FR2946088A1 - System for producing electric energy, has heat exchanger provided between compressor and expansion turbine, and gasification unit that transforms substance e.g. biomass, into fuel gas for supplying fuel to combustion unit - Google Patents

System for producing electric energy, has heat exchanger provided between compressor and expansion turbine, and gasification unit that transforms substance e.g. biomass, into fuel gas for supplying fuel to combustion unit Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2946088A1
FR2946088A1 FR0902565A FR0902565A FR2946088A1 FR 2946088 A1 FR2946088 A1 FR 2946088A1 FR 0902565 A FR0902565 A FR 0902565A FR 0902565 A FR0902565 A FR 0902565A FR 2946088 A1 FR2946088 A1 FR 2946088A1
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France
Prior art keywords
gas
characterized
expansion turbine
exchanger
compressor
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FR0902565A
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French (fr)
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FR2946088B1 (en
Inventor
Etienne Lebas
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COGEBIO, FR
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IFP Energies Nouvelles IFPEN
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C3/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid
    • F02C3/20Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid using a special fuel, oxidant, or dilution fluid to generate the combustion products
    • F02C3/26Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid using a special fuel, oxidant, or dilution fluid to generate the combustion products the fuel or oxidant being solid or pulverulent, e.g. in slurry or suspension
    • F02C3/28Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of combustion products as the working fluid using a special fuel, oxidant, or dilution fluid to generate the combustion products the fuel or oxidant being solid or pulverulent, e.g. in slurry or suspension using a separate gas producer for gasifying the fuel before combustion
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C1/00Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid
    • F02C1/04Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid the working fluid being heated indirectly
    • F02C1/05Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid the working fluid being heated indirectly characterised by the type or source of heat, e.g. using nuclear or solar energy
    • F02C1/06Gas-turbine plants characterised by the use of hot gases or unheated pressurised gases, as the working fluid the working fluid being heated indirectly characterised by the type or source of heat, e.g. using nuclear or solar energy using reheated exhaust gas
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • Y02E50/12Gas turbines for biofeed

Abstract

The present invention relates to a system for producing energy, in particular electrical power, comprising a gas turbine (10) with at least one compressor (16) with at least one compression stage, at least one expansion turbine (20), a heat exchanger (18) between said compressor and said expansion turbine, and combustion means (12) supplied with a gaseous oxidant and a fuel gas. According to the invention, the system comprises a gasification means (14) for transforming a substance into a fuel gas for supplying the combustion means (12) with fuel.

Description

The present invention relates to a system for producing energy, particularly electrical and / or heat energy, comprising a gas turbine and a gasifier.

The gas turbine generally comprises at least one compressor with at least one compression stage, at least one expansion turbine, a device for exchanging heat between the compressor and the turbine for heating the compressed gases by the compressor to send them with a high temperature at the expansion turbine.

As already known from document EP 1 178 195, this type of system uses a heat exchanger traversed, on the one hand, by the hot fumes from a burner using an oxidizer and a fuel, and, on the other hand, on the other hand, by the compressed gases leaving the compressor.

During this exchange, the heat contained in the fumes is transmitted to compressed gases of the compressor passing through this exchanger. As a result, the hot compressed gases arrive at the inlet of the expansion turbine with sufficient temperature and pressure to rotate it. Under the impulse of this rotation, this turbine drives a shaft to which it is linked and which is also connected to the compressor. A current generator, usually a generator, is coupled to either the turbine or the compressor to produce an electric current.

It is also known from WO 02/055855 to use a biomass-based solid fuel for the burner so as to generate, by combustion, the hot gases intended to pass through the exchanger.

By way of example, the biomass used may be a solid and / or liquid substance which may be chosen from cellulose or lignocellulose products, such as wood, straw, algae, and the like. / or based on agricultural products and derivatives, such as vegetable oils, animal fats, etc.

Systems of the prior art as mentioned above have significant disadvantages. Indeed, the most used method for this type of burner, in a turbine power range of 100 KWth to 1000 KWth (KWth: KiloWatt thermal), is the movable gate furnace using biomass as fuel. This known method has the disadvantage of imposing the presence of a large and expensive dust collector at the outlet of the furnace to treat the particulate emissions resulting from this combustion. In addition, this combustion generates pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, which are related to the presence of cold zones in the fireplace chamber. In addition, this focus causes limitations on the quality of the fuel to be used and more particularly requires the use of a biomass fuel with a moisture of less than 30% to have smoke sufficiently hot, that is to say say at about 1000 ° C and with an ash melting temperature greater than about 1200 ° C to prevent blockage of its mobile grids. In addition, it is essential to inject under the grate of the combustion air with an ambient temperature to avoid overheating of the metal parts of the fireplace. This can only limit the possibilities of recycling hot air from the gas turbine.

The present invention proposes to overcome the drawbacks mentioned above by means of an electrical energy production system which makes it possible to obtain high energy efficiency by using a biomass-type fuel with a minimization of pollutant emissions and / or particles.

For this purpose, the present invention relates to a system for producing energy, in particular electrical power, comprising a gas turbine with at least one compressor with at least one compression stage, at least one expansion turbine, a heat exchanger between said compressor and said expansion turbine, and a combustion means fed with a gaseous oxidant and a fuel gas, characterized in that the system comprises a gasification means for converting a substance into a fuel gas for supplying the combustion means in fuel.

The gasification means may comprise at least one expanded gas inlet from the expansion turbine.

Advantageously, the gasification means may comprise a fixed bed reactor.

The heat exchanger may be a regenerative exchanger and preferably a rotary regenerative exchanger of sequential type. The exchanger may comprise an inlet of a mixture of hot gases from the combustion means and expanded gas from the expansion turbine.

The combustion means may comprise at least one inlet of a mixture of combustible gas and expanded gas from the expansion turbine.

The combustion means may comprise at least one fuel gas inlet and a expanded gas inlet from the expansion turbine.

The substance may comprise biomass in solid and / or liquid form.

The system may comprise a hot fluid generator traversed by the hot gases exiting the heat exchanger. The other features and advantages of the invention will be better described on reading the following description, given solely for illustrative purposes and non-limiting, and with reference to the single figure which is a diagram illustrating the electric power generation system according to the invention.

In this figure, the energy production system comprises a gas turbine 10, a combustion means 12, designated in the following description as a burner, of a mixture between an oxidant and a fuel from a Gasification means 14 of solid and / or liquid substances, here as an example of the biomass.

The gas turbine comprises a gas compressor 16 with at least one compression stage, a heat exchanger 18, an expansion turbine 20 with at least one stage connected by a shaft 22 to the compressor. This turbine also comprises an electric power generation means 24 controlled by the compressor and which comprises an electric generator 26 connected by a shaft 28 to this compressor. Of course, this generator can be alternately connected to the expansion turbine by a shaft.

The heat exchanger 18 may be a conventional heat exchanger of the tube-calender or alternating cross-flow plate type, for example. This exchanger may also be a regenerative exchanger and more particularly a regenerative rotary exchanger based on the principle of Lugjstrom-type exchangers, as described in the French patent application No. 2 916 240 of the applicant, and which comprises a disc with a multiplicity of radial sectors alternately traversed by hot gases from the burner 12 and compressed gases from the compressor 16.

This gas turbine also includes but not necessarily a hot fluid generator 30. Generally, this generator consists of an exchanger 32 that heats a fluid, such as water to transform it into hot water or steam.

In this configuration, the gas turbine is called a co-generation turbine since it produces both electrical energy and heat energy.

The burner 12 is of the conventional type with a volume within which combustion of a mixture of a gaseous fuel and a gaseous oxidant, such as air, occurs.

The gasification means 14 (or gasifier) makes it possible to obtain a combustible gas from the biomass by a thermochemical transformation of this biomass in the presence of a gaseous compound (air, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor. ..) in a reducing atmosphere. The result is the transformation of the material, except the ashes, into a combustible gas. This combustible gas, called biogas or syngas, essentially contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Its calorific value varies conventionally from 3.5 to 6 MJ / Nm3 depending on its concentration in various inert gases such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide, the concentration of which depends essentially on the gasification agents used and the process used. Existing biomass gasification technologies that can be applied to the present invention are of two types: fixed bed reactors and fluidized bed reactors. In processes with fixed bed reactors, the biomass is introduced into this reactor at its top and reacts with the contact with the oxidizing agent. The solid residue resulting from this reaction, called gasification ash, is recovered at the bottom of the reactor. The oxidizing agent, which is in this case generally air, passes through the reactor. The fuel gas thus formed leaves the reactor, carrying with it a significant amount of pyrolysis products and particles. The main advantage of fixed bed gasification processes is their simplicity of construction and are therefore generally used for small capacities. For fluidized bed processes, the biomass, which has previously been reduced in size (from a millimeter to a few tens of millimeters maximum) and dried, is introduced into a bed of sand, which improves the transfer of heat and matter. . The reactors used for this type of process can be classified into three categories depending on the fluidization velocity: dense fluidized beds, circulating fluidized beds and trained beds. Preferably, a fixed bed reactor will be chosen for small power units - less than 500 KWe (KWe: KiloWatt electric) - and circulating fluidized bed for large power units.

The compressor 16 comprises an inlet 34 of fresh gas containing oxygen, here outside air generally at ambient temperature, and a compressed air outlet 36 leading to a compressed air inlet 38 of the exchanger 18 through a line 40. The hot compressed gas outlet 42 of this exchanger is connected by a line 44 to the inlet 46 of the expansion turbine 20. The hot expanded gas outlet 48 of this turbine is connected to a line of air warm relaxed 50 whose role will be explained in the following description.

The exchanger 18 also comprises an inlet 52 for hot flue gases and a flue gas outlet 54 connected to the exchanger 32 of the generator 30 via a line 56. These flue gases exit the exchanger of the generator via an evacuation 58 to be directed to all evacuation and treatment means, such as a chimney (not shown). The hot fluid generator is thus used in particular for heating water entering the exchanger 32 through an inlet 60 and emerging in the form of hot water or water vapor through an outlet 62 of this exchanger.

The gasifier 14, which uses the fixed bed reactor method here, comprises a route for introducing the substance in the form of biomass, preferably in the upper part of the reactor, and a heated hot gas inlet 66 coming from the line 50. This gasifier comprises, advantageously in its lower part, an evacuation 68 of solid residues, called gasification ashes, resulting from the gasification process. The fuel gas resulting from this gasification is discharged via a line 70 to an inlet 72 of the burner 12.

As is widely known, this fuel gas contains a significant portion of high molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds, more commonly known as tars, which generate problems of fouling and clogging of any type and more particularly on pipes. In addition, and whatever the gasification technology used, the step of purifying this combustible gas is particularly important for uses with internal combustion engines that do not tolerate the presence of tar in this combustible gas. This purification is essentially carried out by a washing operation, either with water, which must then also be purified before rejecting, or with an organic product which is generally recycled.

Thanks to the invention, the combustion of the hot fuel gas, as soon as it leaves the gasifier, avoids the problems of condensation of tars and thereby avoids the steps of purification of the fuel gas.

Indeed, the tars are burned with this gas and thus produce energy. The overall efficiency of the gasifier is therefore improved, since the energy expenditure related to the purification of the combustible gas is suppressed and the tars contribute to the thermal efficiency.

Advantageously, this combustible gas can be mixed with hot expanded gas coming from a bypass line 74 from a tapping 76 of the line 50 before being introduced into the burner 12 via the inlet 72.

Alternatively, the fuel gas line 70 can lead directly to the inlet 72 of the burner and, as shown in dashed lines in the figure, the bypass line 74 of hot expanded gas can result in another inlet 78 of the burner. to achieve the mixture of hot expanded gas and fuel gas necessary for the realization of combustion.

The hot fumes exiting this burner are directed towards the inlet 52 of the exchanger 18 via a line 80 to cross it and out through the outlet 54.

Advantageously, hot expanded gas coming from another line 82 in line with line 50 may terminate on line 80. As illustrated in the figure, this other bypass line comes from a junction point 84 placed on the bypass line 74 but may be from another stitching on the line 50. Similarly, hot expanded gas from a line 84 bypass of the line 50 may lead to the line 56 connecting the outlet 54 of the exchanger 18 to the generator 30. This other bypass line is derived from a junction point 86 placed on the shunt line 82 but may be from another branch on the line 50.

Of course, the line 50 and the bypass lines 74, 82 and 84 may carry means for regulating the circulation (not shown) of the hot expanded gas circulating therein. These means may be valve means, such as multi-position valves between a fully closed position of the line concerned and a full open position of this line. By this, it is possible to adjust the amount of hot expanded gas to be introduced into the gasifier 14 to obtain the desired quality of fuel gas output gasifier, and / or to mix with the fuel gas to achieve the desired combustion in the burner 12, and / or to combine with the hot smoke leaving the burner to adjust the temperature of the mixture that passes through the exchanger 18 and / or to incorporate with the fumes exiting the exchanger 18 to adjust the temperature of the mixture that flows through the exchanger 32 of the generator 30. During operation of the system as illustrated in the single figure, outside fresh air, preferably a fresh gas containing oxygen at ambient temperature and pressure, is admitted to the inlet 34 of the compressor 16 to be compressed. This compressed air gas is then sent via line 40 to the inlet 38 of the exchanger 18 to be heated by heat exchange with the hot fumes which pass through it between the inlet 52 and the outlet 54.

This compressed air leaves the exchanger under a high temperature (of the order of 700 to 900 ° C) to be brought via line 44 to the inlet 46 of the expansion turbine 20. Under the effect of pressure and the energy that it conveys, this compressed gas under high temperature generates a rotation of this turbine. The rotation of this turbine in turn rotates the compressor 16 by the shaft 22 and the generator 26 by the shaft 28. The hot expanded gas leaving the expansion turbine 20, which is substantially at atmospheric pressure, is sent via line 50 to gasifier 14 and / or to line 74 (or admission 78) and / or line 82 and / or line 84. The biomass that is introduced into the gasifier via route 64 and Hot expanded gas that is sent through the line 50 to the inlet 66 of the gasifier makes it possible to produce a combustible gas, as has been described above. This combustible gas is sent to the inlet 72 of the burner 12, either by being mixed with hot expanded gas from the branch line 74, or directly into the burner where it will be mixed with the hot expanded gas from that line by 78. The combustion of the mixture between the fuel gas and the hot expanded gas makes it possible to produce high temperature fumes (of the order of 800 to 1000 ° C.) which are directed by line 80 towards the inlet of the exchanger 18. During the passage of this exchanger, the fumes yield a very large part of the heat they contain to the compressed gas circulating in this exchanger between the inlet 38 and the outlet 42.

These fumes exit the exchanger 18 and are directed by the line 56 at the inlet of the exchanger 32 of the hot fluid generator 30 they cross to exit through the line 58. The water that is admitted by the Inlet 60 recovers the calories conveyed by the fumes by heating up or vaporizing to leave the exchanger via the outlet 62.

The present invention is not limited to the examples described above but encompasses all variants and all equivalents without departing from the scope of the invention as defined above.

Claims (10)

  1. CLAIMS1) Power generation system, in particular electrical, comprising a gas turbine (10) with at least one compressor (16) with at least one compression stage, at least one expansion turbine (20), a heat exchanger (18) between said compressor and said expansion turbine, and a combustion means (12) supplied with a gaseous oxidant and a fuel gas, characterized in that the system comprises a gasification means (14) for converting a substance into a fuel gas for supplying the combustion means (12) with fuel.
  2. 2) electric power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that the gasification means (14) comprises at least one expanded gas inlet (66) from the expansion turbine (20).
  3. 3) Electric power generation system according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the gasification means (14) comprises a fixed bed reactor. 20
  4. 4) Electrical power generation system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the heat exchanger (18) is a regenerative heat exchanger.
  5. 5) A system for generating electrical energy according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the exchanger (18) is a rotary regenerative exchanger of sequential type.
  6. 6) A system for generating electrical energy according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the exchanger comprises an inlet (52) of a mixture of hot gases from the combustion means (12) and expanded gas from the expansion turbine (20).
  7. 7) A system for generating electrical energy according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the combustion means (12) comprises at least one inlet (72) of a mixture of combustible gas and expanded gas from the expansion turbine (20).
  8. 8) Electric power generation system according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the combustion means (12) comprises at least one fuel gas inlet and a gas expansion inlet (78) from the expansion turbine (20).
  9. 9) Electric power generation system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the substance comprises biomass in solid and / or liquid form. 15
  10. 10) A system for producing electrical energy according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it comprises a hot fluid generator (30) through which the hot gases exiting the exchanger (18). 10
FR0902565A 2009-05-26 2009-05-26 System for generating energy, especially electrical, with a gas turbine using a fuel from a gasifier Expired - Fee Related FR2946088B1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014143372A1 (en) * 2013-03-12 2014-09-18 Carl David Nordstrom Power-generating apparatus and method

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1993024704A1 (en) * 1992-05-29 1993-12-09 Chemrec Ab A process for recovering chemicals and energy from cellulose waste liquor
GB2274880A (en) * 1993-02-03 1994-08-10 Shell Int Research Process for generating electricity
US5687570A (en) * 1994-02-28 1997-11-18 Ormat Industries Ltd. Externally fired combined cycle gas turbine system
GB2444856A (en) * 2006-12-16 2008-06-18 Keld Energy Ltd Generating power from biomass
FR2916240A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-21 Inst Francais Du Petrole System for generating energy, especially electrical, with a gas turbine and a rotary regenerative heat exchanger.
FR2928414A1 (en) * 2008-03-07 2009-09-11 Sorea Sarl Device for generating energy from biomass

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1993024704A1 (en) * 1992-05-29 1993-12-09 Chemrec Ab A process for recovering chemicals and energy from cellulose waste liquor
GB2274880A (en) * 1993-02-03 1994-08-10 Shell Int Research Process for generating electricity
US5687570A (en) * 1994-02-28 1997-11-18 Ormat Industries Ltd. Externally fired combined cycle gas turbine system
GB2444856A (en) * 2006-12-16 2008-06-18 Keld Energy Ltd Generating power from biomass
FR2916240A1 (en) * 2007-05-15 2008-11-21 Inst Francais Du Petrole System for generating energy, especially electrical, with a gas turbine and a rotary regenerative heat exchanger.
FR2928414A1 (en) * 2008-03-07 2009-09-11 Sorea Sarl Device for generating energy from biomass

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014143372A1 (en) * 2013-03-12 2014-09-18 Carl David Nordstrom Power-generating apparatus and method

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