GB1583397A - Apparatus for disintegration of concretions in the urinary tract - Google Patents

Apparatus for disintegration of concretions in the urinary tract Download PDF

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Publication number
GB1583397A
GB1583397A GB4343277A GB4343277A GB1583397A GB 1583397 A GB1583397 A GB 1583397A GB 4343277 A GB4343277 A GB 4343277A GB 4343277 A GB4343277 A GB 4343277A GB 1583397 A GB1583397 A GB 1583397A
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GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
discharger
apparatus
axis
concretion
conducting layer
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB4343277A
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
PEREKHREST VA
VASILEVSKY P N PARFINENKO IV
Original Assignee
Perekhrest V A
Vasilevsky P N Parfinenko I V
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Perekhrest V A, Vasilevsky P N Parfinenko I V filed Critical Perekhrest V A
Priority to GB4343277A priority Critical patent/GB1583397A/en
Publication of GB1583397A publication Critical patent/GB1583397A/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/22Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for
    • A61B17/22004Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for using mechanical vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic shock waves
    • A61B17/22012Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for using mechanical vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic shock waves in direct contact with, or very close to, the obstruction or concrement
    • A61B17/22022Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for using mechanical vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic shock waves in direct contact with, or very close to, the obstruction or concrement using electric discharge

Description

(54) APPARATUS FOR DISINTEGRATION OF CONCRETIONS IN THE URINARY TRACT (71) We, PETR NIKOLAEVICH VAS ILEVSKY, of bulvar Druzhby Naradov 8, kv.27, Kiev, USSR, IVAN VASILIEVICH PARFINENKO of ulitsa Kochubeevskaya 13, kv 1, Kiev, USSR, and VASILY ALEXAN DROVICH PEREKHREST, of bulvar Ivana Lepse 47/15, kv 21, Kieve, USSR all Russian subjects do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement: The present invention relates to apparatus for disintegrating urinary calculi, and more particularly to apparatus for the electrohydraulic disintegration of concretions in the urinary tract and usable for the internal treatment of urolithiasis without open surgery.

Hereinafter the term "concretions" is applied to compact solid precipitations in the urinary tract, such as calcereous or alkaline stones, and the term "apparatus for the electrohydraulic disintegration of concretions" is applied to apparatus having a discharge adapted to create a blast wave in a workmg fluid in the urinary tract at the moment of the breakdown of the electrical discharge gap, said blast wave acting upon the concretion.

The principal object of the present invention is to provide apparatus for the electrohydraulic disintegration of concretions, in which the discharger is of small diameter while providing an electrohydraulic impact sufficiently powerful to crush the concretion.

Another object of the invention is to enable use of electrohydraulic impact in the treatment of children less than 13 years old for urolithiasis.

Yet another object of the invention is to enable use of the electrohydraulic disintegrating instrument for crushing concretions in patients having a narrow urethra or ureter.

Still another object of the invention is to increase the reliability of the apparatus and to minimize the possibility of burnout of the discharger conductors.

A further object of the invention is to increase the safety of the apparatus for electrohydraulic disintegration of concretions.

Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for the electrohydraulic disintegration of concretions, in use of which the hydraulic blast wave has a narrow front.

An additional object of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the electrohydraulic disintegration of concretions having hollows, holes and depressions into which the discharger can be inserted.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide for the electrohydraulic disintegration of concretions in cases where the discharger can be brought up to the concretion only at an angle because of a bend or a narrow passage in the ureter.

These objects are attained according to the present invention by providing an apparatus for disintegrating concretions in the urinary tract by electrohydraulic impact, comprising a flexible coaxial cable connectible to an electrical pulse generator and having a central conductor, an inner insulating sheath on the central conductor, a conducting layer on the inner sheath and an outer insulating sheath on the conducting layer, and a conducting sleeve extending between end portions of the inner and outer sheaths and electrically connected to the conducting layer so that the sleeve and the adjacent end portion of the conductor respectively form outer and inner electrodes of a discharger for insertion in the urinary tract, the outer end faces of the electrodes being spaced from each other in the direction of the axis of the discharger and the inner sheath having a generally conical end face extending between the end faces of the electrodes to leave a discharge gap between the electrodes.

The most important advantages of the present invention over the prior art resides in that with a small diameter of the discharger and cable, the proposed apparatus has a discharge gap of the same size as in conventional apparatus, while the discharger is supplied with sufficiently strong electric pulses. Owing to this advantage, the proposed apparatus can be successfully used in treating for urolithiasis children and patients who have a narrow urethra or ureter.

It is preferable that the conducting layer of the coaxial flexible cable be made of helically wound metal foil which together with the conducting sleeve of the discharger is covered by the outer insulating sheath.

In one embodiment of the invention the central conductor of the flexible cable is shorter than the conducting layer of the cable plus the outer electrode of the discharger, the end face of the inner sheath forming a regular frusto-conical recess whose axis coincides with that of the discharger. Such an embodiment makes it possible to form a narrow-fronted hydraulic blast wave with a discharger of reduced diameter.

In another embodiment of the invention the central conductor of the flexible cable is longer than the conducting layer plus the outer electrode of the discharger, the end face of the inner sheath forming a regular frusto-conical protusion whose axis coincides with that of the discharger. Such an embodiment of the apparatus renders possible the efficient crushing of concretions having hollows and holes into which the discharger can be inserted.

In yet another embodiment of the invention the central conductor is longer than the conducting layer of said cable plus the outer electrode of the discharger, the axis of the conical end face of the inner sheath being oriented at an angle to said axis of said discharger to form a discharge gap along that generatrix at the conical surface which is of the shortest length. Such an embodiment of the apparatus can be advantageously used for crushing concretions in cases where the discharger can be inserted into the ureter only obliquely because of a bend or a narrow passage therein.

These objects and advantages of the present invention will become more obvious from the following description of preferred embodiments thereof, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a fragmentary general view of apparatus for disintegrating concretions in the urinary tract; Fig. 2 shows apparatus wherein the central conductor of the coaxial cable is shorter than the outer conductor plus the outer electrode of the discharger, for the purpose of forming a narrow-fronted hydraulic blast wave; Fig. 3 shows apparatus according to the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 2 inserted into the ureter for crushing a concretion; Fig. 4 shows apparatus as in Fig. 1 wherein the central conductor of the flexible cable is longer than the outer conductor plus the outer electrode of the discharger; Fig. 5 shows diagrammatically the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 4 being inserted into a hole in a concretion prior to the application of an electric pulse; Fig. 6 illustrates diagrammatically a concretion with a hole or depression being disintegrated by the apparatus according to Fig. 4; Fig. 7 illustrates apparatus wherein the discharge gap is formed on one side of the discharger to provide for an hydraulic blast wave-front directed to one side; Fig. 8 illustrates the discharger and cable according to the embodiment of Fig. 7 inserted into a curved ureter to crush a concretion.

Referring to the drawings: The apparatus for disintegration of concretions in the urinary tract comprises a discharger 1 connected through a flexible cable 2 to an electric pulse generator 3, as is illustrated in Fig. 1. The discharger 1 is provided with an outer electrode 4 shaped as a hollow cylindrical sleeve and with a central electrode 5 in the form of a wire portion coaxially placed within the outer electrode 4. End faces 6 and 7 of the electrodes 4 and 5 are displaced with respect to each other along the axis of the discharge 1.

Used as the flexible cable 2 is a coaxial cable having a conducting layer 8 with a central conductor 9 in the form of a wire coaxially arranged therein. The central conductor 9 is longer than the layer 8, and its outer end portion serves as the central electrode 5 of the discharger 1. The space between the layer 8 and the central conductor 9 is filled by an inner sheath of electrically insulating material 10. Therewith the sheath 10 also has an end face 13 disposed between the end face 6 of the outer electrode 4 and the end face 7 of the central electrode 5 of the discharger 1, so that a discharge gap is formed only between said end faces 6 and 7.

The layer 8 is formed by a helically wound metal foil 11 and together with the outer electrode 4 is covered with an outer insulating sheath 12 omitted from Fig. 1 but illustrated in Fig. 2.

As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the end surface 13 of the inner sheath of electrically insulating material 10 is disposed between the end faces 6 and 7 and is of generally conical form.

In Fig. 1 the face 13 is that of a frustoconical protrusion, while in Fig. 2 the face 13 is that of a frusto-conical recess.

As illustrated in Fig. 2, the central conductor 9 of the flexible cable 2 is made shorter than the layer 8 plus the outer electrode 4. The end surface 13 of the electrically insulating inner sheath 10 is disposed between the end faces 6 and 7 of the electrodes 5 and 4 and forms a regular frusto-conical recess whose axis 14 coincides with the axis of the discharger 1.

Upon energizing such a discharger, there takes place a breakdown of the discharge gap between the end faces 6 and 7, resulting in the formation of a hydraulic blast wave in the working fluid which has been injected in advance into the ureter. The blast wave has a narrow front 15 shown by dot and dash lines. The above discharger 1 is introduced into the ureter 16 by means of a catheter 23 and a cystoscope 17 (Fig. 3) through the urethra 18 and the cavity 19 of the bladder 20. During disintegration of a concretion 21, the power of the electrohydraulic impact is consumed mainly in crushing the concretion 21 and does not substantially affect the walls of the ureter 16, thereby considerably improving the safety in use of the apparatus.

Reference is now made to Fig. 4 which shows another embodiment of the apparatus. According to this embodiment of the invention the central conductor 9 of the flexible cable 2 is longer than the conducting layer 8 plus the outer electrode 4. The end surface 13 of the electrically insulating layer 10 extends between the end faces 6 and 7 of the electrodes and forms a regular frustoconical protrusion whose axis 14 coincides with the axis of the discharger 1. It is good practice to use this embodiment in crushing concretions 22 which have therein holes, depressions or hollows, as is illustrated in Fig. 5. Through a catheter 23, the discharger is inserted into the hollow of the concretion which is fragmented by a hydraulic blast wave occurring as the result of the breakdown of the discharge gap, said blast wave having a sidewise-directed front, as is illustrated in Fig. 6.

Turning now to Fig. 7, an embodiment of the apparatus is shown wherein the discharger 1 can only be brought obliquely to the concretion to be crushed. In this embodiment the discharger 1 and cable 2 are made so that the central conductor 9 is longer than the conducting layer 8 plus the outer electrode 4, and the axis 14 of the conical end surface 13 of the electrically insulating inner sheath 10 forms an angle with the axis 24 of the discharger 1. In this case, the discharge gap is formed along that generatrix of the conical surface 13 which corresponds to the shortest distance between the end faces of the electrodes of the discharger 1. As the breakdown of the discharge gap between the end faces of the electrodes takes place, there is formed a hydraulic blast wave whose front is directed at an angle to the axis of the discharger 1. In this embodiment the discharger is brought up to the concretion so that its discharge gap makes contact with the latter, as is illustrated in Fig. 8.

The apparatus operates as follows: A working fluid, such as water, is injected into the space near the concretion by means of a syringe or a catheter. The discharger 1 is inserte into the ureter 16 by means of the catheter 23 and cystoscope 17 inserted in advance into the urethra 18. By manipulating the flexible cable 2, the discharger 1 is brought up to the concretion. Thereafter, the discharge 1 is properly oriented, as described above, by means of an X-ray and T.V. set. The orientation of the discharger 1 is determined by the type and shape of concretions as well as by the profile of the urinary tract and the embodiment of the apparatus being used.

When switched on, the electric pulse generator actuates the discharger 1 to form a hydraulic blast wave which crushes the concretion.

The basic advantage of these embodiments of the present invention over the prior art resides in that, with a smaller diameter of the discharger and cable, the apparatus has a discharge gap of the same size as in conventional apparatus while the discharger is supplied with sufficiently strong electric pulses. Owing to this, the apparatus can be successfully used in treating for urolithiasis children and patients who have a narrow urethra or ureter.

WHAT WE CLAIM IS: 1. An apparatus for disintegrating concretions in the urinary tract by electrohydraulic impact, comprising a flexible coaxial cable connectible to an electrical pulse generator and having a central conductor, an inner insulating sheath on the central conductor, a conducting layer on the inner sheath and an outer insulating sheath on the conducting layer, and a conducting sleeve extending between end portions of the inner and outer sheaths and electrically connected to the conducting layer so that the sleeve and the adjacent end portion of the conductor respectively form outer and inner electrodes of a discharger for insertion in the urinary tract, the outer end faces of the electrodes being spaced from each other in the direction of the axis of the discharger and the inner sheath having a generally conical end face extending between the end faces of the electrodes to leave a discharge gap between the electrodes.

2. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the conducting layer of the coaxial flexible cable is helically wound metal foil which together with the conducting sleeve of the discharger is covered by the outer insulating sheath.

3. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the central conductor of the flexible cable is shorter than the conducting layer of the cable plus the outer electrode of the discharger, the end face of the inner sheath forming a regular frusto-conical recess whose axis coincides with that of the

**WARNING** end of DESC field may overlap start of CLMS **.

Claims (1)

  1. **WARNING** start of CLMS field may overlap end of DESC **.
    recess whose axis 14 coincides with the axis of the discharger 1.
    Upon energizing such a discharger, there takes place a breakdown of the discharge gap between the end faces 6 and 7, resulting in the formation of a hydraulic blast wave in the working fluid which has been injected in advance into the ureter. The blast wave has a narrow front 15 shown by dot and dash lines. The above discharger 1 is introduced into the ureter 16 by means of a catheter 23 and a cystoscope 17 (Fig. 3) through the urethra 18 and the cavity 19 of the bladder 20. During disintegration of a concretion 21, the power of the electrohydraulic impact is consumed mainly in crushing the concretion 21 and does not substantially affect the walls of the ureter 16, thereby considerably improving the safety in use of the apparatus.
    Reference is now made to Fig. 4 which shows another embodiment of the apparatus. According to this embodiment of the invention the central conductor 9 of the flexible cable 2 is longer than the conducting layer 8 plus the outer electrode 4. The end surface 13 of the electrically insulating layer 10 extends between the end faces 6 and 7 of the electrodes and forms a regular frustoconical protrusion whose axis 14 coincides with the axis of the discharger 1. It is good practice to use this embodiment in crushing concretions 22 which have therein holes, depressions or hollows, as is illustrated in Fig. 5. Through a catheter 23, the discharger is inserted into the hollow of the concretion which is fragmented by a hydraulic blast wave occurring as the result of the breakdown of the discharge gap, said blast wave having a sidewise-directed front, as is illustrated in Fig. 6.
    Turning now to Fig. 7, an embodiment of the apparatus is shown wherein the discharger 1 can only be brought obliquely to the concretion to be crushed. In this embodiment the discharger 1 and cable 2 are made so that the central conductor 9 is longer than the conducting layer 8 plus the outer electrode 4, and the axis 14 of the conical end surface 13 of the electrically insulating inner sheath 10 forms an angle with the axis 24 of the discharger 1. In this case, the discharge gap is formed along that generatrix of the conical surface 13 which corresponds to the shortest distance between the end faces of the electrodes of the discharger 1. As the breakdown of the discharge gap between the end faces of the electrodes takes place, there is formed a hydraulic blast wave whose front is directed at an angle to the axis of the discharger 1. In this embodiment the discharger is brought up to the concretion so that its discharge gap makes contact with the latter, as is illustrated in Fig. 8.
    The apparatus operates as follows: A working fluid, such as water, is injected into the space near the concretion by means of a syringe or a catheter. The discharger 1 is inserte into the ureter 16 by means of the catheter 23 and cystoscope 17 inserted in advance into the urethra 18. By manipulating the flexible cable 2, the discharger 1 is brought up to the concretion. Thereafter, the discharge 1 is properly oriented, as described above, by means of an X-ray and T.V. set. The orientation of the discharger 1 is determined by the type and shape of concretions as well as by the profile of the urinary tract and the embodiment of the apparatus being used.
    When switched on, the electric pulse generator actuates the discharger 1 to form a hydraulic blast wave which crushes the concretion.
    The basic advantage of these embodiments of the present invention over the prior art resides in that, with a smaller diameter of the discharger and cable, the apparatus has a discharge gap of the same size as in conventional apparatus while the discharger is supplied with sufficiently strong electric pulses. Owing to this, the apparatus can be successfully used in treating for urolithiasis children and patients who have a narrow urethra or ureter.
    WHAT WE CLAIM IS:
    1. An apparatus for disintegrating concretions in the urinary tract by electrohydraulic impact, comprising a flexible coaxial cable connectible to an electrical pulse generator and having a central conductor, an inner insulating sheath on the central conductor, a conducting layer on the inner sheath and an outer insulating sheath on the conducting layer, and a conducting sleeve extending between end portions of the inner and outer sheaths and electrically connected to the conducting layer so that the sleeve and the adjacent end portion of the conductor respectively form outer and inner electrodes of a discharger for insertion in the urinary tract, the outer end faces of the electrodes being spaced from each other in the direction of the axis of the discharger and the inner sheath having a generally conical end face extending between the end faces of the electrodes to leave a discharge gap between the electrodes.
    2. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the conducting layer of the coaxial flexible cable is helically wound metal foil which together with the conducting sleeve of the discharger is covered by the outer insulating sheath.
    3. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the central conductor of the flexible cable is shorter than the conducting layer of the cable plus the outer electrode of the discharger, the end face of the inner sheath forming a regular frusto-conical recess whose axis coincides with that of the
    discharger.
    4. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the central conductor of the flexible cable is longer than the conducting layer plus the outer electrode of the discharger, the end face of the inner sheath forming a regular frusto-conical protrusion whose axis coincides with that of the discharger.
    5. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the central conductor is longer that the conducting layer of said cable plus the outer electrode of the discharger, the axis of the conical end face of the inner sheath being oriented at an angle to said axis of said discharger to form a discharge gap along that generatrix of the conical surface which is of the shortest length.
    7. An apparatus for disintegrating concretions in the urinary tract by electrohydraulic impact, substantially as described hereinbefore with reference to, and as shown in the accompanying drawings.
GB4343277A 1977-10-19 1977-10-19 Apparatus for disintegration of concretions in the urinary tract Expired GB1583397A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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GB4343277A GB1583397A (en) 1977-10-19 1977-10-19 Apparatus for disintegration of concretions in the urinary tract

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB4343277A GB1583397A (en) 1977-10-19 1977-10-19 Apparatus for disintegration of concretions in the urinary tract

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2666231A1 (en) * 1990-09-04 1992-03-06 Cannon Robert Catheter and apparatus for treatment including pulmonary embolism.
EP0640316A1 (en) * 1993-08-25 1995-03-01 Richard Wolf GmbH Probe for intracorporal fragmentation of stones
GB2308981A (en) * 1996-01-09 1997-07-16 Gyrus Medical Ltd An electrosurgical instrument
US5944715A (en) 1996-06-20 1999-08-31 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6004319A (en) 1995-06-23 1999-12-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6013076A (en) 1996-01-09 2000-01-11 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6015406A (en) 1996-01-09 2000-01-18 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6027501A (en) 1995-06-23 2000-02-22 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6090106A (en) 1996-01-09 2000-07-18 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6093186A (en) 1996-12-20 2000-07-25 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6210405B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2001-04-03 Gyrus Medical Limited Under water treatment
US6261286B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-07-17 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6277114B1 (en) 1998-04-03 2001-08-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrode assembly for an electrosurical instrument
US6565561B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2003-05-20 Cyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6780180B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2004-08-24 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US7647123B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2010-01-12 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral discs

Cited By (27)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1992003975A1 (en) * 1990-09-04 1992-03-19 Cannon Robert L Iii Catheter and apparatus for the treatment, inter alia, of pulmonary embolisms
FR2666231A1 (en) * 1990-09-04 1992-03-06 Cannon Robert Catheter and apparatus for treatment including pulmonary embolism.
EP0640316A1 (en) * 1993-08-25 1995-03-01 Richard Wolf GmbH Probe for intracorporal fragmentation of stones
US6174308B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-01-16 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6306134B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-10-23 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6293942B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-09-25 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator method
US6004319A (en) 1995-06-23 1999-12-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6261286B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2001-07-17 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6027501A (en) 1995-06-23 2000-02-22 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6056746A (en) 1995-06-23 2000-05-02 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6416509B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2002-07-09 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6780180B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2004-08-24 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6364877B1 (en) 1995-06-23 2002-04-02 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6015406A (en) 1996-01-09 2000-01-18 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6234178B1 (en) 1996-01-09 2001-05-22 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6013076A (en) 1996-01-09 2000-01-11 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
GB2308981A (en) * 1996-01-09 1997-07-16 Gyrus Medical Ltd An electrosurgical instrument
US6090106A (en) 1996-01-09 2000-07-18 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6565561B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2003-05-20 Cyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US5944715A (en) 1996-06-20 1999-08-31 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical instrument
US6210405B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2001-04-03 Gyrus Medical Limited Under water treatment
US6482202B1 (en) 1996-06-20 2002-11-19 Gyrus Medical Limited Under water treatment
US7647123B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2010-01-12 Oratec Interventions, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral discs
US8187312B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2012-05-29 Neurotherm, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral disc
US8226697B2 (en) 1996-08-13 2012-07-24 Neurotherm, Inc. Method for treating intervertebral disc
US6093186A (en) 1996-12-20 2000-07-25 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrosurgical generator and system
US6277114B1 (en) 1998-04-03 2001-08-21 Gyrus Medical Limited Electrode assembly for an electrosurical instrument

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