FR3003091A1 - Technique for reducing the loss of encapsulation of solar cells in the manufacture of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module - Google Patents

Technique for reducing the loss of encapsulation of solar cells in the manufacture of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module Download PDF

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Publication number
FR3003091A1
FR3003091A1 FR1300505A FR1300505A FR3003091A1 FR 3003091 A1 FR3003091 A1 FR 3003091A1 FR 1300505 A FR1300505 A FR 1300505A FR 1300505 A FR1300505 A FR 1300505A FR 3003091 A1 FR3003091 A1 FR 3003091A1
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medium
photovoltaic
refractive index
encapsulation
composed
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FR1300505A
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French (fr)
Inventor
Lionel Girardie
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ATHELIOS
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ATHELIOS
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/04Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof adapted as photovoltaic [PV] conversion devices
    • H01L31/054Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means
    • H01L31/0549Optical elements directly associated or integrated with the PV cell, e.g. light-reflecting means or light-concentrating means comprising spectrum splitting means, e.g. dichroic mirrors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, illuminating, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • A01G9/243Collecting solar energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S40/00Components or accessories in combination with PV modules, not provided for in groups H02S10/00 - H02S30/00
    • H02S40/20Optical components
    • H02S40/22Light-reflecting or light-concentrating means
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology
    • Y02A40/264Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, or watering
    • Y02A40/266Collecting solar energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/52PV systems with concentrators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/10Agricultural machinery or equipment
    • Y02P60/12Agricultural machinery or equipment using renewable energies
    • Y02P60/124Collecting solar energy in greenhouses

Abstract

Photovoltaic greenhouse concentration technique characterized in that it consists in a partial filtration of the solar irradiation at different angles of incidence on the photovoltaic module by an optical medium composed of a nanostructure with bi-refractive properties or Bragg mirror and in that the concentration reduces by one third the number of photovoltaic modules for a given floor area of photovoltaic greenhouse.

Description

00 3 09 1, -1- Photovoltaic greenhouse concentration technique Introduction to the art: The manufacture of crystalline photovoltaic modules requires the following process: - glass cleaning or positioning of a material with high transparency positioning of an encapsulating film EVA "Ethylene Vinyl Acetate" which is mostly ethylene vinyl acetate on glass or material with high transparency - welding of a copper tape having a protective layer based on a silver-based alloy, lead and tin: the solder temperature does not exceed 250 ° C and lasts no more than 3 seconds by solar cells having areas shaped current collector line of the emitter metallizations over a width of 1 5 to 3 millimeters interconnection of the negative polarity 'front face of a cell of a P type substrate to the positive polarity' back side of a cell of a P type substrate for example - row arrangement of vs welded ellules - interconnection of rows for series mounting of solar cells requiring soldering of each current collector line - positioning of a film encapsulating on the matrix of cells positioning of a rear electric protection film or a glass or other lamination insulating materials for the purpose of encapsulating solar cells This technique is used unilaterally but has drawbacks: the encapsulating material EVA has a viscosity of great variability as a function of the temperature which induces a mechanical pressure on the of the interconnected solar cell device - the EVA encapsulant material containing 1% water releases acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide continuously which get trapped in the photovoltaic module causing corrosions, chemical reactions with solar cell surfaces, chemical reactions with the inner surface of glass and creates the corrosion of the glass by the formation of halides which are traps of electrons but also with the polymer used in electrical protection of the module - the EVA material having a real refractive index of between 1.49 and 1, 47 on the solar radiation band, which corresponds to a spectral response close to the white glass used, namely that the glass has a particular treatment - the EVA material being cross-linked on the surface of the glass, it is very difficult to separate by some techniques that it is the EVA film of the glass and the recycling of the glass including the EVA makes the materials constituting the glass too polluted and thus make the recycling of the module non-functional Pencapsulation of 60 solar cells on monocrystalline silicon wafer of square pseudo format of 156mm side obtained by the Czochralski growth method, "CZ" homojunction cell and homogeneous 18.6% efficiency emitter s following losses: from a ribbon interconnecting serially cells 2mm wide by 0.2mm thick and interconnecting the rows of heat-sealed cells with a ribbon of 5 by 0.3mm, the electrical losses are 2.5% optical losses are 1% for a glass with a porous silica layer of refractive index varying between 1.23 and 1.33 for a glass of transmittance on the solar spectrum of 93% the crystalline module of these 60 solar cells of 18.6% will have a yield of 15.85% or 2.75% and its temperature behavior will be very affected by encapsulation the solar cell of 18.6% on silicon CZ oriented "1-0 -0 "to homogeneous emitter will have a coefficient of variation of its power with respect to the temperature of a negative factor of 0,45 ° / 0 / ° Kelvin and the crystalline modulus using the EVA among others will have a coefficient of variation of its power of a negative factor of 0.51% / ° K the combination of glass materials 93% of transmittance with EVA and cells with homogeneous emitter is compatible but the technological evolution of the homojunction cells towards selective emitters and the rear passivations, the spectral response of the cells evolve greatly making the combination of the materials of a module improper and ineffective the crystalline silicon module is also characterized by the optical behavior of silicon, namely a high absorption coefficient in ultraviolet "UV" and near-infrared transparency "IR" and the behavior as a function of temperature a crystalline module is intimately linked to the ability to capture the spectral solar band whose wavelengths from 250 to 1300 nm representing 80% of the spectrum 1 3 00 3 09 1 -2- A photovoltaic greenhouse is described by FIGS. ° 1 and 2: the photovoltaic modules are under solar irradiation oriented at 180 ° south. In this type of construction, the module has a low efficiency by the shading operated by the north face of glass and thus reduces the production of energy, on the other hand, depending on the season, certain angles of incidence of the light rays are reflected. which reduces the electrical production performance and 5 also the greenhouse effect reduces the conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic modules. The present invention describes a technique making it possible to increase the spectral response of a photovoltaic module whatever the thin film or crystalline photovoltaic technology by the reflection of a part of the solar spectrum whatever the angle of incidence of the solar rays: this principle is described in figure 10 n ° 3. Description of the Photovoltaic Greenhouse Concentration Technique: The present invention is a technique of concentrating irradiation of solar origin on a photovoltaic module exposed to direct solar irradiation by partial filtration of solar irradiation to solar panels. different angles of incidence on the photovoltaic module by an optical medium composed of a nanostruture with bi-refractive properties or a Bragg mirror: this optical medium with partial reflection properties has the distinction of being transparent at certain lengths at certain angles of light incidence and does not obscure the passage of light through a greenhouse. This medium is an optical filter having bi-refractive or Bragg mirror properties by its constitution. The optical filter is exposed opposite to the photovoltaic module with an inclination at a defined angle: its angle is a function of the tilt angle of the photovoltaic module and is defined by: a = 0 - ia: angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module filter in degree 0 - angle of inclination of the photovoltaic module in degree index ranging between 5 and 20 The manufacture of the filter consists of an encapsulation of the film nanostructure. The filter is manufactured by assembling the following materials: - Silicone-based encapsulant-I transparent medium having a start of the spectral response from 200nrn and a 95% transmittance on the photovoltaic spectral and index variation band of refraction between 1.34 and 1.43 a nanostructured film composed of two distinct refractive media composed of a first medium of refractive index varying between 1.3 and 1.5 and a second medium of variation of refractive index between 1.6 and 2 encapsulant-II having a start of the spectral response starting from 350 nm and a transmittance of 40 93% on the photovoltaic spectral band and of variation of refractive index between 1.4 and 1 Another assembly technique of the silicone-based transparent-I-encapsulant I-based filter having a spectral response starting from 200 nm and a 95% transmittance on the photovoltaic and variat spectral band. refractive index ion between 1.34 and 1.43 a nanostructured film composed of two distinct refractive media composed of a first medium of refractive index varying between 1.3 and 1.5 and a second medium of refractive index variation between 1.6 and 50 encapsulant-II having a start of the spectral response starting from 350 nm and a transmittance of 93% on the photovoltaic spectral band and of variation of refractive index between 1, 4 and 1.46 transparent medium-II According to another assembly technique of the filter 55 - transparent medium-I - encapsulant-I based on silicone having a start of the spectral response from 200run and a 95% transmittance on the photovoltaic spectral band and refractive index variation between 1.34 and 1.43 - a nanostructured film composed of two distinct refractive media composed of a first medium 60 with a refractive index of between 1.3 and 1 , 5 and a second medium of variation of The transparent mediums I and II must have a transmittance of 92% on the spectral band 275-1500u-n are chosen from among the polymers, the polymethacrylate having a thickness of 1 mm to 6mm, FEP Perfluoro Ethylene Propylene type polymer of thickness between 25 and 200micron or a combination of these polymers, sodium carbonate glass and calcium or borosilicate glass or quartz glass. The transparent media I and II can have a texturing of the surface by pyramids or other geometries: the textured face will face the film nanostructure. The backward transparent-II medium must have a transmittance of 92% over the spectral band 275-1500 nm and if this medium is cerium-free glass which is replaced by antimony having a maximum thickness of 2 mm. The transparent medium-II may be an organic medium such as polymethacrylate. The transparent medium-II may be the combination of polyacrylate films between 10 and 100 micron thick and a metal film thickness between 5micron and 1mm or any other combination of fluoropolymer film and a film metal thickness varying between 10micron and 2mm. The encapsulants I and II may be chosen from silicones with a lamination temperature of less than 130 ° C. The silicone may be doped with either carbon nanotubes or with diamond in the form of a micrometric powder, or with graphite in the form of micrometric powder either by nanoluminophores. The silicone is either liquid, or a silicone gel, or silicone rubber with a thermoplastic or a thermoplastic. The nanostructure film is a birefringent optical medium or a Bragg mirror by its anisotropic optical properties: the optical medium is composed of two distinct refractive media composed of a first medium of refractive index varying between 1, 45 and 1.55 on the 200-1400 nm spectrum; and a second refractive index variation medium between 1.6 and 1.98 on the 200-1400 nm spectrum. Each refractive medium with optical anisotropy is in the form of a layer with a thickness greater than 10 angstroms and each medium has a thickness defined by the optical anisotropy required. Nanostructuring is defined by a nano-laminate composed of a multitude of layers with a thickness greater than 10 angstroms and each layer of which is a material with optical anisotropy having a refractive index varying between 1.55 and 1.45 for the medium. I and a refractive index varying between 1.98 and 1.6 for the medium II. The nano-laminate by its nanometric layers is therefore composed of levels which is the association of two interfaces polarizing a photon irradiation: the number of levels varies between 1 and 10 000 and very preferably between 200 and 35 1000 with level 1 characterizing the first one. polarization interface and the level 1000 the last polarization interface. The nano-laminate may have nano-texturing by prismatic shapes increasing the polarization and therefore reflection surfaces. The nano-texturing has pyramidal shapes in the depth of a medium I or II or both media and different patterns in the direction of the plane of the mirror according to the medium I or H and the level in the nano-laminate. Nanotexturing is described in another invention by the present inventor of the art and nanotexturing allows crosslinking.

The present invention has the advantage of: reducing by one third the number of modules on a photovoltaic greenhouse by the concentration for a given photovoltaic greenhouse surface of increasing the energy production efficiency controlling the type of photon irradiation according to needs under greenhouse 50 - the floor area of the photovoltaic greenhouse for an electricity production of x MWh (Mega Watt hour) will be Sc, ie a photovoltaic greenhouse ground surface at a concentration defined by: Sc = 0.8 * S: S being the floor area of a photovoltaic greenhouse with the same photovoltaic module without the present concentration technique as described in figure 3, ie 20% reduction of the floor the photovoltaic greenhouse by concentration 55 60 20 3

Claims (5)

  1. CLAIMS1 - Photovoltaic concentration technique on a greenhouse, characterized in that it consists in a partial filtration of the solar irradiation at different angles of incidence on the photovoltaic module by an optical medium composed of a nanostructure with bi-filter properties refracting or filtering by a Bragg mirror made by encapsulation of the nanostructure during the encapsulation of solar cells of the photovoltaic module and encapsulation of the nanostructure with the transparent medium used constituting the concentration filter of the module on the opposite side.
  2. 2 - Photovoltaic concentration technique on greenhouse characterized according to the preceding claim in that the optical filter is exposed opposite to the photovoltaic module with an inclination at an angle defined by u: angle of inclination of the filter in degrees O inclination angle photovoltaic module in degree i: index varying between 5 and 20
  3. 3 - Photovoltaic concentration technique on greenhouse according to claim 1 characterized in that the encapsulation of the nanostructured film consists of a method of assembly and combination of the following materials: - transparent medium-I - encapsulant-I silicone-based having a start of the spectral response starting from 200 nm and a transmittance of 95% on the photovoltaic spectral band and of variation of refractive index between 1.34 and 1.43 a nanostructured film composed of two distinct media of refringence composed of a first refractive index medium varying between 1.3 and 1.5 and a second refractive index variation medium between 1.6 and 2 encapsulant-II having a start of the spectral response from 350 nm and a transmittance of 93% on the photovoltaic spectral band and refractive index variation between 1.4 and 1.46
  4. 4 - Photovoltaic concentration technique on greenhouse according to claim 1 characterized in that the encapsulation of the nanostructured film consists of a method of assembling and combining the materials according to another embodiment of encapsulation: transparent medium-I 40 silicone encapsulant-I having a start of the spectral response starting from 200 nm and a transmittance of 95% on the photovoltaic spectral band and of variation of refractive index between 1.34 and 1.43 a nanostructured film composed of two distinct refractive media composed of a first refractive index medium varying between 1.3 and 1.5 and a second refractive index variation medium 45 between 1.6 and 2-encapsulant-II having a start of the spectral response starting from 350rtm and a transmittance of 93% on the photovoltaic spectral band and of variation of refractive index between 1.4 and 1.46 transparent medium-II
  5. 5 - Photovoltaic concentration technique on a greenhouse according to claim 1, characterized in that the encapsulation of the nanostructured film consists of a method of assembling and combining the materials according to another implementation of encapsulation: - transparent medium-I Silicone-based encapsulant-I having a start of the spectral response from 200nm and a 95% transmittance on the photovoltaic spectral band and a refractive index variation between 1.34 and 1.43 - a nanostructured film composed of two distinct refractive media composed of a first refractive index medium varying between 1.3 and 1.5 and a second refractive index variation medium 60 between 1.6 and 2 50 6 3 00 3 09 1 -5- 6 - Photovoltaic greenhouse concentration technique according to claim 4 characterized in that the transparent-I and II media must have a transmittance of 92% on the spectral band 275-1500run and are chosen by polymers, polymethacrylate with a thickness of 1 mm to 6 mm, a polymer of the FEP type Perfluoro Ethylene Propylene with a thickness between 25 and 200 μm, or a combination of these polymers, with sodium carbonate glass and calcium or borosilicate glass or quartz glass . 7 - photovoltaic greenhouse concentration technique according to any one of claims 3 and 4 10 characterized in that the encapsulants I and II are silicone formulations chosen from silicones either liquid, gel or gum by a thermoplastic polymerizable at lamination temperature below 130 ° C and whose silicone can be doped either with carbon nanotubes, or with diamond in the form of nanomaterial powder, or with graphite in the form of nanometric powder or with nanolumines. 8 - Photovoltaic concentration technique on a greenhouse according to any one of claims 1, 3 or 4, characterized in that the nanostructure is a birefringent optical medium or a Bragg mirror by its optical properties of anisotropy , which optical medium is composed of two distinct refractive media 20 composed of a first refractive index medium varying between 1.45 and 1.55 over the 200-1400 nm spectrum and a second index variation medium. of refraction between 1.6 and 1.98 on the 200-1400run spectrum and each medium refracting with optical anisotropy is in the form of a layer with a thickness greater than 10 angstroms and each medium has a thickness defined by the optical anisotropy necessary and that this nano-laminate by its nanometric layers is composed of levels which is the combination of two interfaces polarizing a photon irradiation: the number of levels varies between 1 and 10,000 and very preferably t between 200 and 1000 with the level 1 characterizing the first polarization interface and the level 1000 the last polarization interface 9 - Photovoltaic Concentration Technique Sus greenhouse according to any one of claims 1, 3, 4, 5, 5, 8 characterized in that the nanostructuration is defined by a nano-laminate which may have nano-texturing by prismatic forms increasing the polarization and therefore reflection surfaces and whose nano-texturing has pyramidal shapes in the depth of a medium I or II or both media and different patterns in the direction of the plane of the mirror according to the medium I or II and the level in the nano-laminate. 35 40 45 50 55 60 7
FR1300505A 2013-03-06 2013-03-06 Technique for reducing the loss of encapsulation of solar cells in the manufacture of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module Withdrawn FR3003091A1 (en)

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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3419434A (en) * 1964-07-21 1968-12-31 Martin Marietta Corp Solar cell assemblies
US20080029149A1 (en) * 2006-08-02 2008-02-07 Daniel Simon Method and apparatus for arranging a solar cell and reflector
US20090199889A1 (en) * 2008-02-07 2009-08-13 Rebecca Grace Willmott System and Method for the Improvement of Photovoltaic Cell Efficiency
US20100212720A1 (en) * 2009-02-23 2010-08-26 Tenksolar, Inc. Highly efficient renewable energy system
WO2012021650A2 (en) * 2010-08-10 2012-02-16 Tenksolar, Inc. Highly efficient solar arrays

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3419434A (en) * 1964-07-21 1968-12-31 Martin Marietta Corp Solar cell assemblies
US20080029149A1 (en) * 2006-08-02 2008-02-07 Daniel Simon Method and apparatus for arranging a solar cell and reflector
US20090199889A1 (en) * 2008-02-07 2009-08-13 Rebecca Grace Willmott System and Method for the Improvement of Photovoltaic Cell Efficiency
US20100212720A1 (en) * 2009-02-23 2010-08-26 Tenksolar, Inc. Highly efficient renewable energy system
WO2012021650A2 (en) * 2010-08-10 2012-02-16 Tenksolar, Inc. Highly efficient solar arrays

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