FR2942358A1 - System and method for recharging a battery - Google Patents

System and method for recharging a battery Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2942358A1
FR2942358A1 FR0951003A FR0951003A FR2942358A1 FR 2942358 A1 FR2942358 A1 FR 2942358A1 FR 0951003 A FR0951003 A FR 0951003A FR 0951003 A FR0951003 A FR 0951003A FR 2942358 A1 FR2942358 A1 FR 2942358A1
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Prior art keywords
battery
charge
charging
vehicle
time
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Granted
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FR0951003A
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French (fr)
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FR2942358B1 (en
Inventor
Denis Porcellato
Eric Breton
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PSA Automobiles SA
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Peugeot Citroen Automobiles SA
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/10Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles characterised by the energy transfer between the charging station and the vehicle
    • B60L53/14Conductive energy transfer
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/10Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles characterised by the energy transfer between the charging station and the vehicle
    • B60L53/11DC charging controlled by the charging station, e.g. mode 4
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/30Constructional details of charging stations
    • B60L53/32Constructional details of charging stations by charging in short intervals along the itinerary, e.g. during short stops
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/12Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries responding to state of charge [SoC]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles

Abstract

The present invention relates to a charging management system of an electric power storage battery power supply (5) of an electric or hybrid power train of a vehicle in the immobilization phase. According to the invention, it comprises: a data interface (1), an electronic battery management calculator (4), this computer being connected in parallel with the battery (5) and with means for recharging the battery (4). battery (6, 7), - a vehicle supervisor (3) connecting the data interface (1) to the electronic battery management computer (4) via an intelligent BSI (2) servocontrol unit, said electronic battery management calculator (4) comprising means for receiving information transmitted from the data interface (1) via the vehicle supervisor (3) and the BSI intelligent servocontrol unit (2), information processing means for determining a period of immobilization of the vehicle from this information and a full charging time of the battery from the initial state of charge of the battery and means for programming instructions of charge of the battery (6, 7) in function n of the downtime versus charge duration for the battery to reach the highest state of charge just prior to use so that it remains in a low or lowest charge state for the longest time possible in storage.

Description

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR RECHARGING A BATTERY

The present invention relates to a charging management system of an electric power storage battery power supply of an electric or hybrid power train of a vehicle. The invention also relates to an associated recharge management method. The present invention is intended in particular to increase the life of a battery while reducing the manufacturing cost of such a battery by avoiding its oversizing compared to the specifications for which the vehicle was designed. One of the current goals with regard to electrochemical storage sources (ESS) is that they can last the life of the vehicle, usually between 10 and 15 years. There are two types of aging: aging due to its use and calendar aging that corresponds to the intrinsic aging of the battery. The aging of a battery is expressed by the gradual loss of performance in terms of energy and available power. Therefore, the battery must be oversized at the beginning of life so that it can always meet the specifications in terms of energy and end-of-life power. But the battery is an expensive component that must be dimensioned to the fair according to the specifications of the vehicle, to minimize the impact of its cost. Batteries that are physicochemical components are particularly sensitive to state of charge and temperature.

Thus the two main parameters that influence the calendar life and aging due to its use are the state of charge and temperature. The lower the storage or use temperature, the better the service life. Likewise, the lower the state of charge at which the battery is stored or used, the better the service life.

Table 1 above illustrates the data concerning the calendar lifetime expressed in years for a Lithium battery as a function of the state of charge compared to its load capacity for three temperatures 25 ° C, 45 ° C and 60 ° C Life span U, Z Life expectancy Life span i (year). .

Table 1

It can be seen from this table that the calendar life has increased from 17.7 years at 25 ° C with a state of charge to 50% at only 2.6 years at 25 ° C with a state of charge at 100%.

The calendar aging parameter is therefore a parameter that should not be neglected. Indeed the vehicle is in parking mode 95% of its time. Therefore, to improve the calendar life of the storage source, it is necessary to optimize the management of the state of charge when the battery is in storage mode.

In the state of the art, for motor vehicles whose motorization makes full or partial use of a source of electrical energy storage, there is no management of the state of charge of this source so as to optimize its operation according to the need for use of the vehicle. In particular there is no management of the state of charge of the battery when the vehicle is in parking mode, in the phase of non-use. Generally, when the battery is connected to the network or to a fast charging terminal, this source is charged at full load, that is to say at 100% when the charging time is sufficient immediately, even if the vehicle does not have a charge. is not used immediately after the end of charge. Such use of the battery, in accordance with the data shown in Table 1, rapidly degrades the performance of the storage source. According to Table 1, whatever the storage temperature, the calendar lifetime is divided by a factor of the order of 7, if the state of storage load from 50% to 100%. The present invention therefore aims at providing a device and a battery management method for overcoming the technical disadvantages described above, to improve the life of a battery according to the different profiles of the vehicle, while allowing to size at most just the battery, depending on the specifications of the vehicle, to minimize the impact of its manufacturing cost.

For this, the principle of the invention is to fully charge the electrochemical storage source but by programming its load so that it reaches the high load states just before its use so that it remains in the lowest charge states as long as possible in storage mode. The term "battery or storage source in storage mode" when the vehicle is in parking mode. In this way, the life of the battery is improved. Of course, it is also necessary to ensure the lowest possible storage or use temperature by having an effective ventilation or air conditioning system.

For this purpose, the invention therefore relates to a charging management system of an electric power storage battery power supply of an electric or hybrid power train of a vehicle. According to the invention, it comprises: a data interface; an electronic management computer for the battery intended for charging the battery, this computer being connected in parallel with the battery and charging means of the battery; battery, a vehicle supervisor connecting the data interface to the electronic management computer of the battery, via an Intelligent Service Box (BSI), the electronic battery management calculator comprising receiving means information transmitted from the data interface via the vehicle supervisor and the BSI intelligent service box, information processing means for determining a period of immobilization of the vehicle based on this information and a charging duration complete battery from the initial state of charge of the battery and means to program charging instructions of the battery according to the hard e of immobilization with respect to the charging time so that the battery reaches the highest state of charge just before use so that it remains in a low or low state of charge as long as possible in storage . Thus, the management system according to the invention makes it possible to ensure that the battery in storage mode remains in a state of charge that is as low as possible for as long as possible, so that the system of the invention makes it possible to program the charge of the battery at a sufficient or full charge level for the use of the vehicle only before use, without automatically recharging the battery 100% immediately after use and leaving the battery in storage mode in a high state of charge, which would damage the battery and greatly reduces its service life. According to one embodiment of the invention, the data interface comprises means for displaying data concerning, among other things, the state of charge of the battery before charging and at the end of charging, and means of data acquisition.

In general, these data input means comprise a keypad, a remote control, or a voice recognition system. According to one embodiment of the invention, the electronic management computer of the battery comprises an internal memory in which is recorded an abacus giving the charging time as a function of the initial state of charge of the battery. According to one embodiment, said recharging means are constituted by a charging station and an onboard charger on board the vehicle.

In addition, the system includes a clock, this clock being integrated in the electronic management computer of the battery or in the supervisor. The invention also relates to a method for managing the state of charge of a battery using the charging system as defined above.

According to the invention, it comprises the following steps when the driver wishes to program the charging instructions of the battery in storage mode before the next use of the vehicle: - the state of charge of the battery is measured to know its remaining capacity, - enter the date and time of the next use corresponding to the time tf, - this information is transmitted by the vehicle supervisor to the electronic management computer of the battery which determines the period of immobilization of the vehicle and the duration of charge complete battery; - depending on the length of time the vehicle has been idle in relation to the duration of the total charge, the computer schedules battery charging instructions so that it reaches the highest state of charge just prior to its use; the instant tf so that it remains in a low state of charge or lowest for as long as possible in storage. Advantageously, the management method comprises an additional step in which: - the temperature T ,,, is measured within the battery - the value of this measured temperature is compared with a value of temperature Tcharge allowing recharging without damaging the battery prerecorded in the internal memory of the computer, - when the measured value T ,,, is greater than the prerecorded value Tcharge, the electronic management computer of the battery recalculates the immobilization time of the vehicle which is the difference between the 25 vehicle downtime calculated from the information entered by the driver and the time required for the temperature within the battery to reach the level allowing charging without damaging the battery. According to an embodiment of the method of the invention, when the computer determines that the duration of immobilization is greater than the duration of the load, the charging instructions consist in completely delaying the charge of the battery over time. so that it starts only at a time t1 subsequent to to and ends at time tf, the difference between the two instants tf-ti corresponding to the charging time of the battery determined by the computer.

According to another embodiment of the method of the invention, when the computer determines that the duration of immobilization is greater than the duration of the load, the charging instructions consist in defining at least four phases of charging the battery so that it starts the charge at instant to corresponding to the initial moment of the immobilization phase of the vehicle and then reaches in state of charge level increments the highest state of charge (100% ) just before the moment tf corresponding to the use of the vehicle. Preferably, the setpoints comprise four charging phases which are defined as follows: - phase 1: the load starts at to, when the user has entered the date and the time in the interface and ends when the state of charge of the battery reaches a predefined SOC1 state of charge; phase 2: the battery is kept idle at SOC1 for a period t2-t1; phase 3: the charge starts at t2 and ends when the battery voltage reaches a value Uc at time t3; phase 4 : the constant voltage charge Uc ends as soon as one of the two criteria is reached: - either when the intensity decreasing during this phase reaches the cut-off threshold If, - or when the duration of this phase 4 reaches a duration prefixed At, At being defined so that the load ends at time t4, t4 may be less than or equal to the time tf indicated by the driver.

The invention will be better understood on reading the description which follows and on examining the figures which accompany it. These figures are given for illustrative purposes only but in no way limitative of the invention: Figurel schematically represents a system for managing recharging of a battery according to the invention; FIG. 2 represents a current and voltage profile of a battery charge as a function of time in the case of conventional battery charging management; FIG. 3A represents the profile of the state of charge of a battery and the profile of the corresponding charging current as a function of time of a charged battery according to a first embodiment of the invention, FIG. 3B illustrating the profile of the voltage and current profile as a function of time corresponding to the charging phase of the battery, - Figure 4A represents the profile of the state of charge of a battery and the profile of the corresponding charging current according to the time of a charged battery according to a second embodiment of the invention, Figure 4B illustrating the profile of the voltage and the current profile as a function of time corresponding to the charging phase of the battery.

Figure 1 schematically show the architecture of a charging management system of a battery according to the invention. The battery 5 is connected here to an electric motor 8. An inverter 9 is arranged between the battery 5 and the electric motor 8 to ensure the transfer of energy between the two elements. The battery is connected on the one hand to a fast charging station 7 such as the EDF electricity network, on the other hand to an on-board charger 6 in the vehicle. This battery can be used in an electric or hybrid power train of a motor vehicle.

This management system also comprises a data interface 1 which can be for example a screen disposed at the level of the passenger compartment, accessible by the driver. This data interface 1 is provided with a keypad or a remote control (not shown), or a voice recognition system (not shown), allowing the driver to enter the date and time of the next use of the vehicle or the period of immobilisation of the vehicle. To manage the charging of this battery, the system further comprises an electronic management computer battery 4 for charging the battery 5. This computer 4 is interconnected between the data interface 1 and the battery. This calculator is connected to a recharging means such as a fast charging station 7 or an on-board charger 6. This electronic charge management computer of the battery 4 comprises means for receiving information transmitted from the interface of the battery. data 1 via an intelligent servo housing denoted BSI 2 and a vehicle supervisor 3, information processing means for determining a period of immobilization of the vehicle from the information entered by the driver and a full charging time of the battery according to the initial state of charge of the battery and means for programming charging instructions of the battery 5 so that it reaches the highest state of charge just before use so that it remains in a state of charge low or lowest as long as possible in storage. This battery 5 is connected either to a fast charging station 7 or to the network via an on-board charger 6 The various technical means constituting the electronic management computer of the battery 4 are not shown in FIG. 1. The electronic management calculator of FIG. the battery is associated with means for measuring the voltage, current and temperature of the battery. In this way, the information such as the state of charge of the battery, the temperature thereof detected during the commissioning of this battery are also transmitted to the computer and stored in a data storage means, such as a memory internal to the calculator. This information can also be displayed continuously on the interface, they can also be displayed at the request of the driver. When the driver enters the downtime or the date and time of the next use of the vehicle to program the battery charging instructions, this information is transmitted via the BSI 2 and the vehicle supervisor 3 to the vehicle. the calculator 4.

The calculator 4 determines the time that separates the moment of the next use from the moment when the date and time information is entered at the interface by the driver. Information such as the initial state of charge of the battery, the capacity of the battery, the current levels available by the on-board charger or the fast charging station which are stored in the internal memory of the computer then allow the battery of evaluate the full charging time of the battery. To refine the estimation of the charge duration, it is possible to ask the computer of the electronic management of the battery 4 to determine the state of health of the battery at any moment of its lifetime in order to know the real capacity drums.

An alternative solution is to enter into the computer 4 charts showing the charging time according to the initial state of charge of the battery depending on whether the battery is recharged by the on-board charger or by the fast charging station.

Another even simpler solution is to enter a preset value increasing the charging time regardless whether the load is through the charger or the fast charging station, or two predefined values increasing the charging time, one for charging with on-board charger, the other for a charge with the fast terminal.

Advantageously, the electronic management computer of the battery 4 can also receive the information concerning the temperatures measured within the battery to the computer. It is then possible to envisage a step of stabilizing the temperature within the battery before recharging it. For this, a temperature level is preset to allow charging without damaging the battery. The value of this temperature Tcharge is prerecorded in the internal memory of the computer 4. In this case, taking into account the parameter of the temperature, two operating situations can be considered. A first operating situation where the temperatures measured within the battery do not oppose an immediate recharge, in this case the load can start immediately. A second situation can be envisaged in which the level of temperatures measured within the battery is higher than the tolerated level and therefore opposes an immediate recharge. In this case, the electronic management computer of the battery 4, as soon as the temperatures measured within the battery have reached levels allowing charging, recalculates the remaining downtime which is the difference between the calculated downtime from the information entered by the driver and the time required for the temperature level within the battery to reach the charge. The calculator then estimates whether the remaining immobilization period thus updated is greater than the duration of the complete charge. If so, the electronic management computer of the battery 4 then makes the decision to completely defer the load or certain phases of the load and determines the time parameters of the modified load profile.

The computer 4 then schedules charging instructions of the battery so that it reaches the highest state of charge just before its use which corresponds to the instant tf so that it remains in a low state of charge or the lower as long as possible in storage, when the vehicle is not in use. The principle of this program is to modify the charging time profile of the conventional battery, to adapt it according to the driver's need for use. These instructions are then sent by the computer as commands to the recharging means 6, 7 to control them.

Figure 2 illustrates an example of IU load time profile of a lithium battery, without charging strategy to optimize the calendar life. More precisely, FIG. 2 represents a first curve of the intensity of the charging current I (t) and a second curve of voltage U (t) between two times t0 and tf. The initial moment to corresponds to the instant when the battery is connected to the network via the on-board charger 6 or to a fast charge terminal by the driver. There is a first constant-current charging phase 11 which immediately starts at to t2, corresponding to a voltage value Uc, followed by a second phase at constant voltage Uc during which the current decreases until to reach an intensity If. Generally, there are two end of charge criteria: either when the intensity which decreases during this second phase reaches the predefined value If, or when the duration of this second constant voltage phase Uc reaches the predetermined duration At corresponding to tf ù t2. The duration It is clear from this charging time profile that the charge is not delayed but starts as soon as the vehicle is connected to the network or to the fast charging station and the battery is then charged continuously. As a result, the battery remains 100% charged well before the next use and will remain in this state for the duration of the immobilization of the vehicle. Such use of the battery, in accordance with the data shown in Table 1, rapidly degrades battery performance and shortens battery life. Figures 3.A and 3B illustrate the charging time profile of a battery according to a first embodiment of the invention. The computer schedules load instructions so that the load is completely deferred in time so that it starts only at time t1 and ends at tf corresponding to the date and time programmed by the driver. This time ti is determined by knowing the duration of the load and the total downtime of the vehicle. It is assumed here that the battery is completely discharged and that it is in a state of charge SOC = 0% before charging. Three phases are distinguished in these FIGS. 3A and 3B: Phase 1: the battery is kept at rest at its rest voltage U less than Uc, the state of charge SOC being equal to 0% here in this example of charge for a duration t1 û to, - Phase 2: phase 2 starts at instant t1 where it is charged at constant current 11 and ends when the battery voltage reaches the value Uc, - Phase 3: phase 3 to constant voltage Uc ends at tf, corresponding to the moment entered by the driver, the charging time being equal to the difference between tf and t1. Thus, by implementing the management system of the invention, the battery does not remain charged unnecessarily to 100%, it reaches its maximum state of charge only just before the use of the vehicle. However, this load management mode does not allow the user to quickly have a minimum threshold state of charge enabling him immediate autonomy if he decides to use his vehicle before the scheduled time for the charge. To overcome this drawback, it is recommended a second embodiment of the invention illustrated in Figures 4A and 4B. In this second embodiment, the computer schedules the charging instructions so that the battery is charged in several phases. Unlike the embodiment described above, here the load starts at time t0, when the user has connected his vehicle and has entered the interface the date and time he wants to use his vehicle. This is to allow the battery to quickly reach a state of charge SOC1 allowing a minimum available autonomy if the user needed the vehicle earlier than expected. The level SOC1 can be a parameter predefined by the driver or by the computer. The value 50% would be a good value, since it allows an appreciable autonomy value while reducing the effects of calendar aging according to Table 1. Then the battery is kept at rest at SOC1 and the charge resumes at t2 so that the charge ends at the time indicated by the user. An example of charge time profiles obtained according to this second embodiment is illustrated in FIGS. 4A and 4B, there are four charging phases: - phase 1: the charge starts at to, at which moment the user has entered the date and the time in the interface and ends when the state of charge of the battery reaches a predefined SOC1 state of charge; phase 2: the battery is kept idle at SOC1 for a period t2-t1, phase 3: the charge starts at t2 and ends when the battery voltage reaches a value Uc at time t3, phase 4: the constant voltage charge Uc ends as soon as one of the two criteria is reached: 15 - either when the intensity which decreases during this phase reaches the cut-off threshold If, - or when the duration of this phase 4 reaches a predetermined duration At, At being defined so that the load ends at time t4 indicated by the driver. In Figures 4A and 4B, this At corresponds to t4-t3. Thus t4 may be less than or equal to the time tf indicated by the driver.

It can also be provided that the charge ends a certain amount of time before the date and time entered by the user, to ensure that the battery is actually fully charged at the scheduled time of the vehicle pick-up. This duration can for example be one hour.

An example of application of the system and the method of handling the recharging of a battery according to the invention is described above:

A vehicle comprises a battery of 80 lithium cells with a nominal voltage of 3.5V and a capacity of 80 Ah (total energy 22 kWh). It is assumed that this vehicle has an average consumption of 150Wh / km. The autonomy of this vehicle is 150km. It is also assumed that the battery temperature in taxi mode, parking mode and charging mode is 25 ° C.

In this example, the damage of the battery is compared in the case where the charging management system of the invention is used for damage when it has no charge management control. 1) Coefficient of damage to the battery when it does not have control over charging: Table 2 above illustrates one week of an example of the distribution of the hours spent at different states of charge of the battery. assuming that the driver puts back in charge as soon as he arrives at his home at night: SOL; (%) hours% f 39 total: 100 Table 2 The coefficients of damage at 25 ° C taking the coefficient equal to 1 corresponding to a lifetime of 17.7 years are summarized in Table 3. Coefines damage SOC 0 , 0 25''C 100 6.8 .90 8 3.2 7o 6.0 N / A Table 3

The average damage coefficient calculated from the values of Table 3 by weighting the percentage of hours spent at each state of charge slice of Table 2 is 6.15.

Thus this distribution of hours of the week according to the state of charge in the absence of the battery charging management system reduces the service life by a factor of 6.15, or 2.8 years. 2) Coefficient of damage of the battery by implementing the first embodiment of the recharging qestion method:

In this example, it is assumed that the driver has chosen to use the first embodiment of the recharge management method of completely defer charging over time.

Table 4 above shows, over a week, the distribution of the hours spent at the different states of charge of the battery: SOC (.5.>; Ee.% MMM: MMM: MMM: MM.M Table 4 The coefficient of Average damage calculated from the values in Table 4 by weighting the percentage of hours spent at each slice of the state of charge is 4.90: 0.126.8 + 0.395.5 + 0.414.1 + 0.083.2 = 4.90 (the coefficient 1 corresponding to a life of 10 20, 7 years).

Thus the gain brought by using the appropriate battery charging management system compared to the conventional charging mode in which the battery is automatically charged to 100% after use over the battery life is 6.15 / 4 , 90 = 1.25 or 25% gain in life. In the example above, the temperature is set at 25 ° C. However, it can be noted that whatever the state of charge, the damage due to the temperature is the same for a battery (Table 5): L) ieie t C% ffi fient Coefficient 15 eMdOmrnage.Ment endomrn err r1- 60'C 1.00 85. 2.83 87 1 00 1.00 Table 5 The passage from 25 ° C to 45 ° C causes a damage of 2.8 and the passage from 25 ° C to 60 ° C a neighboring damage 5.8 regardless of the level of state of charge. Therefore it can be deduced that whatever the temperature, the battery, the gain brought or the ratio between the damage without charging management strategy and the damage by applying the recharging management system of the invention will remain the even.

Thus, thanks to the battery charging management system according to the invention, the battery in storage mode is no longer in a high charge state during the immobilization period of the vehicle. The management of its refill is optimized so that it reaches the level of charge at 100% only just before the use of the vehicle. This type of charging management can significantly increase the battery life. Therefore it is no longer necessary to oversize the battery while allowing the vehicle to meet the specifications

Claims (11)

  1. REVENDICATIONS1. Management system for recharging an electric power storage battery (5) of an electric or hybrid power train of a vehicle, characterized in that it comprises: - a data interface (1 ), an electronic battery management calculator (4), this computer being connected in parallel with the battery (5) and battery recharging means (6, 7), - a vehicle supervisor (3) connecting the data interface (1) to the electronic battery management computer (4) via an intelligent BSI servocontrol unit (2), - said electronic battery management calculator (4) comprising means receiving information transmitted from the data interface (1) via the vehicle supervisor (3) and the BSI intelligent servocontrol unit (2), information processing means for determining an immobilization time of the vehicle from this information and a duration of c full charging of the battery from the initial state of charge of the battery and means for programming charging instructions of the battery (6, 7) according to the duration of immobilization with respect to the charging time for that the battery reaches the highest state of charge just prior to use so that it remains in a low or low state of charge for as long as possible in storage.
  2. 2. System according to claim 1, characterized in that the data interface (1) comprises data display means, these data relating inter alia the state of charge of the battery before charging and at the end of charging and data entry means.
  3. 3. System according to claim 2, characterized in that the data input means comprise a keypad or a remote control, or a voice recognition system.
  4. 4. System according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the computer comprises an internal memory in which is recorded unabaque giving the charging time according to the initial state of charge of the battery.
  5. 5. System according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that said recharging means are constituted by a charging terminal (7) and / or an on-board charger (6) for connecting the battery (5) to a network.
  6. 6. System according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that it comprises a clock, this clock being integrated in the electronic management computer of the battery (4) or in the vehicle supervisor (3).
  7. 7. A method of managing the state of charge of a battery (5) implementing the charging system defined according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that it comprises the following steps when the driver wish to program the battery charging instructions in storage mode before the next use of the vehicle: - we measure the state of charge of the battery to know its remaining capacity, 20 - we enter the date and time of the next use corresponding to the time tf, all of this information is transmitted by the vehicle supervisor (3) to the electronic battery management computer (4) which determines the immobilization time of the vehicle and the total charging time. drums ; according to the duration of immobilization of the vehicle with respect to the duration of the complete charge, the computer (4) schedules charging instructions of the battery so that it reaches the highest state of charge just before its use, at instant tf so that it remains in a low or low charge state as long as possible in storage.
  8. 8. Management process according to claim 7, characterized in that it comprises an additional step in which: - the temperature T ,,, is measured within the battery (5) 35 - the value of this measured temperature is compared to a temperature value Charging for charging without damaging the prerecorded battery in the internal memory of the computer (4), - when the measured value T ,,, is greater than the prerecorded value Tcharge, the electronic management computer of the battery (4 ) recalculates the vehicle downtime which is the difference between the vehicle downtime calculated from the information entered by the driver and the time required for the temperature within the battery to reach the level allowing charging without damage the battery.
  9. 9. Management method according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that when the computer determines that the immobilization time of the vehicle is greater than the duration of the complete charge, the charging instructions consist in completely deferring the charge of the battery in time so that it starts only at time t1 and ends at the date and time entered by the user tf, the difference between the two times tf-ti corresponding to the charging time of the battery determined by the calculator.
  10. 10. Management method according to claim 7, characterized in that when the immobilization time of the vehicle is greater than the total charging time, the charging instructions consist in defining at least four charging phases of the battery so that it starts charging at instant to corresponding to the initial moment of the immobilization phase of the vehicle and then reaches the highest state of charge (100%) just before the use of the vehicle in level increments state of charge and terminates at the instant tf.
  11. 11. The management method as claimed in claim 10, characterized in that the charging instructions comprise four charging phases which are defined in the following way: phase 1: the charge starts at to and ends when the state of charge the battery reaches a predefined SOC1 state of charge; phase 2: the battery is kept idle at SOC1 for a duration t2-t1, phase 3: the charge starts at t2 and ends when the battery voltage reaches a value Uc at time t3, phase 4: the constant-voltage charge Uc ends as soon as one of the two criteria is reached: - either when the intensity which decreases during this phase reaches the cut-off threshold If, - or when the duration of this phase 4 reaches a value of prefixed duration At, At being defined so that the charge ends at time t4, t4 may be less than or equal to the time tf indicated by the driver.
FR0951003A 2009-02-17 2009-02-17 System and method for recharging a battery Active FR2942358B1 (en)

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FR0951003A FR2942358B1 (en) 2009-02-17 2009-02-17 System and method for recharging a battery
PCT/FR2010/050216 WO2010094875A1 (en) 2009-02-17 2010-02-09 System and method for controlling the recharging of a battery
CN201080007971.9A CN102317103B (en) 2009-02-17 2010-02-09 System and method for controlling the recharging of a battery
EP10708316A EP2398670A1 (en) 2009-02-17 2010-02-09 System and method for controlling the recharging of a battery

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CN102317103A (en) 2012-01-11

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