en) * 1993-02-26 1994-09-07 SOCIETE EUROPEENNE DE PROPULSION (S.E.P.) Société Anonyme dite: Intermitting propergol injection system
GB2296311A (en) * 1994-12-21 1996-06-26 Moog Inc Dual concentric poppet valves
GB2296311B (en) * 1994-12-21 1998-06-10 Moog Inc Poppet valve for mixing two fluids at a constant ratio
FR2734025A1 (en) * 1995-05-11 1996-11-15 Europ Propulsion Pulsed liquid property pulse motor
US5797260A (en) * 1995-05-11 1998-08-25 Societe Europeenne De Propulsion Pulse rocket engine
US5941062A (en) * 1995-05-11 1999-08-24 Societe Europeenne De Propulsion Pulse rocket engine
EP1983183A3 (en) * 2007-04-17 2012-07-04 Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Inc. Ultra-compact, high-performance aerovortical rocket thruster
EP2365203A3 (en) * 2010-03-12 2014-09-24 United Technologies Corporation Injector assembly for a rocket engine

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
FR2489420A1 (en) 1982-03-05
FR2489420B1 (en) 1988-02-05
DE3028824C2 (en) 1982-12-02
GB2081847B (en) 1984-01-25
DE3028824A1 (en) 1982-08-19

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PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee