FR3036226A1 - Connection by containment of a material between two contact elements - Google Patents

Connection by containment of a material between two contact elements Download PDF

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Publication number
FR3036226A1
FR3036226A1 FR1554315A FR1554315A FR3036226A1 FR 3036226 A1 FR3036226 A1 FR 3036226A1 FR 1554315 A FR1554315 A FR 1554315A FR 1554315 A FR1554315 A FR 1554315A FR 3036226 A1 FR3036226 A1 FR 3036226A1
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France
Prior art keywords
projecting
walls
cavity
substrate
contact
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Pending
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FR1554315A
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French (fr)
Inventor
Marion Volpert
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Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
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Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
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Priority to FR1554315A priority Critical patent/FR3036226A1/en
Publication of FR3036226A1 publication Critical patent/FR3036226A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • H01L23/13Mountings, e.g. non-detachable insulating substrates characterised by the shape
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    • H01L2224/80Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected
    • H01L2224/81Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a bump connector
    • H01L2224/812Applying energy for connecting
    • H01L2224/81201Compression bonding
    • H01L2224/81203Thermocompression bonding, e.g. diffusion bonding, pressure joining, thermocompression welding or solid-state welding
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    • H01L2224/81Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a bump connector
    • H01L2224/8138Bonding interfaces outside the semiconductor or solid-state body
    • H01L2224/81385Shape, e.g. interlocking features
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    • H01L2224/81Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a bump connector
    • H01L2224/818Bonding techniques
    • H01L2224/81801Soldering or alloying
    • H01L2224/81815Reflow soldering
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    • H01L2224/80Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected
    • H01L2224/81Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a bump connector
    • H01L2224/818Bonding techniques
    • H01L2224/81897Mechanical interlocking, e.g. anchoring, hook and loop-type fastening or the like
    • H01L2224/81898Press-fitting, i.e. pushing the parts together and fastening by friction, e.g. by compression of one part against the other
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    • H01L2224/81Methods for connecting semiconductor or other solid state bodies using means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected using a bump connector
    • H01L2224/81905Combinations of bonding methods provided for in at least two different groups from H01L2224/818 - H01L2224/81904
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    • H01L24/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L24/02Bonding areas ; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L24/03Manufacturing methods
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    • H01L24/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L24/10Bump connectors ; Manufacturing methods related thereto
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    • H01L2924/30Technical effects
    • H01L2924/38Effects and problems related to the device integration
    • H01L2924/381Pitch distance
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    • H01L2924/38Effects and problems related to the device integration
    • H01L2924/384Bump effects
    • H01L2924/3841Solder bridging

Abstract

The connection device between two substrates of interest to be electrically connected comprises: a first substrate (10) provided with a cavity (12) open on a first face (11) of the first substrate (10) and comprising: a bottom ( 13f), a first electrical contact (15), and two opposite side walls (14p) having a flared shape; a second substrate (20) provided with an electrically conductive projecting element (21) inserted in the cavity (12) so as to abut against the side walls (14p) and to be separated from the bottom (13f); - a connecting material (30) forming a mechanical connection between the projecting element (21) and at least a part of the side walls (14p) so as to electrically connect the projecting element (21) and the first electrical contact (15), the connecting material (30) being electrically conductive and more ductile than the material of the projecting element (21).

Description

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to an assembly of two substrates, and to a method for producing such an assembly. In particular, the invention relates to the field of assembly by hybridization or flipped chip (better known by the English expression "flip-chip"). It will find its application in the field of microelectronics, and more particularly for hybridization requiring connections in small steps. State of the art The "flip-chip" assembly is a technique for assembling heterogeneous materials. It makes it possible to connect two substrates generally comprising microelectronic components. For example, infrared imaging detectors with step pixels can be made by hybridization of a substrate optimized for infrared detection, and a silicon substrate having the readout circuits.

The assembly "flip-chip" is mainly carried out either under the action of the temperature (reflow or "reflow" for the English expression), or by thermo-compression without any liquid phase is formed, or still by gluing using a matrix of polymer material comprising conductive microbeads.

3036226 2 Scientific article "Flip-chip bonding alignment accuracy enhancement using self-aligned interconnection elements to realize low-temperature construction of ultrafine-pitch copper bump interconnections, ECTC Conference, May 2014, pp 62-66. By B. T. Tung, discloses a thermocompression "flip-chip" assembly using copper microbead interconnects. A test chip with copper microbeads is assembled on a silicon substrate having recesses, returning to one another, in an assembly direction, the chip and the substrate. The walls of the cavities were covered by a stack of layers of oxide, titanium and gold (AufTi / SiO 2). Hybridization was performed at room temperature, ie the microbeads remained in the solid state during assembly, and using a 4 gram-force (gf) charge per copper microball. Copper microbeads and cavities were made by conventional methods known in the field of microelectronics. Although these manufacturing processes are effective and controlled, disparities in the dimensions as well as surface roughness of the microbeads and cavities are unavoidable. The difference in size between the microbeads causes a difference in the height of assembly. By assembly height is meant the distance measured, according to said assembly direction, separating said chip from said substrate. When applying the load, this difference in height can promote the creation of local mechanical stresses and / or cause a contact fault or an open circuit, for small microbeads. On the other hand, for large size microbeads, hybridization can generate larger deformations that can lead to short circuits. The surface roughness at the cavities and microbeads also generates contact defects between these elements. In addition, hybridization using a large load, can cause a low assembly height, which can hinder or even prevent the introduction of an insulating resin ("underfill" for the usual term Anglo-Saxon) 5 conventionally used in some hybridization methods. In addition, this technique is limited for components requiring a very large number of connections such as a matrix infrared detector. For example, to assemble a one million pixel infrared detector according to the technique described above, it would have taken a load of 4 tons. Hybridization with such a large load generates local mechanical stresses in the materials of the assembled components. Moreover, some materials are very sensitive to local mechanical stresses that can cause dislocations in these materials. These dislocations are at the origin of a degradation of the electronic properties, such as the mobility of charge carriers, and structural such as the surface states of these materials. This can be detrimental to the proper functioning of the assembled component and its performance. Furthermore, the reflow assembly (or "reflow") is based on the collective fusion of solder elements for the production of intermetallic compounds between these solder elements, the chip and the substrate. This joining technique may cause open circuits. French patent application FR 2936359 describes a connection device between two substrates, comprising a female connection in the form of a tube. The female connection comprises a solder material, and is configured to receive a male connector member having a cylindrical shape. Assembly is accomplished by inserting the male connection members into the female connections, before melting the solder material and joining the two connections. This assembly does not provide the possibility of self-alignment during hybridization. Thus, this solution requires significant alignment constraints. Indeed, the alignment between two substrates to be hybridized is extremely important, because to assemble a component, for example at a pitch of 15 gr, an accuracy of 1 to 2 gr is necessary.

Thus, the method of making the connections must be extremely accurate, as must the alignment of the connections when inserting the male connections into the female connections. Imprecision during manufacture and / or during alignment will lead to open circuits or at best to disparate assembly heights, thereby causing mechanical stresses in the substrates. OBJECT OF THE INVENTION There is a need to provide a connection and a connection method for the hybridization of two substrates allowing effective control of the assembly height, and a reliable and efficient contact between the different connection elements. The solution should advantageously be easily achievable, and suitable for a small step assembly.

This need is satisfied and the drawbacks cited above are overcome by providing an assembly comprising: a first substrate provided with a cavity open on a first face of the first substrate and comprising: a bottom, a first electrical contact, And two opposite side walls having a flared shape so that the distance between the two side walls decreases from the first side to the bottom; a second substrate provided with an electrically conductive protruding member inserted into the cavity so as to abut against the side walls and to be separated from the bottom; an electrically conductive connecting material forming a mechanical connection between the protruding element and at least a portion of the side walls so as to electrically connect the protruding element and the first electrical contact, the connecting material being more ductile than the material of the projecting element. Preferably, the cavity has the form of a truncated pyramid and inverted. On the other hand, according to one alternative, the protruding element has a contact zone configured to contact the side walls, the protruding element having a lateral dimension at the contact area greater than a distance separating them. two side walls so as to abut against the side walls and to be separated from the bottom. According to one embodiment, the first electrical contact is disposed on the side walls, and the connection material electrically and mechanically connects a portion of the projecting element and a portion of the side walls above the contact zone. . According to one embodiment, the first electrical contact is formed by at least a portion of the side walls and / or the bottom. Advantageously, the connection material is in contact with the bottom. According to one embodiment, at least one of the side walls is inclined with respect to an axis substantially perpendicular to the first face along an angle α of between 15 and 60 °.

According to one embodiment, the projecting element is separated from the bottom by a distance of at least 0.1. In addition, a substrate assembly method 5 is also provided, comprising the steps of: providing a first substrate provided with a cavity open on a first face of the first substrate and comprising: a bottom, two opposite side walls having a flared shape so that the distance between the two side walls decreases from the first side towards the bottom, and a first electrical contact; providing a second substrate provided with an electrically conductive protruding member; providing a connection material more ductile than the material of the projecting element; Inserting the projecting element into the cavity so as to dispose the second element in abutment against the side walls, and to interpose the connection material directly between the projecting element and the cavity so as to electrically connect the element protruding and the first electrical contact.

According to one embodiment, the connecting material has a melting temperature lower than the melting temperatures of the materials of the protruding element and the first contact, the connection between the protruding element and the first contact by the contact material. connection being made by reflow.

Advantageously, the element projecting into the cavity is followed by a pressure of the first and second substrates towards each other. Preferentially, the pressure exerted on the first substrate and / or the second substrate is less than a pressure corresponding to a total load of 5 kg applied to the first substrate and / or the second substrate.

According to one embodiment, the connecting material is disposed on the protruding element before the step of introducing the element protruding into the cavity.

Advantageously, the connecting material fills the volume defined between the protruding element and the bottom so as to be in direct contact with the side walls and the bottom. According to one embodiment, a second connecting material more ductile than the material of the protruding element is disposed in the cavity before the introduction of the protruding element into the cavity. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Other advantages and features will become more clearly apparent from the following description of particular embodiments of the invention given by way of nonlimiting example and represented in the accompanying drawings, in which: FIG. 1 schematically represents, in sectional view, an assembly according to one embodiment of the invention; FIGS. 2 and 3 show, schematically, in sectional view, the steps of a method of assembling two substrates according to one embodiment of the invention; - Figure 4 shows schematically, in sectional view, an embodiment of a step of a method of assembling two substrates according to the invention; Fig. 5 (Figs. 5A-5F) schematically shows, in sectional view, embodiments of a male connector member; FIG. 6 schematically represents, in sectional view, an embodiment of a step of a method for assembling two substrates according to the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION According to one embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 1, an assembly of a first substrate 10 and a second substrate 20 by a connection material 30 is provided. two substrates 10 and 20 are substrates of interest to be electrically connected. Preferably, the substrate 10 comprises an electronic component intended to be electrically connected to another electronic component disposed in the second substrate 20.

For the various examples and embodiments presented below, the same references will be used for identical elements or ensuring the same function. In addition, the technical characteristics described below for different embodiments are to be considered in isolation or in any technically possible combination.

The first substrate 10 is provided with a cavity 12 open on a first face 11 of the substrate 10. The first substrate 10 and / or the second substrate 20 may be substrates comprising micro or nano-scale devices manufactured by standard techniques of microelectronics, or a ceramic case, etc. The cavity 12 comprises two opposite side walls 14p and connected by a bottom 13f. In addition, the cavity 12 has an electrical contact 15 of an electronic component of the first substrate 10. The electrical contact 15 is intended to be electrically connected to an electronic component of the second substrate 20. According to one embodiment, the electrical contact 15 is formed by at least a portion of the sidewalls 14p and / or a portion of the bottom 13f. Preferably, the electrical contact 15 covers the side walls 14p and the bottom 13f. In other words, the electrical contact 15 is formed by all the available concave surface of the cavity 12. This configuration advantageously makes it possible to increase the available contact surface ensuring the electrical connection between the substrates 10 and 20. For example, the contact 15 corresponds to a layer or a multilayer of an electrically conductive material. Advantageously, the contact 15 is based on a material that is conducive to hot hybridization with a ductile material. The layer or multilayer forming the contact 15 may be metal. The contact 15 may be based on a metal selected from the group consisting of: Au, Cu, Ni, W, Pd, Ti. Preferably, the contact 15 has on its surface intended to be in mechanical contact with the substrate 20, a layer of gold or copper. According to the embodiment of Figure 1, the contact 15 is a layer of gold (Au). Moreover, the side walls 14p have a flared shape. According to a cross section of the substrate 10 in the plane (O, y, z), the walls 14p are separated from each other by a distance ds (not shown in the figures). It is also possible to have the flared shape in the plane (O, x, z). Advantageously, the distance ds separating the two opposite walls 14p decreases from the first face 11 towards the bottom 13f until a minimum distance dp separating the walls 14p is reached. The reduction of the distance ds separating the walls 14p thus gives the flared shape to the side walls 14p. The assembly further comprises the second substrate 20 provided with a projecting element 21 electrically conductive. Element 21 may be a metal pad formed by a layer or multilayer made by any known technique, for example conventional microelectronic techniques. The projecting element 21 is preferably based on a metal selected from the group comprising: Au, Cu, Ni, W, Pd, Ti. According to an exemplary embodiment, the element 21 is formed by a stack of a copper layer surmounted by a nickel layer.

The projecting element 21 is inserted into the cavity 12 so as to abut against the side walls 14p and to be separated from the bottom 13f. In other words, the geometric dimensions of the cavity 12 and the element 21 are chosen so that the element 21 can be inserted into the cavity 12 abutting against the side walls 14p while being separated from the bottom 13f of the cavity 12. Furthermore, the projecting element 21 has a contact zone 21c configured to be in contact with the side walls 14p. Advantageously, the contact zone 21c has a lateral dimension d greater than a distance separating the two lateral walls 14p. In other words, the element 21 has a lateral dimension d at the level of the contact zone 21 greater than the minimum lateral distance dp separating the two walls 14p. So that the element 21 can be inserted into the cavity 12, the lateral dimension d is also smaller than the lateral dimension of the opening of the cavity 12. Said distances and lateral dimensions correspond to the dimensions along the axis ( Oy). Preferably, the element 21 has a cylindrical shape having a base 21b and an axis of revolution substantially parallel to the axis (Oz). The base 21b of the element 21 may have a circular, square, or rectangular shape or any other geometric shape configured so that the element 21 can be inserted into the cavity 12. The contact zone 21c is formed for example by the circumference of the base 21b of the cylindrical shape.

In addition, the assembly includes the connection material 30 providing the electrical connection between the first and second substrates. The connection material 30 is electrically conductive and forms a mechanical connection between the projecting element 21 and at least a portion of the side walls 14p. This mechanical connection is configured to electrically connect the projecting element 21 and the first electrical contact 15 of the cavity 12. Advantageously, the connection material 30 is more ductile than the material of the projecting element 21.

The connection material 30 and the material of the projecting element 21 are chosen so that the material 30 is more ductile than the material of the element 21. Preferably, the connecting material 30 is a material selected from the group comprising: SnAgCu alloy, InSn alloy, SnAg alloy, Sn, In.

The assembly according to the invention advantageously makes it possible to take advantage of the use of a cavity and a ductile connection material associated with a projecting element abutting against the side walls of the cavity. Thus, the ductile connecting material 30 advantageously makes it possible to marry the surface of the cavity 12 which may include asperities, thereby ensuring an effective electrical connection. The projecting element 21, which is less ductile than the connecting material 30, cleverly makes it possible to form a stopping block and thus to ensure an assembly whose height and alignment are advantageously controlled. This overcomes all or part of the aforementioned drawbacks, including the appearance of local mechanical stresses and dislocations in the two substrates. As a result, the mechanical and electrical reliability of the substrates of the assembly is advantageously improved.

According to another embodiment, the connection material 30 is configured to electrically and mechanically connect the contact 15 disposed here on the side walls 14p, and a portion of the projecting member 21 located above the contact zone 21c. According to this embodiment, the electrical contact 15 covers the side walls 14p, and the connection element 30 forms a mechanical and electrical connection between a portion of the side walls 14p and a portion of the projecting element 21 located above the contact zone 21. According to this configuration, the electrical contact surface between the projecting element 21 and the cavity 12 is advantageously increased. According to a preferred embodiment, the connection material 30 is in contact with the bottom of the cavity 13f. Preferably, the electrical contact 15 covers the entire concave surface of the cavity 12. In other words, the contact 15 comprises both the bottom 13f and the side walls 14p. Thus, the connecting material 30 is advantageously in contact with the bottom 13f and the side walls 14p located below the contact zone 21c. More advantageously, the connection material 30 is also in contact with the side walls 14p located above the contact zone 21c. This particular configuration makes it possible to increase the contact surface and, as a result, it makes it possible to improve the efficiency of the electrical and mechanical contact between the substrates of the assembly. According to one embodiment, at least one of the sidewalls 14p is inclined, with respect to an axis (Oz) substantially perpendicular to the first face 11, with an angle a of between 15 and 60 °. The choice of the angle a advantageously facilitates abutting contact between the projecting element 21 and the side walls 14p, thereby obtaining effective control of the assembly height and alignment.

According to a preferred embodiment, the cavity 12 has the form of a pyramid, square or rectangular, truncated and inverted. The bottom 13f is plane and is formed by the small base of the truncated pyramid, and the large base is formed by the opening of the cavity 12 on the first face 11. Such a cavity is advantageously easy to achieve by techniques conventional in the field of microelectronics, and allows to have sidewalls flared and inclined with the preferred angles of the previous embodiment.

According to an improvement, the bottom 13f is a concave or convex surface. This form of the bottom 13f makes it possible to increase the surface connecting the side walls 14p, and thus makes it possible to increase the contact surface between the connection material 30 and the cavity 12, in other words, the electrical contact surface between the substrates.

Preferably, the geometric dimensions and shapes of the protruding member 21 and the cavity 12 are configured to separate the element 21 from the bottom 13f by a distance of at least 0.1 gn. This minimum distance is predetermined to take into account the fluctuations of the dimensions and flatness defects of the cavity 12 and the element 21 that may occur during the production of these elements. Thus, this minimum distance makes it possible to avoid any contact between the projecting element 21 and the bottom 13f. Indeed, such contact deteriorates the effectiveness of the contact between the connecting material 30 and the cavity 12. It also deteriorates the homogeneity of the assembly height and the alignment of the two assembled substrates. The present invention also relates to a method of assembling the first and second substrates. As illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, the method provides for the use of the first and second substrates described above.

In other words, the method provides the first substrate 10 provided with a cavity 12 open on a first face 11 of the first substrate 10. The cavity 12 comprises the bottom 13f, two opposite side walls 14p having a flared shape so that the distance ds between the two side walls 14p 5 decreases from the first face 11 to the bottom 13f. The cavity further comprises a first electrical contact 15. Preferably, the electrical contact 15 covers the entire concave surface of the cavity 12, in particular the bottom 13f and the side walls 14p.

The first substrate 10 may be an insulating or semiconductor substrate covered with an electrically conductive layer, for example a metal-based layer selected from the group consisting of: Ni, W, Pd and Ti. According to an exemplary embodiment, the first substrate 10 is a silicon substrate comprising cavities 12 whose concave surfaces are covered by a layer or a stack of electrically conductive layers, for example metal layers. The first substrate 10 comprising the cavity 12 may be made by a conventional technique used in the field of microelectronics. For example, the cavity 12 may be made using an anisotropic etching, for example an RIE (RIE), or any other micro-machining technique by volume. Preferably, the face 11 of the substrate 10 is smooth and has the least possible roughness.

After the formation of the cavity 12, the first contact 15 can be made by a step of depositing a layer or a stack of layers on the front face 11 of the substrate 10 so as to cover the surface of the cavity 12. Otherwise In other words, the electrical contact 15 preferably covers the concave surface (the side walls 14p and the bottom 13f) without leaving any surface of the cavity 12 uncovered. Advantageously, the contact 15 covers the cavity 12 in a conformal manner. Thus, the contact 15 conforms to the shape of the cavity 12. This deposition step may be performed by the electro-chemical deposition technique or ECD (Electro-Chemical Deposition), followed or preceded by one or more conventional lithography steps, intended to deposit the electrical contact 15 only in the cavities 12 formed on the first face 11. Thus, short circuits are avoided between the electrical connections made in two neighboring cavities. According to a preferred embodiment illustrated in FIG. 4, the material of the substrate 10 is etched at the first face 11 at the periphery of each cavity 12. This etching step can be performed before or after the formation of the cavities 12 Furthermore, the etching step is performed so as to delimit islands 17 projecting from a second face 18, substantially flat and parallel to the first face 11. Preferably, the island 17 is based on a metal selected from the group consisting of: Ni, W, Pd and Ti, and the contact is based on gold or copper. The height H of the islands 17 20 corresponds to the difference in altitude between the first 11 and second 18 faces, measured along the axis (Oz). The cavities 12 are formed in the islands 17. Preferably, the stack or the layer forming the contact 15 has a thickness of between 100 nm and 1 pm. According to this embodiment, the island 17 is made of Ni and it has a parallelepipedal shape having a square base disposed on the second face 18, and a height H of about 3.6 .mu.m. Cavity 12 is a truncated reverse pyramid. The large base of the pyramid is square whose side is about 6 pm. The cavity 12 has a bottom 13f square whose side is about 3.2 pm. The side walls 14p are inclined at an angle of about 30 °. In addition, the contact 15 is formed by a gold layer (Au) having a thickness of about 0.2 μm. Unlike conventional hybridisation techniques using islands having a planar contact surface, the formation of a cavity, which is more flared, advantageously makes it possible to increase the contact surface intended to form an electrical connection.

The assembly method also provides a second substrate 20 with a projecting electrically conductive member 21. The element 21 can be made by any known means and compatible with the material of the second substrate 20. The projecting element 21 is preferably based on a metal 10 selected from the group comprising: Au, Cu, Ni, W, Pd, Ti. According to an exemplary embodiment, the projecting element 21 has a cylindrical shape having an axis of revolution substantially parallel to the axis (Oz). Element 21 preferably has a circular base with a diameter of about 5.5 μm. Furthermore, the projecting element 21 is formed by a stack of a copper (Cu) layer having a thickness of about 3 μm, surmounted by a layer of nickel (Ni) having a thickness of about 1 μm . According to a preferred embodiment illustrated in FIG. 5, the projecting element 21 is formed by an ECD deposit. For example, a seed layer 22 ("seed layer" according to the usual English term) is deposited on the face of the substrate 20 to be connected. The seed layer 22 is electrically conductive and it is preferably deposited on the entire face of the substrate 20 (full plate deposit) by spraying (FIG. 5A). The continuous seed layer 22 serves for electrolysis, and is masked over certain areas to delimit the location of the projecting elements 21. In fact, an insulating masking layer 23, for example of resin, can be spread on the seed layer 22. The thickness of the layer 23 is chosen to be sufficient to form protruding members 21 having a predefined thickness. Resin 23 can be structured using, for example, an optical technique in two stages: insolation and then development (FIG. 5B). The structuring step is performed so as to form holes 25 opening on patterns of the layer 22 in which the resin is removed, the remainder of the layer 22 remains covered by the resin 23. After the structuring of the resin 23 the substrate 20 is immersed in an electrolysis bath comprising, for example, a copper salt, in order to grow protruding elements 21 in the holes formed in the resin layer 23. It is possible to grow elements 21 which do not are not necessarily composed of one and the same conductive material. In fact, according to the exemplary embodiment illustrated in FIG. 5C, the substrate 20 has been immersed in two electrolysis baths in order to grow the projecting element 21 comprising a copper layer 21 'surmounted by a layer of nickel 21 ".

In assembling the first 10 and second substrates, the method provides for the use of a connecting material 30. The connecting material 30 is chosen so that it is more ductile than the material or materials of the element. Preferably, the connection material 30 is a material selected from the group consisting of: SnAgCu alloy, InSn alloy, SnAg, Sn, In alloy. According to a preferred embodiment, the material of connection 30 is arranged on the projecting element 21 before it is introduced into the cavity 12.

In fact, several techniques can be used to dispose the ductile material on the element 21. Preferably, the material 30 is deposited following the formation of the element 21 in the openings 25 made in the resin layer 23. .

The ductile material 30 can be deposited for example either by evaporation or by ECD. According to a preferred embodiment (FIG. 5D), after the growth of the element 21, the substrate 20 is immersed in an electrolysis bath in order to make the connecting material 30 grow. According to one embodiment, the diaper The deposited material is SnAg alloy and has a thickness of about 1.2 μm. According to other exemplary embodiments, the layer 30 is based on Sn alone or In alone. Moreover, according to another exemplary embodiment, an additional lithography step is performed so as to deposit a second insulating masking layer, for example resin. This layer partially covers the projecting element 21. Thus, the growth of the ductile material 30 leads to the formation of a stud 10 partially covering the projecting element 21. Thus, during a possible heating step to recast the Connection material 30, the latter does not flow outside the projecting element 21. According to another embodiment (Figure 5D '), the connection material 30, 15 for example In, can be deposited by a directional deposit, for example by evaporation. In this case the material 30 is deposited full plate, that is, on the elements 21 as well as on the resin layer 23. After the growth of the element 21 and / or the formation of the connection material 30, the Resin 23 is removed and the seed layer 22 is etched (Figures 5E and 5F). The removal of the seed layer 22 can be carried out wet or dry or by a combination of both. Preferably, the layer 22 is removed by an IBE (IBE) etching and plasma etching. This type of etching makes it possible to limit the lateral over-etching, which is advantageous for assemblies with a reduced lateral dimension. According to another embodiment illustrated in FIG. 6, the connection material 30 is disposed in the cavity 12 and not on the projecting element 21. The same steps used to deposit the material 30 on the element 21 3036226 19 may be adapted by the skilled person to deposit the connecting material 30 in the cavity 12. In addition, a second connecting material 31 more ductile than the material of the projecting element 21 may be disposed in the cavity 12 before the introduction of the projecting element 21 in the cavity 12. Preferably, the first 30 and second 31 materials are identical and are deposited on the element 21 and in the cavity 12. Such a configuration allows to have a contact between identical or similar materials, thereby facilitating the creation of an intermetallic compound between the connecting material (or materials), the protruding member 21 and the electrical contact of the cavity 12. For the rest of the assembly process, the projecting element 21 is then introduced into the cavity 12 so as to dispose the second element 21 in abutment against the side walls 14p. The connection material 30 is interposed directly between the projecting element 21 and the cavity 12 so as to electrically connect the projecting element 21 and the first electrical contact 15 (FIG. 3).

The assembly can be carried out with standard hybridization assembly equipment such as the FC150 equipment marketed by SET. This apparatus comprises a substrate support ("chuck" according to the usual English term) and a thermo-compression arm (not shown in the figures).

The first substrate 10 is disposed on the support, and the second substrate 20 is disposed on the thermo-compression arm. During assembly, the thermo-compression arm brings the second substrate 20 above the first substrate 10 so that the projecting elements 21 are arranged vis-à-vis the cavities 12. After a step of Alignment, the thermocompression arm introduces the projecting elements 21 into the cavities 12 to assemble the two substrates by the connecting material 30 (or the connecting materials 30 and 31). The assembly method thus makes it possible to provide an efficient electrical connection between the two substrates 10 and 20, in particular between the projecting element 21 and the island 17. In addition, the assembly process is easy to perform and it can be used according to the thermo-compression technique or the reflow technique or a combination of both. Due to the reduced dimensions of the projecting elements 21 and the cavities 12 and their architectures, the method according to the invention can advantageously be used for making interconnection assemblies with steps of less than 15 mA. The clever use of a projecting element 21 made of a less ductile material than the connecting material 30 advantageously makes it possible to form a stop wedge during assembly. The hold function provided by element 21 guarantees self-alignment and perfect control of the assembly height. The stop block 21 thus makes it possible to avoid, if not to minimize, the appearance of local mechanical stresses in the assembled substrates. In addition, the cavity 12 having flared walls makes it possible to increase the available area to form a mechanical and electrical contact with the connection material 30. As a result, the quality of the electrical connection 25 between the substrates via the material 30 is improved and the possibility of short circuit is limited. Moreover, by its ductile nature, the connecting material 30 advantageously allows to perfectly marry the surface of the cavity 12 may include roughness. The combination of a "hard" element 21 acting as a wedge and a ductile connecting material 30 advantageously makes it possible to obtain a pressure of the ductile material 30 against the surface of the cavity 12, by the element 21. This improves the contact 3036226 21 between the connecting material 30 and the surface of the cavity 12. This improvement is accompanied by a control of the height of the assembly through the abutting contact between the element 21 and the flared walls of the cavity 12.

The control of the assembly height makes it possible to facilitate the production and to improve the reliability of the "flip-chip" process, in particular the casting of an insulating resin ("underfill" for the usual English-speaking term), by epoxy example, between the two substrates 10 and 20. The provision of such a resin 10 advantageously makes it possible to avoid corrosion and to reduce the mechanical stresses during temperature cycles. Thus, the reliability of the process and that of the assembly made are improved. According to a preferred embodiment, the assembly process is advantageously carried out by the reflow technique. The connecting material 30 is chosen to have a melting temperature lower than the melting temperatures of the materials of the projecting element 21 and the first contact 15, which is preferably made of gold or copper. A gold or copper contact 15 advantageously allows a better wettability, thus facilitating the sliding of the element 21 on the walls 14p, which facilitates the self-alignment of the assembly. During the assembly step, the substrate support and / or the thermocompression arm of the assembly equipment is heated so as to keep the connecting material 30 at a temperature slightly above its temperature. fusion. Thus, the connection between the projecting element 21 and the first contact 15 by the connection material 30 is made by reflow. Moreover, the connecting material 30 can also be heated before the introduction of the projecting element 21 into the cavity 12.

Advantageously, the introduction of the projecting element 21 into the cavity 12 is followed by a pressure of the first and second 10,20 substrates towards each other. Preferably, the pressure P exerted on the first substrate 10 and / or the second substrate 20 is less than a value corresponding to a total load of 5 kg applied by the heat-compression arm of the assembly equipment to the first substrate 10 and / or the second substrate 20. According to a preferred embodiment, the connecting material 30 fills the volume delimited between the projecting element 21 and the bottom 13f so as to be in direct contact with the side walls 14p and the bottom 13f. Advantageously, by arranging the dimensions and architectures of the projecting element 21 and the cavity 12, the volume of the material 30 to be deposited can be determined so that it fills the entire available volume. By available volume is meant the subtraction of the volume of the cavity 12 by the volume of the portion of the element 21 disposed within the cavity 12. Thus, the electrical contact surface is advantageously increased. The assembly method according to the invention advantageously makes it possible to carry out a hybridization while benefiting from both the advantages of the reflow technique and those of the thermo-compression technique, while avoiding their disadvantages in whole or in part. Indeed, the method offers the possibility of applying a slight pressure to the ductile connection material in the liquid state, in contrast to a conventional reflow assembly.

Indeed, such a type of assembly uses planar connection pads connected by a ductile material. The existence of slight topographical defects or unevenness may cause open circuits and electrical connection faults between the pads. In addition, the absence of a stop block and a flared cavity shaped connection pad does not allow a pressure to be applied, with the risk of causing overflows and short circuits between two adjacent connections. . According to the invention, the pressure applied to the connecting material advantageously leads to an effective wetting of the connection material 30 on the surface of the cavity 12. Thus, the material 30 in the liquid state can spread perfectly over the entire cavity surface 12, benefiting from the enlargement of the contact surface provided by the shape of the cavity. In addition, the material 30 in the liquid state pressed by the element 21 may advantageously cover the topographic anomalies of the surface of the cavity 12 such as surface roughness. Furthermore, since the element 21 is still in the solid state, it forms a stopping block, thus making it possible to combine effective spreading of the connection material 30, efficient alignment, and precise control of the assembly height.

The use of a flared cavity in association with a protruding element configured to abut the side walls of the cavity is particularly advantageous. Coming into abutment on the side walls of the cavity makes it possible to avoid coming into contact with the bottom of the cavity, which makes it possible to reduce the mechanical stresses in this part of the substrate. This also limits the depression of the projecting element inside the cavity. It is then possible to predict the maximum volume of the protruding element that will be present in the cavity.

In addition, abutting on the side walls makes it possible to ensure better electrical contact on electrically conductive walls. In case of slight lateral and / or vertical misalignment, the projecting element comes into contact on a side wall and thus ensures the electrical connection. If a greater force is applied, the protruding element will align until contact is made on the two opposite walls.

The use of a ductile stud between the protruding element and the cavity makes it possible to reduce the applied pressure, since the ductile stud deforms more easily than the other materials. In the prior art document, the protruding element is deformed to conform to the shape of the cavity, which requires the use of a large pressure, thereby generating significant mechanical stresses. It is then very difficult to know when to stop the depression of the projecting element which can also lead to an overflow of the conductive materials present in the cavity and therefore to a short circuit.

Furthermore, abutting on the side walls makes it possible to define the volume of the maximum ductile material that can be used to prevent the ductile material from flowing out of the cavity. The risks of short circuit are then reduced.

Whether the stud of ductile material is formed at the end of the projecting element or in the cavity, it makes it possible to ensure electrical contact between the protruding element and the electrical contact of the cavity. Once the contact is made, the ductile stud will deform and increase the contact area between the protruding element and the concave surface of the cavity. In this way, the height differences between the two substrates are reduced, which reduces the risk of non-connection.

Claims (15)

  1. REVENDICATIONS1. Assembly comprising: - a first substrate (10) provided with a cavity (12) open on a first face (11) of the first substrate (10) and comprising: a bottom (13f), a first electrical contact (15), and two opposite side walls (14p) having a flared shape so that the distance between the two side walls (14p) decreases from the first face (11) to the bottom (13f); a second substrate (20) provided with an electrically conductive projecting element (21) inserted in the cavity (12) so as to abut against the side walls (14p) and to be separated from the bottom (13f); an electrically conductive connection material (30) forming a mechanical connection between the projecting element (21) and at least a portion of the side walls (14p) so as to electrically connect the projecting element (21) and the first electrical contact (15), the connecting material (30) being more ductile than the material of the projecting element (21).
  2. An assembly according to claim 1, wherein the projecting member (21) has a contact area (21c) configured to engage the side walls (14p), the projecting member (21) having a size lateral (d) at the contact zone (21c) greater than a distance separating the two side walls (14p) so as to abut against the side walls (14p) and to be separated from the bottom (13f).
  3. 3. Assembly according to claim 2 wherein the first electrical contact (15) is arranged on the two side walls (14p), and the connecting material (30) electrically and mechanically connects a portion of the projecting element (21). and a portion of the side walls (14p) located above the contact area (21c). 3036226 26
  4. 4. An assembly according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the first electrical contact (15) is formed by at least a portion of the side walls (14p) and / or the bottom (13f). 5
  5. 5. Assembly according to any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein the connecting material (30) is in contact with the bottom (13f).
  6. 6. An assembly according to any one of claims 1 to 5 wherein at least one of the side walls (14p) is inclined with respect to an axis (Oz) substantially perpendicular to the first face (11) at an angle a between 15 and 60 °.
  7. An assembly according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the projecting element (21) is separated from the bottom (13f) by a distance of at least 0.1 el.
  8. An assembly according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the cavity (12) is in the form of a truncated and inverted pyramid. 20
  9. 9. A method of assembling substrates comprising the following steps: - providing a first substrate (10) having a cavity (12) open on a first face (11) of the first substrate (10) and comprising: a bottom (13f ), two opposite side walls (14p) having a flared shape so that the distance between the two side walls (14p) decreases from the first face (11) to the bottom (13f), and a first electrical contact (15) ; - providing a second substrate (20) provided with a projecting element (21) electrically conductive; Providing a connection material (30) more ductile than the material of the projecting member (21); - introducing the projecting element (21) in the cavity (12) so as to dispose the second element (21) abutting against the side walls (14p), and to interpose the connecting material (30) directly between the projecting element (21) and the cavity (12) so as to electrically connect the projecting element (21) and the first electrical contact (15).
  10. The method of claim 9 wherein the connecting material (30) has a melting temperature lower than the melting temperatures of the materials of the protruding member (21) and the first contact (15), the connection between the projecting element (21) and the first contact (15) by the connection material (30) being made by reflow.
  11. 11. A method according to any one of claims 9 and 10, wherein the introduction of the projecting element (21) into the cavity (13) is followed by a pressure of the first and second (10, 20) substrates towards each other.
  12. The method of claim 11, wherein the pressure exerted on the first substrate (11) and / or the second substrate (21) is less than the pressure corresponding to a total load of 5 kg applied to the first substrate (10). and / or the second substrate (20).
  13. Method according to any one of claims 9 to 12, wherein the connecting material (30) is arranged on the projecting element (21) before the step of introducing the projecting element (21). in the cavity (12). 25
  14. 14. A method according to any one of claims 9 to 13, wherein the connecting material (30) fills the volume delimited between the projecting element (21) and the bottom (13f) so as to be in direct contact with the side walls (14p) and the bottom (15f). 3036226 28
  15. The method of any one of claims 9 to 12, wherein a second connecting material (31) more ductile than the material of the projecting member (21) is disposed in the cavity (12) prior to introduction. the projecting element (21) in the cavity (12). 5
FR1554315A 2015-05-13 2015-05-13 Connection by containment of a material between two contact elements Pending FR3036226A1 (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP3478033A1 (en) * 2017-10-25 2019-05-01 AT & S Austria Technologie & Systemtechnik Aktiengesellschaft Embedding component with pre-connected pillar in component carrier
WO2020079159A1 (en) * 2018-10-18 2020-04-23 Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh Method for producing an electronic component, wherein a semiconductor chip is positioned and placed on a connection carrier, corresponding electronic component, and corresponding semiconductor chip and method for producing a semiconductor chip

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JPH01226160A (en) * 1988-03-07 1989-09-08 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Terminal device for connecting electronic parts and manufacture thereof
US20060281219A1 (en) * 2005-06-14 2006-12-14 John Trezza Chip-based thermo-stack
US20130267113A1 (en) * 2010-11-05 2013-10-10 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives Connecting elements for producing hybrid electronic circuits
EP2738796A2 (en) * 2012-11-29 2014-06-04 Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives Method for producing a flip-chip structure for assembling microelectronic devices comprising an insulating block for guiding a connecting element and corresponding device

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH01226160A (en) * 1988-03-07 1989-09-08 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Terminal device for connecting electronic parts and manufacture thereof
US20060281219A1 (en) * 2005-06-14 2006-12-14 John Trezza Chip-based thermo-stack
US20130267113A1 (en) * 2010-11-05 2013-10-10 Commissariat A L'energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives Connecting elements for producing hybrid electronic circuits
EP2738796A2 (en) * 2012-11-29 2014-06-04 Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives Method for producing a flip-chip structure for assembling microelectronic devices comprising an insulating block for guiding a connecting element and corresponding device

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP3478033A1 (en) * 2017-10-25 2019-05-01 AT & S Austria Technologie & Systemtechnik Aktiengesellschaft Embedding component with pre-connected pillar in component carrier
US10765005B2 (en) 2017-10-25 2020-09-01 At&S Austria Technologie & Systemtechnik Aktiengesellschaft Embedding component with pre-connected pillar in component carrier
WO2020079159A1 (en) * 2018-10-18 2020-04-23 Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh Method for producing an electronic component, wherein a semiconductor chip is positioned and placed on a connection carrier, corresponding electronic component, and corresponding semiconductor chip and method for producing a semiconductor chip

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