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GB1563929A - Ophthalmic glasses with variable light transmissive lenses - Google Patents

Ophthalmic glasses with variable light transmissive lenses Download PDF

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Publication number
GB1563929A
GB1563929A GB3917476A GB3917476A GB1563929A GB 1563929 A GB1563929 A GB 1563929A GB 3917476 A GB3917476 A GB 3917476A GB 3917476 A GB3917476 A GB 3917476A GB 1563929 A GB1563929 A GB 1563929A
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GB
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
lens
electrochromic
light
layer
glasses
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB3917476A
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Wyeth Holdings Corp
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Wyeth Holdings Corp
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Filing date
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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02CSPECTACLES; SUNGLASSES OR GOGGLES INSOFAR AS THEY HAVE THE SAME FEATURES AS SPECTACLES; CONTACT LENSES
    • G02C7/00Optical parts
    • G02C7/10Filters, e.g. for facilitating adaptation of the eyes to the dark; Sunglasses
    • G02C7/101Filters, e.g. for facilitating adaptation of the eyes to the dark; Sunglasses having an electro-optical light valve
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B5/00Optical elements other than lenses
    • G02B5/20Filters
    • G02B5/22Absorbing filters
    • G02B5/23Photochromic filters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F1/00Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics
    • G02F1/01Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour
    • G02F1/15Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements
    • G02F1/1523Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating; Non-linear optics for the control of the intensity, phase, polarisation or colour based on electrochromic elements based on solid inorganic materials, e.g. transition metal compounds, e.g. in combination with a liquid or solid electrolyte

Abstract

The lens comprises a basic lens body (18) which is covered by a first layer (14) made from a solid persistently electrochromic material, and a second layer (12) made from an ion-conducting material. On their outside, the layers each bear an electrode (10, 16) for generating an electric DC voltage field. The electrochromic material becomes coloured in accordance with the field strength. By setting the DC voltage at the electrodes (10, 16), it is thus possible to vary the optical absorption of the lens. Such controllable lenses are used chiefly as spectacle lenses for spectacles which have a variable light transmittance. <IMAGE>

Description

(54) OPHTHALMIC GLASSES WITH VARIABLE LIGHT TRANSMISSIVE LENSES (71) We, AMERICAN CYANAMID COM- PANY, a corporation organised and existing under the laws of the State of Maine, United States of America, of Berdan Avenue, Township of Wayne, State of New Jersey, United States of America, do hereby declare the invention, for which we pray that a patent may be granted to us, and the method by which it is to be performed, to be particularly described in and by the following statement:- This invention relates to ophthalmic glasses which contain ophthalmic lenses whose light transmissive properties can be selectively varied by application of electricity.

The prior art, e.g. United States Patents 3,521,941, 3,578,843, 3,704,057, 3,708,220 and 3,829,196, discloses electro-optical devices which exhibit a phenomenon termed in the art as persistent electrochromism. This phenomenon is characterized by the alteration of the electro-magnetic radiation absorption characteristics of the persistent electrochromic material by the influence of an electric field. Such devices commonly are employed in sandwich arrangement, with a persistent electrochromic material layer and an ion-conducting layer sandwiched between two electrodes. Coloration is induced by charging the electrochromic layer negative with respect to the counter-electrode, employing an external potential. The counterelectrode can comprise the same material as the persistent electrochromic material or be different. By reversing the original polarity of the field or by applying a new field, the visible coloration can be erased. This procedure of color induction and erasure is defined as cycling.

Prior methods for reducing light transmission through optical lenses employed as eyeglasses are capable of achieving desirable degrees of light reduction. However, these sunglass lenses generally are not adjustable or variable with regard to their light transmissive properties. Recent developments have produced what is known as a photochromic lens which is self-adjustable. A layer within the lens structure is induced by electromagnetic radiation to alter its light absorption properties. An increasing degree of ambient brightness results in darker coloration of the lens, thereby reducing light transmission through the lens. However, such a system suffers from several inherent disadvantages. Photochromic systems with fast switching speeds tend to be unstable, whereas the most stable systems tend to have slow switching speeds. In particular, erasure upon removing a photochromic ophthalmic lens from bright light to relative darkness is quite slow. Accordingly, the use of photochromic lenses in eyewear may on occasion prove hazardous if the wearer suddenly passes from bright to dim light, for example a person stepping from bright sunlight into a building or a driver passing into a tunnel while wearing photochromic glasses would remain "in the dark" for many critical seconds. Also, since colorless photochromic systems can be activated only by a change in electromagnetic radiation in the UV portion of the spectrum, the system is largely inoperative when the wearer is screened by a UV filter such as a glass window. The lightinduced coloration of the lenses is entirely outside the control of the wearer. The degree of light transmission cannot be adjusted and depends solely on the degree of ambient electromagnetic radiation.

Hence, for safety, convenience and efficiency, it would be desirable to provide ophthalmic glasses containing optical lenses whose light transmissive properties can be controlled either automatically or independently, with quick cycling speed, and with selective adjustment of the degree of light transmission.

The present invention provides a pair of ophthalmic glasses comprising first and second lens mounted in a frame, each said lens comprising an optical lens (as herein defined) carrying successively, a first transparent electrode layer, a solid persistent electrochromic film of WO3 or MoO3, an ionconducting layer and a second transparent electrode layer, and the glasses further comprising means at least partially disposed within said frame for allowing application of direct current voltage to each pair of electrodes carried by each said lens to create an electric potential across the electrochromic film sandwiched therebetween and a potential of opposite polarity, whereby said electrochromic film can be varied in coloration so as to vary the amount of light transmitted through each said lens.

The term "optical lens" is used herein to refer to any optically transparent substrate whether or not it diffracts the light passing therethrough. It is, of course, quite common for protective glasses such as sunglasses to have lenses which do not alter the convergence of divergence of an incident light beam.

The invention will be further described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters refer to the same parts throughout the different views.

The drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed on illustrating principles of construction: In the drawings, Figure 1 is a pictorial view of a pair of ophthalmic glasses according tothe invention; and Figure 2 illustrates, in partial cross section, the structure of the lenses employed in the glasses of Fig. 1.

Referring to the drawings, numeral 36 in Figure 1 generally represents a pair of electrochromic eyeglasses which comprises a standard assembly with temple support arms 48 hingedly attached to a lens frame unit 54. The basic appearance of the eyeglasses corresponds to standard commercial eye wear.

However, in place of a simple optical lens, a pair of electro-optical lens is inserted. The operation of the variable light transmissive lenses requires the application of an electric field across the electrochromic layer coated on the lens. Miniature battery 34 in the temple support arm provides dc voltage, preferably about 1-5 volts. The battery is connected through conducting wires 42 and 44 to the lens units to control the light absorption thereof. Pushbutton switches 30 and 32 and 50 and 52 are included in the circuit to allow selective operator control of cyclinglens coloration and erasure. Individual sets of pushbutton control switches are provided for each of lenses 38 and 40, so that separate control of each lens is possible. An operator, by depressing the respective coloration or erasure button can readily adjust the light transmission of each lens as desired. Separate controls adapt the glasses to multiple specialized uses. For example, selective darkening of one lens while maintaining maximum transmission to the other eye would prove convenient and beneficial to such as microscopists, photographers and sharpshooters, etc., who are normally required to close or block one eye during operation.

Coloration and erasure also can be accomplished automatically according to ambient light levels by utilization of photocell 46 which is built into the lens frame and integrated into the switching circuitry.

Figure 2 shows a cross section of the layered lens structure which is employed in Fig. 1. Numeral 18 represents the actual optical lens substrate which is coated with light modulating layers. The layers, successively deposited comprise a transparent conductive material 16 such as SnO2, a persistent electrochromic film 14 of W03 or MoO3, an ion-conducting layer 12 such as SiOx or fl-alumina, and transparent counterelectrode 10 of conductive material such as Au or a transparent oxide. The layers may be deposited by known vacuum deposition techniques. A source of dc potential 22 is coupled to electrodes 16 and 10 through a reversing switch indicated by 20. As shown, with the switch arm in the position to produce coloration, the positive terminal of the source is connected to the outer electrode 10 while the negative terminal is connected to the electrode 16 on the optical lens substrate.

Once complete coloration is induced, typically in a matter of seconds, switch 20 may be opened, disconnecting the battery from the device entirely, and the device will remain in its darkened state without further application of power. To erase a previously darkened surface, the switch arm is thrown to the erase contacts, across which is connected a potentiometer 24. As shown, the potentiometer contact or slider is movable from a point at which the electrodes 16 and 10 are short circuited to a point at which full battery voltage, of polarity opposite to the coloration condition, is applied between them. Any number of reverse voltage values may be obtained between the two extremes.

In the position illustrated in the drawing, a "bleach" voltage of a value less than battery voltage is applied across the electrodes, setting up a corresponding electric field.

Under the influence of this field, the device returns to its initial uncolored state. The rapidity with which the bleaching occurs is determined by the magnitude of the voltage; the higher the voltage, the faster the bleaching process is completed. At the higher bleaching voltages, it has been found that the bleaching process is even faster than the coloring operation. Once the bleaching is completed, the switch may be opened to disconnect the battery from the device and minimize power drain.

It has also been found that, notwithstanding the absence of an electric field, when the potentiometer is in its short circuiting position, certain of the persistent electrochromic materials nevertheless will return completely and positively from the colored to the bleached state. The rate at which the bleaching occurs, however, is somewhat slower than when the material us subjected to an electric field.

The persistent electrochromic materials are employed as films, and the thickness thereof desirably will be in the range of from about 0-1-100 microns. However, since a small potential will provide an enormous field strength across very thin films, the latter, i.e. 0-1-10 microns, are preferred over thicker ones. Optimum thickness will also be determined by the nature of the particular compound being laid down as a film and by the film-forming method since the particular compound and film-forming method may place physical (e.g. non-uniform film surface) and economic limitations on manufacture of the devices.

When tungsten oxide is employed as the electrochromic imaging material and an electric field is applied between the electrodes, a blue coloration of the previously transparent electrochromic layer occurs, i.e. the persistent electrochromic layer becomes absorptive of electromagnetic radiation over a band encompassing the red end of the visible spectrum, thereby rendering the imaging layer blue in appearance. Prior to the application of the electric field, the electrochromic imaging layer was essentially non-absorbent and thus transparent.

The ion-conducting layer should be substantially transparent.

One embodiment employs a solution of H2SO4 in glycerin. Other suitable ion-conductors are as disclosed in United States Patents 3,704,057 and 3,708,220.

In a preferred embodiment the ion-conducting layer is an inorganic or other solid material as disclosed in United States Patent 3,521,941, e.g. silicon oxide.

Virtually any material exhibiting electrical conductivity may be used for an electrode.

The same material may be used for both electrodes or each electrode may be of a different material, or mixtures or alloys of of different materials. Typical electrode materials are the metals, e.g. gold, silver, aluminium, and conducting non-metals such as carbon, suitably doped tin or indium oxide, and the like. As already indicated, both of the electrodes must be transparent. The negative and positive electrodes must also be in electrical contact with the electrochromic film, and they may be formed by known vacuum deposition techniques, as described above, or they may be conducting layers between which the film is inserted.

While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to a preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various alterations in form and detail may be made therein. For example the circuitry and switching arrangements can be changed to suit ease of operation or cosmetic design.

Also, since power application is needed only to color and bleach the device, a source of continuous power within the eyeglass structure is not a necessity. A remote power supply can be utilized to accomplish desired cycling. Such can be portable and, for example, be conveniently incorporated into an eyeglass case. The glasses may take various forms such as welding goggles, laser protective goggles, eyeglasses, sunglasses or special glasses for microscopists, photographers or sharpshooters.

WHAT WE CLAIM IS: 1. A pair of opthalmic glasses, comprising first and second lens mounted in a frame, each said lens comprising an optical lens (as herein defined) carrying, successively, a first transparent electrode layer, a solid persistent electrochromic film of WO3 or MoO3, an ionconducting layer and a second transparent electrode layer, and the glasses further comprising means at least partially disposed within said frame for allowing application of direct current voltage to each pair of electrodes carried by each said lens to create an electric potential across the electrochromic film sandwiched therebetween and a potential of opposite polarity, whereby said electrochromic film can be varied in coloration so as to vary the amount of light transmitted through each said lens.

2. A pair of glasses according to Claim 1, including a photocell control means adapted to adjust the light transmissive properties of said lenses according to the ambient light.

3. A pair of glasses according to Claim 1 or Claim 2, individual control means for each lens, so that light transmission through each lens can be individually adjusted.

4. A pair of glasses according to any preceding claim, including a direct current power source disposed within said frame.

5. A pair of opthalmic glasses, according to Claim 1 and substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.

**WARNING** end of DESC field may overlap start of CLMS **.

Claims (5)

**WARNING** start of CLMS field may overlap end of DESC **. potentiometer is in its short circuiting position, certain of the persistent electrochromic materials nevertheless will return completely and positively from the colored to the bleached state. The rate at which the bleaching occurs, however, is somewhat slower than when the material us subjected to an electric field. The persistent electrochromic materials are employed as films, and the thickness thereof desirably will be in the range of from about 0-1-100 microns. However, since a small potential will provide an enormous field strength across very thin films, the latter, i.e. 0-1-10 microns, are preferred over thicker ones. Optimum thickness will also be determined by the nature of the particular compound being laid down as a film and by the film-forming method since the particular compound and film-forming method may place physical (e.g. non-uniform film surface) and economic limitations on manufacture of the devices. When tungsten oxide is employed as the electrochromic imaging material and an electric field is applied between the electrodes, a blue coloration of the previously transparent electrochromic layer occurs, i.e. the persistent electrochromic layer becomes absorptive of electromagnetic radiation over a band encompassing the red end of the visible spectrum, thereby rendering the imaging layer blue in appearance. Prior to the application of the electric field, the electrochromic imaging layer was essentially non-absorbent and thus transparent. The ion-conducting layer should be substantially transparent. One embodiment employs a solution of H2SO4 in glycerin. Other suitable ion-conductors are as disclosed in United States Patents 3,704,057 and 3,708,220. In a preferred embodiment the ion-conducting layer is an inorganic or other solid material as disclosed in United States Patent 3,521,941, e.g. silicon oxide. Virtually any material exhibiting electrical conductivity may be used for an electrode. The same material may be used for both electrodes or each electrode may be of a different material, or mixtures or alloys of of different materials. Typical electrode materials are the metals, e.g. gold, silver, aluminium, and conducting non-metals such as carbon, suitably doped tin or indium oxide, and the like. As already indicated, both of the electrodes must be transparent. The negative and positive electrodes must also be in electrical contact with the electrochromic film, and they may be formed by known vacuum deposition techniques, as described above, or they may be conducting layers between which the film is inserted. While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to a preferred embodiment thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various alterations in form and detail may be made therein. For example the circuitry and switching arrangements can be changed to suit ease of operation or cosmetic design. Also, since power application is needed only to color and bleach the device, a source of continuous power within the eyeglass structure is not a necessity. A remote power supply can be utilized to accomplish desired cycling. Such can be portable and, for example, be conveniently incorporated into an eyeglass case. The glasses may take various forms such as welding goggles, laser protective goggles, eyeglasses, sunglasses or special glasses for microscopists, photographers or sharpshooters. WHAT WE CLAIM IS:
1. A pair of opthalmic glasses, comprising first and second lens mounted in a frame, each said lens comprising an optical lens (as herein defined) carrying, successively, a first transparent electrode layer, a solid persistent electrochromic film of WO3 or MoO3, an ionconducting layer and a second transparent electrode layer, and the glasses further comprising means at least partially disposed within said frame for allowing application of direct current voltage to each pair of electrodes carried by each said lens to create an electric potential across the electrochromic film sandwiched therebetween and a potential of opposite polarity, whereby said electrochromic film can be varied in coloration so as to vary the amount of light transmitted through each said lens.
2. A pair of glasses according to Claim 1, including a photocell control means adapted to adjust the light transmissive properties of said lenses according to the ambient light.
3. A pair of glasses according to Claim 1 or Claim 2, individual control means for each lens, so that light transmission through each lens can be individually adjusted.
4. A pair of glasses according to any preceding claim, including a direct current power source disposed within said frame.
5. A pair of opthalmic glasses, according to Claim 1 and substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
GB3917476A 1975-10-23 1976-09-21 Ophthalmic glasses with variable light transmissive lenses Expired GB1563929A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US62533775 true 1975-10-23 1975-10-23

Publications (1)

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GB1563929A true true GB1563929A (en) 1980-04-02

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GB3917476A Expired GB1563929A (en) 1975-10-23 1976-09-21 Ophthalmic glasses with variable light transmissive lenses

Country Status (7)

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JP (1) JPS5254455A (en)
BE (1) BE847562A (en)
CA (1) CA1068950A (en)
DE (1) DE2644528A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2328979B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1563929A (en)
NL (1) NL7611746A (en)

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3332083A1 (en) * 1983-02-03 1984-08-09 Recknagel Maria Cristina Apparatus for glare protection
US4465339A (en) * 1980-03-07 1984-08-14 Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen. Electrochromic mirrors
GB2170613A (en) * 1985-02-01 1986-08-06 Olympus Optical Co Liquid crystal spectacles
EP0363045A1 (en) * 1988-10-05 1990-04-11 Ford Motor Company Limited Electrochromic devices having a gradient of colour intensities
US4991951A (en) * 1989-04-07 1991-02-12 Nikon Corporation Eyeglass frame for electrooptical lenses
EP0669012A1 (en) * 1992-11-06 1995-08-30 Midwest Research Institute Stand-alone photovoltaic (pv) powered electrochromic window
US5980037A (en) * 1997-02-06 1999-11-09 Luxottica Leasing S.P.A. Electric connection configuration for electro-optical device
WO2009150274A1 (en) * 2008-06-11 2009-12-17 Universidad De Valladolid Device for assisting and protecting vision
WO2012003499A3 (en) * 2010-07-02 2012-04-05 Pixeloptics, Inc. Electro-active spectacle frames
US8727531B2 (en) 1999-07-02 2014-05-20 E-Vision, Llc Electro-active opthalmic lens having an optical power blending region
US8801174B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2014-08-12 Hpo Assets Llc Electronic frames comprising electrical conductors
US8905541B2 (en) 2010-07-02 2014-12-09 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electronic spectacle frames
US8944590B2 (en) 2010-07-02 2015-02-03 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electronic spectacle frames
US8979259B2 (en) 2010-07-02 2015-03-17 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electro-active spectacle frames
US9229248B2 (en) 2009-01-09 2016-01-05 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electro-active spectacles and associated electronics
US9470909B2 (en) 2011-08-17 2016-10-18 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Moisture-resistant electronic spectacle frames

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3142906A1 (en) * 1981-10-29 1983-05-11 Zeiss Carl Fa Gradual charge control layers for electrochromic
DE3142908A1 (en) * 1981-10-29 1983-05-11 Zeiss Carl Fa Method and apparatus for temporarily increase to absorbance of transmissive optical components
DE3142907A1 (en) * 1981-10-29 1983-05-11 Zeiss Carl Fa Optical layers regulator circuit for electrochromic
DE3142909A1 (en) * 1981-10-29 1983-05-11 Zeiss Carl Fa layers continuous charge control for electrochromic
JPH087384Y2 (en) * 1989-04-25 1996-03-04 株式会社ニコン Ec glasses
DE4121383A1 (en) * 1991-06-28 1993-01-07 Bayerische Motoren Werke Ag Brightening electrochromic window of motor vehicle - short-circuiting electro=optical layer system for darkened window
FR2693562A1 (en) * 1992-07-10 1994-01-14 Dynaprog Sarl sunglasses electro-optical filters.

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DE1155538B (en) * 1958-02-03 1963-10-10 Eastman Kodak Co Method of controlling the Lichtintensitaet and this serves filters
US3630603A (en) * 1966-02-07 1971-12-28 Eugene C Letter Light-control device and spectacles using reversible oxidation reduction reactions in a material containing lead fluoride
US3339996A (en) * 1966-02-15 1967-09-05 Zaromb Solomon Electroplating light shutter employing plating surfaces having differing resistivities
NL6702525A (en) * 1966-02-25 1967-08-28
BE755563A (en) * 1969-09-02 1971-03-01 Polaroid Corp A variable light filter

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4465339A (en) * 1980-03-07 1984-08-14 Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen. Electrochromic mirrors
DE3332083A1 (en) * 1983-02-03 1984-08-09 Recknagel Maria Cristina Apparatus for glare protection
GB2170613A (en) * 1985-02-01 1986-08-06 Olympus Optical Co Liquid crystal spectacles
US4756605A (en) * 1985-02-01 1988-07-12 Olympus Optical Co., Ltd. Liquid crystal spectacles
GB2170613B (en) * 1985-02-01 1989-06-07 Olympus Optical Co Spectacles having liquid crystal lenses
EP0363045A1 (en) * 1988-10-05 1990-04-11 Ford Motor Company Limited Electrochromic devices having a gradient of colour intensities
US4991951A (en) * 1989-04-07 1991-02-12 Nikon Corporation Eyeglass frame for electrooptical lenses
EP0669012A1 (en) * 1992-11-06 1995-08-30 Midwest Research Institute Stand-alone photovoltaic (pv) powered electrochromic window
EP0669012A4 (en) * 1992-11-06 1995-10-25 Midwest Research Inst Stand-alone photovoltaic (pv) powered electrochromic window.
US5980037A (en) * 1997-02-06 1999-11-09 Luxottica Leasing S.P.A. Electric connection configuration for electro-optical device
US9323074B1 (en) 1999-07-02 2016-04-26 E-Vision Smart Optics, Inc. Electro-active opthalmic lens having an optical power blending region
US9323101B2 (en) 1999-07-02 2016-04-26 E-Vision Smart Optics, Inc. Electro-active opthalmic lens having an optical power blending region
US9411173B1 (en) 1999-07-02 2016-08-09 E-Vision Smart Optics, Inc. Electro-active opthalmic lens having an optical power blending region
US8727531B2 (en) 1999-07-02 2014-05-20 E-Vision, Llc Electro-active opthalmic lens having an optical power blending region
US9500883B2 (en) 1999-07-02 2016-11-22 E-Vision Smart Optics, Inc. Electro-active opthalmic lens having an optical power blending region
ES2334960A1 (en) * 2008-06-11 2010-03-17 Fundacion Cidetec Device support and protection in vision.
WO2009150274A1 (en) * 2008-06-11 2009-12-17 Universidad De Valladolid Device for assisting and protecting vision
US9229248B2 (en) 2009-01-09 2016-01-05 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electro-active spectacles and associated electronics
US8944590B2 (en) 2010-07-02 2015-02-03 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electronic spectacle frames
US8979259B2 (en) 2010-07-02 2015-03-17 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electro-active spectacle frames
US8783861B2 (en) 2010-07-02 2014-07-22 Pixeloptics, Inc. Frame design for electronic spectacles
US8905541B2 (en) 2010-07-02 2014-12-09 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Electronic spectacle frames
WO2012003499A3 (en) * 2010-07-02 2012-04-05 Pixeloptics, Inc. Electro-active spectacle frames
US8801174B2 (en) 2011-02-11 2014-08-12 Hpo Assets Llc Electronic frames comprising electrical conductors
US9470909B2 (en) 2011-08-17 2016-10-18 Mitsui Chemicals, Inc. Moisture-resistant electronic spectacle frames

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
DE2644528A1 (en) 1977-05-05 application
BE847562A1 (en) grant
FR2328979A1 (en) 1977-05-20 application
FR2328979B1 (en) 1982-08-27 grant
JPS5254455A (en) 1977-05-02 application
BE847562A (en) 1977-04-22 grant
CA1068950A1 (en) grant
CA1068950A (en) 1979-12-31 grant
NL7611746A (en) 1977-04-26 application

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PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee

Effective date: 19940921