GB2067871A - Information Encoding Systems - Google Patents

Information Encoding Systems Download PDF

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Publication number
GB2067871A
GB2067871A GB8039388A GB8039388A GB2067871A GB 2067871 A GB2067871 A GB 2067871A GB 8039388 A GB8039388 A GB 8039388A GB 8039388 A GB8039388 A GB 8039388A GB 2067871 A GB2067871 A GB 2067871A
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United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
information
block
sequence
random
key
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GB8039388A
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BAE Systems Electronics Ltd
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BAE Systems Electronics Ltd
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Priority to GB8001832 priority Critical
Application filed by BAE Systems Electronics Ltd filed Critical BAE Systems Electronics Ltd
Priority to GB8039388A priority patent/GB2067871A/en
Publication of GB2067871A publication Critical patent/GB2067871A/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N7/00Television systems
    • H04N7/16Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems
    • H04N7/167Systems rendering the television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible
    • H04N7/1675Providing digital key or authorisation information for generation or regeneration of the scrambling sequence
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/76Television signal recording
    • H04N5/91Television signal processing therefor
    • H04N5/913Television signal processing therefor for scrambling ; for copy protection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/76Television signal recording
    • H04N5/91Television signal processing therefor
    • H04N5/92Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback
    • H04N5/926Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback by pulse code modulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N7/00Television systems
    • H04N7/16Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems
    • H04N7/167Systems rendering the television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible
    • H04N7/169Systems operating in the time domain of the television signal
    • H04N7/1696Systems operating in the time domain of the television signal by changing or reversing the order of active picture signal portions
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/76Television signal recording
    • H04N5/91Television signal processing therefor
    • H04N5/913Television signal processing therefor for scrambling ; for copy protection
    • H04N2005/91357Television signal processing therefor for scrambling ; for copy protection by modifying the video signal
    • H04N2005/91364Television signal processing therefor for scrambling ; for copy protection by modifying the video signal the video signal being scrambled

Abstract

In an information encoding system for coded communication, successive blocks of the information e.g. video information, are pseudo-randomly scanned, the actual pseudo-random scanning sequence being changed from block to block according to a predetermined but "secret" key, the output from the scanning process constituting the information in coded form; and the thus-coded information is then distributed in a form which does not include any details which fully define the key, the required key- defining details being themselves distributed separately and independently. The decoding of the coded information is then only possible with a knowledge of the key identifying the particular pseudo- random scanning sequences used in the coding operation. The system is particularly applicable to the encoding of video tapes to prevent copyright infringement. <IMAGE>

Description

SPECIFICATION Information Encoding Systems This invention relates to information encoding systems, and concerns in particular methods for the encoding and decoding of information organised in block form.

information encoding systems-that is, systems for converting information (data) from one form into another-are well-known in a variety of fields. At one level the expression "code" conjures up a picture of espionage, and the sending of secret messages in a coded form intelligible only-it is hoped-to the addresses, while at another level it brings to mind electronics, and the routine conversion of information into a signal (or a series of signals) which itself identifies but does not resemble the original data (such as is very commonly used when information in analogue form is converted into information in digital form).The first of these is all about security, and the encoding serves no other purpose than to disguise the information itself, while the second of these basically concerns the handling of the data, and the information's actual nature is irrelevant.

There are, however, a number of occasions where it is desirable for information encoded in the latter sense also to be coded in the former sense-thus, say, for data which has been put into the form of electronic, magnetic, optical or mechanical pulses to be unintelligible to anyone but the intended recipient of that data. A typical example of such a case is that of videotape recordings and the prevention of their illegal, copyright-infringing, reproduction.It is, unfortunately, common practice for videotape recordings to be "pirated"-that is, for many illegal copies to be made from one legallyacquired copy, and to be sold cheaply, with the result that the copyright owner is deprived of his just reward gainable by selling authorised copies-and it would be useful to have an information encoding system applicable to such an example so as to prevent any videotape being played back to give an intelligible result without first knowing how the recorded signal is to be decoded. The invention seeks to provide such a system based upon a technique known as pseudo-random scanning.

Though first proposed in the 1 930's, pseudorandom scanning (p-rs) is in practice a relatively new information-handling technique currently used (or suggested for use) mainly in certain types of television system. It may briefly by explained as follows.

Whereas in a conventional television system the picture (to be taken by the camera, transmitted by the broadcasting equipment, and received and reconstituted by the television set receiver) is scanned in an ordered series of closely-spaced parallel lines called a raster, in a prs system the picture is in effect scanned in a sequence of points dotted about apparently at random ("apparently" because, though the sequence may appear to be random, it is not so, and in fact is controlled according to some predetermined programme so as eventually to cover the whole picture).

P-rs systems have a number of significant advantages over comparable conventional raster systems. Specifically, they employ a much lower data rate (as little as one sixth as much) and so require very much less bandwidth, and in addition they are less troubled by noise problems. For both these reasons they find use in satellite and spaceship communication systems.

In a practical p-rs system the picture is first notionally divided into a large number of small picture elements (pixels) arranged in an ordered grid-like matrix, and then these are looked at in a predetermined pseudo-random sequence which (usually, though not always) is constructed so that all of the pixels are examined once and once only in each sequence. The output for each pixel may be in analogue form-the specific value of some variable, such as an electrical voltage, representing (for example) the colour or the brightness of that pixel-but it is in most applications more convenient to have the output encoded into digital (usually binary) form, so that it is obtained as a number indicating the magnitude of the variable(s) concerned.The pseudo-random sequence may be obtained in any one of a number of different ways commonly used to generate random numbers; thus it may be generated using software or hardware, though the latter-especially in the form of the comparatively simple multi-stage feedback shift register circuit-is particularly convenient.

In conventional p-rs systems the actual p-rs sequence is predetermined and constantindeed, it will probably have been specifically chosen with the particular utilisation in mind-so that the receiving equipment (the television set) can be designed in advance to perform the same p-rs sequence so as correctly to reconstitute the picture in image form.

The present invention seeks to provide a system, using basic p-rs techniques, for the handling of information (especially in picture form) as a series of different prs sequences in such a way as to be unintelligible to anyone without the key defining the different p-rs sequences being employed.

In one aspect, therefore, this invention provides a system for the provision and distribution of information in coded form, in which: successive blocks of the information are pseudo-randomly scanned, the actual pseudorandom scanning sequence being changed from block to block according to a predetermined but "secret" key, the output from the scanning process constituting the information in coded form; and the thus-coded information is then distributed in a form which does not include any details which fully define the key, the required keydefining details being themselves distributed separately and independently.

Though naturally this system may be used with any sort of information which is either in, or can be put into, block form (by "in block form" is meant simply in the form of a largish number of basic data elements, like a line or page of print or typing, or a picture) it is particularly applicable to information which takes the form of a sequence of pictures as, for example, produced by a cinematograph film or a conventional television system.

The particular technique used to effect the p-rs can be any such available technique. Depending upon the exact form of the data, however, preferred p-rs techniques involve the use of a hardware approach employing conventional multi-stage feedback shift registers to construct an apparently random sequence of all the numbers between given minimum and maximum numbers; this sequence can be employed to direct the selection of which data element-for example, pixels-to read/write at any given time.

The number of each of these numbers should be at least equal to a large proportion-say, a quarter-of the number of data elements in each information block, and is preferably equal to or larger than the number of data elements.

Naturally, the number of possible basic sequences is enormous, being limited only by the number of ways of interconnecting the various active elements in the shift register, while in addition every sequence can be initiated at any chosen point in that sequence, so forming a "sub" sequence at first sight quite different to the basic sequence. The generation of pseudo-random number sequences is fully described in Rabiner and Gold, Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing (Prentice Hall).

Similarly, any of the enormous number of possible p-rs sequences can be used, though again a preference for certain types may exist depending upon the form of the data (for example, to avoid "flicker" problems with pictures it is desirable that the p-rs sequence be "uniform" at least over the centre of the field of the scan, and therefore it may be preferred in such cases to use a p-rs sequence which is constrained to repeat a portion of the sequence covering the centre field).

In the system of the invention the p-rs sequence used is changed "from block to block".

It should here be pointed out that a block does not necessarily have to correspond to any single naturally-occurring piece of information (as a single picture) but may instead correspond to groups of such items (as several pictures) or even parts or fractions thereof (as half a picture, or a picture-and-ahalf). Moreover, no one block need be the same "size" as any other block (specifically, as its two neighbouring blocks).

Thus, for instance, a first block might constitute a single picture, whilst the second and third blocks constitute four and two pictures respectively.

Accordingly, it will be understood that the expression "block" is arbitrary as regards its relation to the information it contains; the method of the invention merely requires that the p-rs sequence used change-and change reasonably often-as the coding process progresses. In fact, of course, for most purposes the blocks will correspond to natural information items (single pictures, say), though in a practical situation it can be arranged that the actual changeover from one p-rs sequence to another is purely timedependant (so that the block size may become quite arbitrary).

The frequency with which the p-rs sequence changes is conveniently such that each block is a very small proportion-a thousandth, or a millionth-of the whole. This cleariy renders the; encoded information much more difficult to decode without the key. However, this does not necessitate the use of a comparable number (a thousand, or a million) p-rs sequences; indeed, such complexity might make the coding key impossibly long. Instead, it is envisaged that the number of p-rs sequences used in any one coding operation would be low (a hundred, say), but that they would be repeated-possibly in a second pseudo-random sequence-and that the key would identify not only which p-rs sequences were to be used but also in what order and reorder they were to be used.

Prior to distribution of the information within each block coded in accordance with the system of the invention there is most conveniently impressed upon that information additional, control, data identifying various features thereof.

Specifically, for example, each block is preceded by data indicating a) the start of the block (mainly for synchronisation purposes), and b) the position of that block in the current sequence of blocks (for the purpose of selecting the correct p-rs decoding sequence for that block). Similarly, each block is terminated by an end-of-block signal (again, mainly for synchronisation purposes, though it could also include a check portion relating to the detection and correction of errors in the data in the block). Between blocks there can either be an actual gap-an absence of any data transmission-or a "null code" indicating that there is a gap in the information.

The key required for the system of the invention primarily identifies the p-rs sequences used for the actual coding stage, and so to be used for the decoding, and in a preferred method (in which the actual p-rs sequences repeat themselves) it also identifies the series of p-rs sequences presently in use. It should perhaps here be emphasised that the key is distributed separately and independently of the encoded information (and any control data impressed thereon).

As will be appreciated, the format of the key may be of any suitable type, but preferably the key will itself consist of a series of data elements divided up into segments ("fields") each of which identifies a particular feature enabling the correct p-rs sequence to be employed. For example, one field could identify the equipment for which the key is effective (with specific reference to the available p-rs sequences), another field could identify the particular entry in a table defining a particular set of particular p-rs sequences among the available sets of sequences, while yet another field could identify the starting point to be used with the chosen p-rs sequences.A further field could be used as a check on consistency (as between the key, the control logic equipment, and the information product), while another field could be a validation check on the value of the key itself.

Naturally, the actual nature of the key-for example, whether it is wholely numerical or perhaps alphanumerical, the number of fields it contains, and the order and size of those fields may be any that is appropriate.

It will be seen that one aspect of the invention is an information coding, distribution and decoding system wherein: For Coding and Distribution a) the information is divided into a series of blocks, and the information in each block is coded using pseudo-random scanning techniques, the actual pseudo-random scan sequence being predetermined, and being changed from block to block in a predetermined (possibly pseudorandom) manner, b) the information in each coded block is preceded and followed by extra data portions identifying the start and end of that block, and the position of the block within the series of blocks, c) the actual pseudo-random scan sequence for each block, and the series of such sequences, is each identified by a segment of an encoding key, which key is separate from the encoded information and its associated extra data portions, and d) the encoded information, together with the extra data portions, is distributed separately and independently of the related key; and For Decoding e) from each extra data portion there is obtained the start time for the block, coupled with a positional factor relevant to that block, f) using that factor there are selected from the pseudo-random scan sequences located by the key the particular pseudo-random scan sequence(s) relevant to that block, and g) using the appropriate pseudo-random scan sequences each coded information block is then decoded using pseudo-random scanning techniques, and presented in succession to give the desired information in plain form.

The system of the invention is applicable to information recorded in anyway whatsoever-for example, as electronic pulses in a microprocessor read-only-memory (ROM), as magnetic pulses on a magnetic tape, as optical pulses on a film strip, or as mechanical pulses on a gramaphone record.

However, it is seen as being of particular value in connection with the prevention of the unauthorised reproduction of copyright material in that form of magnetic pulses on a magnetic tape known as a videotape recording. Thus, in a more limited aspect the invention provides a system enabling the recordal and playback of information so as to prevent or hinder the unauthorised reproduction of that information by playing back the formed record, in which system:: a) the information is arbitrarily divided into a series of blocks each of which contains a portion of the information as an ordered sequence of information elements; b) the sequence of each block is then sampled, using pseudo-random scanning techniques, to produce a second sequence in which the information elements are now in an apparently random but nevertheless predetermined, known order;; c) the second, random sequence is then recorded, a note being made of the actual random sequence so that the playback apparatus may be suitably programmed to reproduce that random sequence when playing back that block, this recordal stage being effected for each block random sequence in turn so as to provide a recording of the entire series of blocks, the series of such notes for the series of random sequences (no two successive blocks of which are random in the same identical way) for the series of blocks constituting a quite separate "key" (or part of a key) whereby the playback apparatus may be programmed for the entire series of blocks; and d) upon playback of the formed record using the appropriate apparatus the information in its original ordered sequence can only be obtained by first using the separate key to programme the apparatus to read the recorded information elements for each information block in the correct random sequence for that block.

Such a system might be of value in the following scheme for the sale/rent of videotape recordings.

Firstly, the potential law-abiding customer acquires a television set and video tape playback apparatus capable of using p-rs techniques.

Secondly, the customer buys (or rents) the required videotape (which has been recorded in accordance with the inventive system), together with an appropriate "ticket" enabling him to obtain the coding key for that particular videotape recording. Thirdly, using his "ticket" as proof of entitlement the customer acquires-from a separate source-the coding key specific to his videotape recording. Fourthly, the customer uses the coding key to adjust his equipment to scan in the p-rs sequences specific to his particular videotape recording.

Certain embodiments of the invention will now be described, though only by way of illustration, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which: Figure 1 shows in schematic form an overall representation of a simplified coding/decoding system of the invention as applied to videotape recordings; Figure 2 shows diagrammatically a length of videotape, visuallizing the data carried thereby, for use in the system of Figure 1; Figure 3 is a pictorial representation of an encoding/decoding key for use in the system of Figure 1; Figure 4 is a schematic block diagram of a key control logic arrangement for use in the system of Figure 1; Figure 5 is a schematic block diagram of a tape recording stage for use in the system of Figure 1; and Figure 6 is a schematic block diagram of a tape playback stage for use in the system of Figure 1.

The system of the invention when used in connection with videotape recording operates overall in the manner shown (in simplified form) in Figure 1. A TV camera views the chosen scene and provides a conventional raster output. This output is fed to an encoder which uses p-rs techniques to convert its original raster input to a "random" output according to its programmed instructions. The output is recorded, and the programme of coding instructions is separately available in the form of a key which can subsequently be used for decoding the "Random" Output.

The tape record of the "randomised" picture is sold to the customer, who separately obtains the key (which very possibly is unique to that actual tape), and plays the tape back through his decoder after programming it with the key.

The playback apparatus provides a "random" output which is fed to the decoder. The decoder (here shown as a separate item, though it may be preferable to build it into-and as an integral part of-the television set), which is loaded with various p-rs sequence sets amongst which is the relevant one, uses the key to select the correct prs sequence for each information block, and provides as its output a decoded, raster-type signal which can be fed directly into a conventional TV receiver to produce an image of the original chosen scene.

The length of videotape shown in Figure 2 bears information which can be visuallized in the manner pictured. The tape travels from right to left. and so is read from left to right. After the left hand information block there is a gap-a length of tape bearing no signal whatsoever-followed by the next block. This block (and all of the blocks) comprises five distinct groups of data. First, there is a "start of block" data element, this ensures that the decoder is set up to use a whole new p-rs sequence. Second, there is a "block position identifier" data element; this gives the position of the block in the series of blocks, and is used by the decoder, in conjunction with the key, to select the correct decoding p-rs sequence(s) for that particular block.Third, there is the information being replayed-in this case data concerning the pixels into which the original raster image was divided-in a pseudo-random order Fourth, there is a "check" element; this is used to detect and correct errors in the block. Last, there is the "end of block" element; this signals the end of that part of the playback operation, and readies the equipment for a new block. This "end of block" element is followed by a gap, and then by the next block.

In Figure 3 there is shown a pictorial representation of an alphanumeric coding/decoding key. The key is shown divided into five fields; these determine, respectively, the set of p-rs sequences used (Al 2), the start point taken for each p-rs sequence (B34), the equipment status on which this key is effective (C56), the consistency between key, control logic and information product (D78), and a pair of check digits for validation of those in the previous fields.

Figure 4 shows in schematic block diagram form a key control logic layout for pseudo-random number generation.

The key is input and the key data is checked for validity; if correct, this key data is used in the pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) control logic to access preset data which defines the ordering of the or each pseudo-random number sequence, the sequence and the starting point for potential keys. For each pseudo-random number sequence the PRNG control logic configures the multi-stage shift register to generate the correct sequence by switching the feedback paths between the shift register stages. The PRNG control logic loads the multi-stage shift register to the desired starting value in the pseudo-random number sequence as defined by the starting point data by setting appropriate bits in each stage of the shift register. The multi-stage shift register is now ready to generate a pseudo-random number sequence, and a new pseudo-random number is generated with each clock signal.

The data defining the ordering of the pseudorandom number sequences is used in the PRNG control logic to reconfigure the multi-stage shift register when the limit to the current sequence is reached. For convenience, more than one reconfigurable multi-stage shift register may be used, so that the PRNG control logic could set up the subsequent PRNG(s) whilst using the current PRNG for the generation of a sequence of pseudorandom numbers which define the location of the pixel to be used.

The block diagram of Figure 5 represents a tape recording stage in the inventive system.

The key is decided in advance, and input to the recording control logic. The total control logic at this stage is more complex than that described for generating pseudo-random sequences from the key in the key control logic and is an integrai part of the recording mechanism. A common- master-clock is used to derive the necessary clock signals for the imaging system, the control logic and the recording mechanism (if separate).

The imaging system produces a picture image which is stored in pixel cellular structure in the picture store using established picture scan, sampling and storage techniques. Once the picture store is initially filled a start signal is returned to the control logic, which generates a number of signals-viz, a consistency check derived from the key, the location of the pixel to be accessed, and a block start code to the recording device. The recording device incorporates a data buffer (or buffers) to assist in the appropriate formatting of pixel data into blocks. Thereafter each clock signal causes the prs pixel location to be generated, the contents of that location being transferred to the recording device. As each block of data is completed it is recorded in a format similar to that in Figure 2.

There will be a maximum length to a block, and the check digits are automatically added to incorporate some degree of error recovery. A new block will always be started every time the p-rs in use is changed even if the maximum length has not been reached, and each block carries its own identifier or block number. This identifier is automatically generated by the control logic within the recording device or the key control logic.

The recording device produces the equivalent of the videotape recording, and this product now has to be reconstructed to be viewed. This is effected using a replay and view stage as shown in Figure 6.

The playback apparatus per se is a comparatively simple mechanism capable of reading the videotape recording and transferring the read serial data to the viewing apparatus at a rate consistent with the latter's ability to present it.

Prior to replaying a tape, the key is input to the viewing apparatus where the latter's key control logic checks the key for consistency, then, when the product is being replayed, also checks the serial data for consistency-so there is a series of cross checks throughout. The viewing apparatus has very complex logic in addition to the key control logic. Probably the most significant feature is the clock. This operates at a nominal frequency, but is synchronised to the replay data rate. As the data is being received from the playback apparatus the control logic uses the block number to compare that the correct p-rs setting is in use, and with subsequent pixel data locates each data item, at the location derived by the key control logic, in the picture store.This store is then raster-scanned in the conventional manner to produce the viewabie image.

The viewing apparatus itself processes the serial data stream from the playback apparatus, removing the "start of block" and "block terminator" features, etc., and checking the block data against the check digits. Simple errors are recoverable by use of a data buffer and error correction codes. Complex errors are less likely, and will normally be ignored on a single block basis: continuing errors are obviously a sign of some fault in the equipment. So that complex errors can be tolerated the block sequence identifier is necessary. This enables the key control logic directly to relate to the p-rs sequence in use for each block by computation from the key (the 'synchronisation' referred to earlier).Starting and stopping in replay is achievable, as is running at a slower speed, which slows the clock; for each element of pixel data in each block the key control logic can compute the correct location for it to be stored in the picture store. "Freeze Frame" is simply no update to the picture store, so a constant viewable image can be maintained.

In a cable television type of application the block sequence identifier enables the receiver to join the system at any time. In this case there would be no key/product consistency check unless each block included an identifier for checking. In a practical system there might have to be a minor delay until a new p-rs sequence came into use, and thus the viewer might miss a few moments of viewable data. Again, the block identifier could include a feature to indicate that for this block a new p-rs sequence is to be used, rather than a continuation of a previous one where it might not be possible to determine how many stages it should have clocked through and thus where in the p-rs sequence the locations are.

Claims (11)

Claims
1. A system for the provision and distribution of information in coded form, in which: successive blocks of the information are pseudo-randomly scanned, the actual pseudo random scanning sequence being changed from block to block according to a predetermined but "secret" key, the output from the scanning process constituting the information in coded form; and the thus-coded information is then distributed in a form which does not include any details which fully define the key, the required keydefining details being themselves distributed separately and independently.
2. A system as claimed in claim 1, applied to information which takes the form of a sequence of pictures.
3. A system as claimed in either of the preceding claims, in which the technique used to effect the p-rs involves the use of a hardware approach employing conventional multi-stage feedback shift registers to construct an apparently random sequence of all the numbers between given minimum and maximum numbers.
4. A system as claimed in any of the preceding claims, in which the number of each of the random numbers in any one sequence of random numbers is equal to or larger than the number of data elements in the block to which that sequence is applied.
5. A system as claimed in any of the preceding claims, in which the p-rs sequences used with picture data are "uniform" at least over the centre of the field of the scan.
6. A system as claimed in any of the preceding claims, in which the number of p-rs sequences used in any one coding operation is low, but they are repeated, the key also identifying in what order the re-order the sequences are to be used.
7. A system as claimed in any of the preceding claims, in which, prior to distribution of the information within each block coded in accordance with the method, there is impressed upon that information additional, control, data indicating a) the start of the block, b) the position of that block in the current sequence of blocks, and c) and end-of-block signal.
8. A system as claimed in any of the preceding claims, in which the key itself consists of a series of data elements divided up into segments each of which identifies a particular feature enabling the correct p-rs equence to be employed.
9. A system of coding information as claimed in any of the preceding claims and substantially as described hereinbefore.
10. An information coding, distribution and decoding system wherein: For Coding and Distribution a) the information is divided into a series of blocks, and the information in each block is coded using pseudo-random scanning techniques, the actual pseudo-random scan sequence being predetermined, and being changed from block to block in a predetermined (possibly pseudorandom) manner, b) the information in each coded block is preceded and followed by extra data portions identifying the start and end of that block, and the position of the block within the series of blocks, c) the actual pseudo-random scan sequence for each block, and the series of such sequences, is each identified by a segment of an encoding key, which key is separate from the encoded information and its associated extra data portions, and d) the encoded information, together with the extra data portions, is distributed separately and independently of the related key; and For Decoding e) from each extra data portion there is obtained the start time for the block, coupled with a positional factor relevant to that block, f) using that factor there are selected from the pseudo-random scan sequences located by the key the particular pseudo-random scan sequence(s) relevant to that block, and g) using the appropriate pseudo-random scan sequences each coded inforation block is then decoded using pseudo-random scanning techniques, and presented in succession to give the desired information in plain form.
11. A system as claimed in claim 10 which is for the recordal and playback of information so as to prevent or hinder the unauthorised reproduction of that information by playing back the formed record, in which system: a) the information is arbitrarily divided into a series of blocks each of which contains a portion of the information as an ordered sequence of information elements; b) the sequence of each block is then sampled, using pseudo-random scanning techniques, to produce a second sequence in which the information elements are now in an apparently random but nevertheless predetermined, known order;; c) the second, random, sequence is then recorded, a note being made of the actual random sequence so that the playback apparatus may be suitably programmed to reproduce that random sequence when playing back that block, this recordal stage being effected for each block random sequence in turn so as to provide a recording of the entire series of blocks, the series of such notes for the series of random sequences (no two successive blocks of which are random in the same identical way) for the series of blocks constituting a quite separate "key" (or part of a key) whereby the playback apparatus may be programmed for the entire series of blocks; and d) upon playback of the formed record using the appropriate apparatus the information in its original ordered sequence can only be obtained by first using the separate key to programme the apparatus to read the recorded information elements of each information block in the correct random sequence for that block.
1 2. An information coding distribution and decoding system as claimed in either of claims 10 and 11 and substantially as described hereinbefore.
GB8039388A 1980-01-19 1980-12-09 Information Encoding Systems Withdrawn GB2067871A (en)

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GB8001832 1980-01-19
GB8039388A GB2067871A (en) 1980-01-19 1980-12-09 Information Encoding Systems

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Cited By (63)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0074810A2 (en) * 1981-09-10 1983-03-23 Sony Corporation Subscription television system
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US6560349B1 (en) 1994-10-21 2003-05-06 Digimarc Corporation Audio monitoring using steganographic information
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US6788800B1 (en) 2000-07-25 2004-09-07 Digimarc Corporation Authenticating objects using embedded data
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US6804376B2 (en) 1998-01-20 2004-10-12 Digimarc Corporation Equipment employing watermark-based authentication function
US6829368B2 (en) 2000-01-26 2004-12-07 Digimarc Corporation Establishing and interacting with on-line media collections using identifiers in media signals
US7694887B2 (en) 2001-12-24 2010-04-13 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Optically variable personalized indicia for identification documents
US7712673B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2010-05-11 L-L Secure Credentialing, Inc. Identification document with three dimensional image of bearer
US7728048B2 (en) 2002-12-20 2010-06-01 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Increasing thermal conductivity of host polymer used with laser engraving methods and compositions
US7744002B2 (en) 2004-03-11 2010-06-29 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Tamper evident adhesive and identification document including same
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US7773770B2 (en) 1999-12-28 2010-08-10 Digimarc Corporation Substituting or replacing components in media objects based on steganographic encoding
US7789311B2 (en) 2003-04-16 2010-09-07 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Three dimensional data storage
US7793846B2 (en) 2001-12-24 2010-09-14 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Systems, compositions, and methods for full color laser engraving of ID documents
US7798413B2 (en) 2001-12-24 2010-09-21 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Covert variable information on ID documents and methods of making same
US7804982B2 (en) 2002-11-26 2010-09-28 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Systems and methods for managing and detecting fraud in image databases used with identification documents
US7824029B2 (en) 2002-05-10 2010-11-02 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Identification card printer-assembler for over the counter card issuing
US7961949B2 (en) 1995-05-08 2011-06-14 Digimarc Corporation Extracting multiple identifiers from audio and video content

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EP0074810A2 (en) * 1981-09-10 1983-03-23 Sony Corporation Subscription television system
EP0074810A3 (en) * 1981-09-10 1984-06-27 Sony Corporation Subscription television system
US4821321A (en) * 1981-12-31 1989-04-11 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Automatic secure transmission and reception of pictorial information
EP0116082A1 (en) * 1982-07-29 1984-08-22 Telease Inc Secure coding and decoding system and method for television program signals.
EP0116082A4 (en) * 1982-07-29 1987-03-12 Telease Inc Secure coding and decoding system and method for television program signals.
EP0107567A1 (en) * 1982-10-08 1984-05-02 Thomson-Csf Method of protecting a video picture sequence against fraudulent use, and devices for carrying out this method
FR2534433A1 (en) * 1982-10-08 1984-04-13 Thomson Csf A method of protecting a sequence of video images against fraudulent use and devices for implementing such process
GB2132860A (en) * 1982-12-21 1984-07-11 British Broadcasting Corp Conditional-access broadcast transmission
EP0119081A2 (en) * 1983-03-09 1984-09-19 Sony Corporation Apparatus for viewing scrambled or unscrambled TV signals
EP0119081A3 (en) * 1983-03-09 1986-01-22 Sony Corporation Apparatus for viewing scrambled or unscrambled tv signals
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GB2151886A (en) * 1983-12-21 1985-07-24 British Broadcasting Corp Conditional-access broadcast transmission
GB2237711A (en) * 1989-07-31 1991-05-08 Rank Brimar Ltd Security of video monitors.
EP0571753A3 (en) * 1992-04-17 1994-09-14 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Video recorder
EP0571753A2 (en) * 1992-04-17 1993-12-01 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Video recorder
US5455860A (en) * 1992-04-17 1995-10-03 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Scramble codec
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EP0589459A1 (en) * 1992-09-24 1994-03-30 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Recording and reproducing apparatus
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US5832119A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-11-03 Digimarc Corporation Methods for controlling systems using control signals embedded in empirical data
US5841978A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-11-24 Digimarc Corporation Network linking method using steganographically embedded data objects
US5841886A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-11-24 Digimarc Corporation Security system for photographic identification
US5745604A (en) 1993-11-18 1998-04-28 Digimarc Corporation Identification/authentication system using robust, distributed coding
US5862260A (en) 1993-11-18 1999-01-19 Digimarc Corporation Methods for surveying dissemination of proprietary empirical data
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US6590998B2 (en) 1993-11-18 2003-07-08 Digimarc Corporation Network linking method using information embedded in data objects that have inherent noise
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US6580819B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2003-06-17 Digimarc Corporation Methods of producing security documents having digitally encoded data and documents employing same
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US6700990B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2004-03-02 Digimarc Corporation Digital watermark decoding method
US6363159B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2002-03-26 Digimarc Corporation Consumer audio appliance responsive to watermark data
US6567533B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2003-05-20 Digimarc Corporation Method and apparatus for discerning image distortion by reference to encoded marker signals
US6430302B2 (en) 1993-11-18 2002-08-06 Digimarc Corporation Steganographically encoding a first image in accordance with a second image
US6404898B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2002-06-11 Digimarc Corporation Method and system for encoding image and audio content
US6542620B1 (en) 1993-11-18 2003-04-01 Digimarc Corporation Signal processing to hide plural-bit information in image, video, and audio data
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US7970167B2 (en) 1995-05-08 2011-06-28 Digimarc Corporation Deriving identifying data from video and audio
US6760463B2 (en) 1995-05-08 2004-07-06 Digimarc Corporation Watermarking methods and media
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US5636292A (en) 1995-05-08 1997-06-03 Digimarc Corporation Steganography methods employing embedded calibration data
US6721440B2 (en) 1995-05-08 2004-04-13 Digimarc Corporation Low visibility watermarks using an out-of-phase color
US6718047B2 (en) 1995-05-08 2004-04-06 Digimarc Corporation Watermark embedder and reader
US5710834A (en) 1995-05-08 1998-01-20 Digimarc Corporation Method and apparatus responsive to a code signal conveyed through a graphic image
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US6122403A (en) 1995-07-27 2000-09-19 Digimarc Corporation Computer system linked by using information in data objects
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US6775392B1 (en) 1995-07-27 2004-08-10 Digimarc Corporation Computer system linked by using information in data objects
US6411725B1 (en) 1995-07-27 2002-06-25 Digimarc Corporation Watermark enabled video objects
US6408082B1 (en) 1996-04-25 2002-06-18 Digimarc Corporation Watermark detection using a fourier mellin transform
US6751320B2 (en) 1996-04-25 2004-06-15 Digimarc Corporation Method and system for preventing reproduction of professional photographs
US5822436A (en) 1996-04-25 1998-10-13 Digimarc Corporation Photographic products and methods employing embedded information
US6424725B1 (en) 1996-05-16 2002-07-23 Digimarc Corporation Determining transformations of media signals with embedded code signals
US6381341B1 (en) 1996-05-16 2002-04-30 Digimarc Corporation Watermark encoding method exploiting biases inherent in original signal
GB2317796B (en) * 1996-09-26 2001-10-17 Sony Comp Entertainment Uk Ltd Digital information display apparatus and methods
GB2317796A (en) * 1996-09-26 1998-04-01 Sony Electronic Publishing Ltd Digital information display eg for video games
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US6804376B2 (en) 1998-01-20 2004-10-12 Digimarc Corporation Equipment employing watermark-based authentication function
US6694042B2 (en) 1999-06-29 2004-02-17 Digimarc Corporation Methods for determining contents of media
US7773770B2 (en) 1999-12-28 2010-08-10 Digimarc Corporation Substituting or replacing components in media objects based on steganographic encoding
US6829368B2 (en) 2000-01-26 2004-12-07 Digimarc Corporation Establishing and interacting with on-line media collections using identifiers in media signals
US6625297B1 (en) 2000-02-10 2003-09-23 Digimarc Corporation Self-orienting watermarks
US6768809B2 (en) 2000-02-14 2004-07-27 Digimarc Corporation Digital watermark screening and detection strategies
US6804377B2 (en) 2000-04-19 2004-10-12 Digimarc Corporation Detecting information hidden out-of-phase in color channels
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US8025239B2 (en) 2001-12-18 2011-09-27 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Multiple image security features for identification documents and methods of making same
US7744001B2 (en) 2001-12-18 2010-06-29 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Multiple image security features for identification documents and methods of making same
US7793846B2 (en) 2001-12-24 2010-09-14 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Systems, compositions, and methods for full color laser engraving of ID documents
US7694887B2 (en) 2001-12-24 2010-04-13 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Optically variable personalized indicia for identification documents
US7980596B2 (en) 2001-12-24 2011-07-19 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Increasing thermal conductivity of host polymer used with laser engraving methods and compositions
US7798413B2 (en) 2001-12-24 2010-09-21 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Covert variable information on ID documents and methods of making same
US7824029B2 (en) 2002-05-10 2010-11-02 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Identification card printer-assembler for over the counter card issuing
US7804982B2 (en) 2002-11-26 2010-09-28 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Systems and methods for managing and detecting fraud in image databases used with identification documents
US7712673B2 (en) 2002-12-18 2010-05-11 L-L Secure Credentialing, Inc. Identification document with three dimensional image of bearer
US7728048B2 (en) 2002-12-20 2010-06-01 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Increasing thermal conductivity of host polymer used with laser engraving methods and compositions
US7789311B2 (en) 2003-04-16 2010-09-07 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Three dimensional data storage
US7963449B2 (en) 2004-03-11 2011-06-21 L-1 Secure Credentialing Tamper evident adhesive and identification document including same
US7744002B2 (en) 2004-03-11 2010-06-29 L-1 Secure Credentialing, Inc. Tamper evident adhesive and identification document including same

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