GB1291745A - Cold separation of ethylene-methane mixtures - Google Patents

Cold separation of ethylene-methane mixtures

Info

Publication number
GB1291745A
GB1291745A GB50062/70A GB5006270A GB1291745A GB 1291745 A GB1291745 A GB 1291745A GB 50062/70 A GB50062/70 A GB 50062/70A GB 5006270 A GB5006270 A GB 5006270A GB 1291745 A GB1291745 A GB 1291745A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
methane
ethylene
column
vapour
separation
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB50062/70A
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Fluor Corp
Original Assignee
Fluor Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US87484269A priority Critical
Application filed by Fluor Corp filed Critical Fluor Corp
Publication of GB1291745A publication Critical patent/GB1291745A/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C7/00Purification; Separation; Use of additives
    • C07C7/09Purification; Separation; Use of additives by fractional condensation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/0204Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream characterised by the feed stream
    • F25J3/0219Refinery gas, cracking gas, coke oven gas, gaseous mixtures containing aliphatic unsaturated CnHm or gaseous mixtures of undefined nature
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/0228Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream characterised by the separated product stream
    • F25J3/0233Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream characterised by the separated product stream separation of CnHm with 1 carbon atom or more
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/0228Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream characterised by the separated product stream
    • F25J3/0238Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream characterised by the separated product stream separation of CnHm with 2 carbon atoms or more
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J3/00Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification
    • F25J3/02Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream
    • F25J3/0228Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream characterised by the separated product stream
    • F25J3/0252Processes or apparatus for separating the constituents of gaseous or liquefied gaseous mixtures involving the use of liquefaction or solidification by rectification, i.e. by continuous interchange of heat and material between a vapour stream and a liquid stream characterised by the separated product stream separation of hydrogen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2200/00Processes or apparatus using separation by rectification
    • F25J2200/04Processes or apparatus using separation by rectification in a dual pressure main column system
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2200/00Processes or apparatus using separation by rectification
    • F25J2200/70Refluxing the column with a condensed part of the feed stream, i.e. fractionator top is stripped or self-rectified
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2200/00Processes or apparatus using separation by rectification
    • F25J2200/76Refluxing the column with condensed overhead gas being cycled in a quasi-closed loop refrigeration cycle
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2210/00Processes characterised by the type or other details of the feed stream
    • F25J2210/06Splitting of the feed stream, e.g. for treating or cooling in different ways
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2210/00Processes characterised by the type or other details of the feed stream
    • F25J2210/12Refinery or petrochemical off-gas
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2270/00Refrigeration techniques used
    • F25J2270/02Internal refrigeration with liquid vaporising loop
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2270/00Refrigeration techniques used
    • F25J2270/04Internal refrigeration with work-producing gas expansion loop
    • F25J2270/06Internal refrigeration with work-producing gas expansion loop with multiple gas expansion loops
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2270/00Refrigeration techniques used
    • F25J2270/90External refrigeration, e.g. conventional closed-loop mechanical refrigeration unit using Freon or NH3, unspecified external refrigeration
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
    • F25J2290/00Other details not covered by groups F25J2200/00 - F25J2280/00
    • F25J2290/40Vertical layout or arrangement of cold equipments within in the cold box, e.g. columns, condensers, heat exchangers etc.
    • Y02P30/462

Abstract

1291745 Cold separation of gas mixtures FLUOR CORP 21 Oct 1970 [7 Nov 1969] 50062/70 Heading F4P Methane is separated from a mixture thereof with ethylene and higher hydrocarbons by feeding a cold feed stream 1, 2, 15, to a methane separation column 22, withdrawing at 28 methane-rich vapour therefrom and after further rectification at 29 and withdrawal at 33 a portion 29 of this vapour is expanded in a turbine 35 which drives a compressor 36 for compressing a further portion 39 of the methane vapour and this compressed methane is cooled at 30, 46 to condensation temperature, separated at 45 and the condensate is returned through a line 49 to column 29 as reflux; product methane being the exhaust of turbine 35 to which is added liquid methane withdrawn at 51 from column 29 and product ethylene and higher hydrocarbon being withdrawn at 53 from the base of column 22.
GB50062/70A 1969-11-07 1970-10-21 Cold separation of ethylene-methane mixtures Expired GB1291745A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US87484269A true 1969-11-07 1969-11-07

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB1291745A true GB1291745A (en) 1972-10-04

Family

ID=25364683

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB50062/70A Expired GB1291745A (en) 1969-11-07 1970-10-21 Cold separation of ethylene-methane mixtures

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US3675435A (en)
JP (1) JPS5146074B1 (en)
BE (1) BE758567A (en)
DE (1) DE2053244B2 (en)
ES (1) ES385316A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2069123A5 (en)
GB (1) GB1291745A (en)
NL (1) NL151972B (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103159582A (en) * 2013-03-21 2013-06-19 杭州杭氧股份有限公司 Low-temperature separation system and method for propylene preparation through catalytic dehydrogenation of propane or mixed alkanes

Families Citing this family (41)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3827245A (en) * 1971-09-22 1974-08-06 Stone & Webster Eng Corp Recovery and purification of ethylene from direct hydration ethanol vent gas streams
GB1499798A (en) * 1974-03-04 1978-02-01 Petrocarbon Dev Ltd Providing methane and ethylene
US4002042A (en) * 1974-11-27 1977-01-11 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Recovery of C2 + hydrocarbons by plural stage rectification and first stage dephlegmation
JPS5347581U (en) * 1976-09-28 1978-04-22
US4167402A (en) * 1977-09-16 1979-09-11 Union Carbide Corporation Ethylene separation process
US4270940A (en) * 1979-11-09 1981-06-02 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Recovery of C2 hydrocarbons from demethanizer overhead
US4496380A (en) * 1981-11-24 1985-01-29 Shell Oil Company Cryogenic gas plant
US4410342A (en) * 1982-05-24 1983-10-18 United States Riley Corporation Method and apparatus for separating a liquid product from a hydrocarbon-containing gas
US4496381A (en) * 1983-02-01 1985-01-29 Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. Apparatus and method for recovering light hydrocarbons from hydrogen containing gases
JPS59121115U (en) * 1983-02-04 1984-08-15
USRE33408E (en) * 1983-09-29 1990-10-30 Exxon Production Research Company Process for LPG recovery
US4507133A (en) * 1983-09-29 1985-03-26 Exxon Production Research Co. Process for LPG recovery
US4617039A (en) * 1984-11-19 1986-10-14 Pro-Quip Corporation Separating hydrocarbon gases
DE3531307A1 (en) * 1985-09-02 1987-03-05 Linde Ag METHOD FOR SEPARATING C (ARROW DOWN) 2 (ARROW DOWN) (ARROW DOWN) + (ARROW DOWN) HYDROCARBONS FROM NATURAL GAS
US4695303A (en) * 1986-07-08 1987-09-22 Mcdermott International, Inc. Method for recovery of natural gas liquids
US4710214A (en) * 1986-12-19 1987-12-01 The M. W. Kellogg Company Process for separation of hydrocarbon gases
US4711651A (en) * 1986-12-19 1987-12-08 The M. W. Kellogg Company Process for separation of hydrocarbon gases
US4720293A (en) * 1987-04-28 1988-01-19 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Process for the recovery and purification of ethylene
US5035732A (en) * 1990-01-04 1991-07-30 Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation Cryogenic separation of gaseous mixtures
US5090977A (en) * 1990-11-13 1992-02-25 Exxon Chemical Patents Inc. Sequence for separating propylene from cracked gases
US5157925A (en) * 1991-09-06 1992-10-27 Exxon Production Research Company Light end enhanced refrigeration loop
US5361589A (en) * 1994-02-04 1994-11-08 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Precooling for ethylene recovery in dual demethanizer fractionation systems
US5377490A (en) * 1994-02-04 1995-01-03 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Open loop mixed refrigerant cycle for ethylene recovery
US5379597A (en) * 1994-02-04 1995-01-10 Air Products And Chemicals, Inc. Mixed refrigerant cycle for ethylene recovery
US5442924A (en) * 1994-02-16 1995-08-22 The Dow Chemical Company Liquid removal from natural gas
US5421167A (en) * 1994-04-01 1995-06-06 The M. W. Kellogg Company Enhanced olefin recovery method
US6712880B2 (en) 2001-03-01 2004-03-30 Abb Lummus Global, Inc. Cryogenic process utilizing high pressure absorber column
US6931889B1 (en) * 2002-04-19 2005-08-23 Abb Lummus Global, Randall Gas Technologies Cryogenic process for increased recovery of hydrogen
US20050154245A1 (en) * 2003-12-18 2005-07-14 Rian Reyneke Hydrogen recovery in a distributed distillation system
US9080810B2 (en) * 2005-06-20 2015-07-14 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Hydrocarbon gas processing
US20090282865A1 (en) 2008-05-16 2009-11-19 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Liquefied Natural Gas and Hydrocarbon Gas Processing
FR2944523B1 (en) * 2009-04-21 2011-08-26 Technip France Process for producing methane-rich current and cutting rich in c2 + hydrocarbons from a natural load gas current, and associated plant
US20100287982A1 (en) 2009-05-15 2010-11-18 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Liquefied Natural Gas and Hydrocarbon Gas Processing
US9021832B2 (en) * 2010-01-14 2015-05-05 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Hydrocarbon gas processing
CA2800699C (en) 2010-06-03 2016-01-19 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Hydrocarbon gas processing
US20130118202A1 (en) * 2011-11-14 2013-05-16 Michael D. Newman Co2 freezing apparatus
CN106715368A (en) * 2014-09-30 2017-05-24 陶氏环球技术有限责任公司 Process for increasing ethylene and propylene yield from a propylene plant
US20160327336A1 (en) * 2015-05-04 2016-11-10 GE Oil & Gas, Inc. Preparing hydrocarbon streams for storage
US10533794B2 (en) 2016-08-26 2020-01-14 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Hydrocarbon gas processing
US10551119B2 (en) 2016-08-26 2020-02-04 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Hydrocarbon gas processing
US10551118B2 (en) 2016-08-26 2020-02-04 Ortloff Engineers, Ltd. Hydrocarbon gas processing

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US2817961A (en) * 1954-08-09 1957-12-31 Ethyl Corp Ethylene recovery
US2880592A (en) * 1955-11-10 1959-04-07 Phillips Petroleum Co Demethanization of cracked gases
DE1135935B (en) * 1961-10-26 1962-09-06 Linde Eismasch Ag Method and device for the production of low-purity oxygen by low-temperature air separation
GB943669A (en) * 1961-11-03 1963-12-04 Petrocarbon Dev Ltd Separation of oxygen from air
US3186182A (en) * 1963-05-27 1965-06-01 Phillips Petroleum Co Low-temperature, low-pressure separation of gases
US3292380A (en) * 1964-04-28 1966-12-20 Coastal States Gas Producing C Method and equipment for treating hydrocarbon gases for pressure reduction and condensate recovery
US3292381A (en) * 1964-07-08 1966-12-20 Coastal States Petrochemical C Separation of natural gas by liquefaction with an injected hydrate inhibitor
US3377811A (en) * 1965-12-28 1968-04-16 Air Prod & Chem Liquefaction process employing expanded feed as refrigerant
US3503220A (en) * 1967-07-27 1970-03-31 Chicago Bridge & Iron Co Expander cycle for natural gas liquefication with split feed stream

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103159582A (en) * 2013-03-21 2013-06-19 杭州杭氧股份有限公司 Low-temperature separation system and method for propylene preparation through catalytic dehydrogenation of propane or mixed alkanes

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DE2053244A1 (en) 1971-05-19
US3675435A (en) 1972-07-11
ES385316A1 (en) 1974-07-16
JPS5146074B1 (en) 1976-12-07
NL7016247A (en) 1971-05-11
BE758567A1 (en)
DE2053244B2 (en) 1975-08-07
FR2069123A5 (en) 1971-09-03
NL151972B (en) 1977-01-17
BE758567A (en) 1971-05-06

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Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PS Patent sealed
PCNP Patent ceased through non-payment of renewal fee