FR2936173A1 - Process for the production of a titanium piece with initial forging in the beta domain - Google Patents

Process for the production of a titanium piece with initial forging in the beta domain Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2936173A1
FR2936173A1 FR0856339A FR0856339A FR2936173A1 FR 2936173 A1 FR2936173 A1 FR 2936173A1 FR 0856339 A FR0856339 A FR 0856339A FR 0856339 A FR0856339 A FR 0856339A FR 2936173 A1 FR2936173 A1 FR 2936173A1
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Prior art keywords
temperature
forging
method according
room
characterized
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FR0856339A
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French (fr)
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FR2936173B1 (en
Inventor
Philippe Gallois
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Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
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Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
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Priority to FR0856339A priority Critical patent/FR2936173B1/en
Publication of FR2936173A1 publication Critical patent/FR2936173A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of FR2936173B1 publication Critical patent/FR2936173B1/en
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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C14/00Alloys based on titanium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K3/00Making engine or like machine parts not covered by sub-groups of B21K1/00; Making propellers or the like
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/16Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of other metals or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/18High-melting or refractory metals or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/183High-melting or refractory metals or alloys based thereon of titanium or alloys based thereon
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/02Blade-carrying members, e.g. rotors
    • F01D5/06Rotors for more than one axial stage, e.g. of drum or multiple disc type; Details thereof, e.g. shafts, shaft connections
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2230/00Manufacture
    • F05D2230/20Manufacture essentially without removing material
    • F05D2230/25Manufacture essentially without removing material by forging
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/10Metals, alloys or intermetallic compounds
    • F05D2300/13Refractory metals, i.e. Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, W
    • F05D2300/133Titanium

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for producing a titanium alloy component. This process comprises - heating said workpiece at a temperature T until the temperature of the workpiece is substantially homogeneous, an initial forging operation of the workpiece with a deformation rate greater than 0.7, followed immediately by a quenching the room to ambient temperature, - heating the room to a temperature T, followed by a final forging operation of the room temperature T and immediately by quenching the room, the final forging operation being able to give the piece its final shape. The temperature T is greater than the β-transus temperature of this alloy, the temperature T is less than the β-transus temperature, the only heating of the room above the β-transus temperature is the heating at the temperature T, the initial forging precedes the final forging, this initial forging being carried out as soon as the temperature of the part is substantially homogeneous, and the quenching is carried out at a speed greater than 150 ° C / min.

Description

The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a titanium alloy component. It relates more particularly to a method comprising a heating said workpiece to a temperature TI until the temperature of said workpiece is substantially homogeneous, an initial forging operation of the workpiece with a deformation rate greater than 0.7, followed immediately by a quenching of the room to room temperature, a room heating at a temperature T2, followed by a final forging operation of the room temperature T2 and immediately by quenching this room, the final forging operation being able to give the piece its final shape. Titanium alloys are used in advanced applications, such as aeronautical turbines, to make certain parts subject to high stress and high temperatures. Pure titanium exists in two crystallographic forms: the hexagonal a phase, which exists at ambient temperature, and the centric cubic phase, which exists above the temperature called 13-transus (or transus 13), which is equal to 883 ° C for pure titanium. On the phase diagrams of titanium alloys combined with other elements, phase 13 is found above the 13-transus temperature, and below this temperature a balance between phase 13 and phase a whose proportions depend on the alloying elements. The ap phase consists of a mixture of phase a and phase 13. The allied elements have the effect of varying the 13-transus temperature around 883 ° C. The development of a titanium alloy having the desired properties includes selecting alloying elements, and choosing the thermomechanical treatment undergone by the alloy. In the case of ap or quasi-alloys, such as alloys TA6V and Ti6242, the alloy is therefore in phase 13 above the temperature 13-transus, and respectively in equilibrium state between phases a and 13 or essentially a at room temperature. In the following description, the term "domain 13" is referred to as the temperature zone above the 13-transus temperature, and "ap area" is the temperature zone immediately below the 13-transus temperature in which the phases and 13 are in equilibrium.

A current process for producing forgings made of titanium alloys comprises, for example, several forging passes, all of which are made in the a4 domain (the temperatures T1 and T2 are therefore in this case less than the 13-transus temperature). Such forging range does not allow complete recrystallization and refinement of the macrostructure. At the end of the forging range, there are important colonies of phase nodules inherited from the billet (semi-finished form) of the alloy. A nodule colony is a group of several nodules having a preferred crystallographic orientation. These colonies help to reduce the fatigue strength of the room. Another manufacturing process for forgings made of titanium alloys comprises several forging passes, these passes being made in the a4 domain, except the last pass which is performed in the R domain (the temperature T1 is therefore in this case less than I3-transus temperature, and the T2 temperature is greater than the 13-transus temperature). The latter goes to a higher temperature, allows easier formatting of the room. However, the latter forging pass taking place at a temperature above the temperature of I3-transus, any microscopic structure of the part obtained voluntarily during previous passes is erased. In addition, the grains (microscopic structure) of the alloy tend to grow and the deformation rate of the latter passes forging is often not important enough to promote the recrystallization and therefore the refining of the grains (since the piece, before this last forging pass, is close to its final form). As the grains are larger, the mechanical properties of the part are diminished. In addition, during this last forging pass, we use matrices of complex shape (to give the piece its final shape), which generates an inhomogeneous macrostructure of the part (presence of weakly deformed zones and more strongly deformed zones). ). This inhomogeneity generates significant variations in mechanical strength within the room. The present invention aims to remedy these disadvantages. The aim of the invention is to propose a process which makes it possible to obtain a titanium alloy part having a more homogeneous structure and better mechanical properties, in particular withstand fatigue.

This goal is achieved thanks to the fact that temperature T! is greater than the temperature of the alloy, which has a temperature below the temperature, that heating of said room above a temperature of 4 ° C is heating at a temperature T that initial forging precedes an edict final forging, initial forging being performed as soon as a temperature of said part is substantially homogeneous, that quenching is performed at a speed greater than 150 ° min. Thanks to these provisions, the high deformation rate of the part by forging at a sufficiently high temperature makes it possible to refine the microstructure (obtaining grains of smaller size) and to erase the heredity of the part. Indeed, above the temperature r nS s, the part consists of phase grains 13 substantially equiaxed, the piece has not yet been deformed since it is the first forging (the thickness of the piece is at this stage substantially constant). Forging deforms these grains, which recrystallize into fine grains. These small grains recrystallize themselves in fine-tuned R phase during quenching after forging. The part does not therefore include undesirable phase R nodules at room temperature. Soaking the room sufficiently radially not to break down later in the field allows to keep this microstructure refined, to prevent the grains from getting bigger. As a result the microstructure of the alloy is refined more homogeneous. The holding of the piece to fatigue is improved.

In addition, during the detection of metallurgical defects by ultrasound, the background noise is decreased. Indeed, this background noise is generated by inhomogeneities in the microstructure. The structure is generally more homogeneous, it follows a decrease in background noise, so a more fine detection easier metallurgical defects of the room.

The invention also relates to an aeronautical piece of revolution manufactured by a method according to the invention. The invention will be better understood its advantages will appear better, on reading the detailed description which follows, of an embodiment shown by way of non-limiting example. The description refers to the accompanying drawings on the following pages:

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating the process according to the invention for the manufacture of a titanium alloy part, FIG. 2A is a photomicrograph of a titanium alloy heated below the I3-transus temperature, FIG. 2B is an enlargement of the photomicrograph of FIG. 2A, FIG. 3A is a photomicrograph of a titanium alloy heated above the β-transus temperature, FIG. 3B is an enlargement of the photomicrograph of FIG. 3A, FIG. 4A is a photomicrograph of a titanium alloy heated above the I3-transus temperature and then deformed with a deformation rate of 1, FIG. 4B is a photomicrograph of a titanium alloy heated above the I3-transus temperature. then deformed with a strain rate of 2.5. FIG. 1 shows in a diagram the steps of the method according to the invention for the manufacture of a titanium alloy part. In this diagram, the x-axis represents the increasing time t (without scale), and the y-axis represents the temperature T in degrees Celsius, increasing since the ambient temperature TA. The temperature of the part as a function of time t is represented on this diagram by a curve. In step 1, the part is heated to a temperature T1 which is greater than the I3-transus temperature for this alloy. The workpiece is maintained at this temperature T1 long enough so that the room temperature is substantially homogeneous and equal to T1 (step 1-1). This temperature maintenance is illustrated by the plate in step 1. It is not necessary to keep the part too long at the temperature T1, since the transformation of the phase a phase R occurs as soon as the passage over I3-transus temperature. In addition, keeping the piece too long above the I3-transus temperature causes a grain growth, which is detrimental because it results in a decrease in the mechanical performance of the final part. Forging must therefore be carried out as soon as the temperature of the part is substantially

homogeneous and equal to T1, as soon as possible as allowed by the industrial process. The difference in microstructure between a titanium alloy heated above the I3-transus temperature and the same alloy heated below the I3-transus temperature is shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B on the one hand, and 3A and 3B on the other hand. somewhere else. Figure 2A is a microscopic photograph of a titanium alloy heated to a temperature just below the I3-transus temperature, without undergoing forging (the I3-transus temperature for this alloy is 1001 ° C). Figure 2B is an enlargement of the area of Figure 2A surrounded by a white rectangle. Note in Figure 2B the presence in the alloy of oriented structures, in this case orientated fiberizations consisting of needles 10 (elongate grains) substantially parallel. Figure 3A is a microscopic photograph of the same titanium alloy as that of Figure 2A, which is heated to a temperature just above the I3-transus temperature, without undergoing forging. Figure 3B is an enlargement of the area of Figure 3A surrounded by a white rectangle. It is found that after passing above the temperature of 13-transus, the oriented fiberizations disappear and the structure is more isotropic. Indeed, as soon as the temperature of the alloy exceeds the I3-transus temperature, there is a transformation of the phase a in phase 13, which induces an equiaxial recrystallization of the microstructure with a grain magnification. Existing stresses in the room before heating above the I3-transus temperature are largely erased. The macrostructure and the state of the alloy is therefore more suitable for undergoing the forging operation. As explained above, it is necessary that the entire room is at a temperature above the I3-transus temperature during the forging operation, which is the case as soon as all the zones of the room are substantially at temperature T1 . The part is then forged at a temperature substantially equal to T1 to give it an intermediate shape approximating its final shape (step 1-2). During this initial forging operation, the deformation rate is greater than 0.7. The strain rate Td is defined as the logarithm of the ratio of the thickness H; of the workpiece before deformation and its thickness Hf after deformation: ~ Hf If the workpiece is not deformed (Hf = H;), the strain rate Td is equal to 0. Advantageously, this deformation rate is greater than 1. Preferably it is greater than 1.6. In fact, a higher deformation rate leads to a greater refinement of the microstructure (reduction of the grain size), which improves the fatigue strength of the part. These differences in microstructure are visible in FIGS. 4A and 4B, which are microscopic photographs which show a Ti6242 alloy after forging in the R domain with a strain rate of 1 and a strain rate of 2.5 respectively. Tests carried out by the inventors on these samples reveal that the lifetime of such a Ti6242 alloy changes from 78,000 cycles (at 772 MPa) for a deformation rate equal to 1, to 130,000 cycles for a deformation rate. equal to 2.5. Ideally, the initial forging operation above should be performed using dies such that the shape of the workpiece after forging is as close as possible to the final shape of the workpiece, so as to minimize the stresses generated by the work. subsequent operation of final forging. In addition, care will be taken to use matrices of simple shape (for example frustoconical matrix, flat pile, or diabolo) so as to allow free flow of the material throughout the mold and to prevent material from being trapped. in cavities during the forging operation.

For example, immediately after this initial forging, the shape of the piece is of the diabolo or frustoconical type. Once the part has been subjected to the forging operation in the domain 13, the part undergoes quenching (step 1-3) from the forging temperature T1 to ambient temperature at a speed greater than 150 ° C. / min (degrees Celsius per minute). This rapid quenching makes it possible to maintain a fine microstructure of the part (fine grains) and thus to optimize the mechanical characteristics of the part, and in particular its elastic limit, as has been verified during mechanical tests carried out by the inventor . Td = Log (

Advantageously, the quenching is carried out at a speed of between 200 and 400 ° C./min. Even more advantageously, the quenching is carried out at a speed substantially equal to 250 ° C./min, the tests carried out by the inventors having demonstrated that the mechanical characteristics were best optimized at this quenching speed. Preferably, water quenching is carried out. After this quenching, the part is heated to a temperature T2 lower than the 13-transus temperature (which corresponds to step 2 in FIG. 1). At the temperature T2, the alloy is in the domain 14, and the microstructure of the alloy is not modified. The fiberization (pointed structure) made during the initial forging is therefore preserved. Once the part has been heated to temperature T2 (stage 2-1), the final forging operation is carried out (stage 2-2). This final forging is followed by quenching (step 2-3) to room temperature TA. This quenching makes it possible to optimize the mechanical characteristics of the part, and in particular its limit of elasticity. In some cases, the method according to the invention may comprise one or more intermediate forging passes, all in the a4 domain (therefore at a temperature below the 13-transus temperature), after the initial forging and before the final forging. In some cases, it may be advantageous for the final forging to be followed by an income operation in the ap domain. This income (step 3 in FIG. 1) in the a4 domain is therefore carried out at a temperature below the 13-transus temperature. Thus, once the workpiece is quenched after the final forging (step 2), the workpiece is heated to a temperature T3 (step 3-1), then cooled without quenching (step 3-2) to room temperature. For the Ti6242 alloy, the temperature T2 is approximately equal to 1000 ° C., and the temperature T3 equals 595 ° C. There is no coin forging during this income transaction, so the coin does not change shape. This income makes it possible to reduce the residual stresses generated in the part by the final forging operation. A solution of the piece between the final forging and the income (at a temperature between T2 and T3) is useless (because the final forging is in the a4 domain and is therefore less severe), or even harmful.

Various alloys of titanium can undergo the process according to the invention described above. For example, the titanium alloy used is an alloy of the family of titanium aI3 or quasi a. In particular, this alloy may be TA6V or Ti6242 (TA6Zr4DE). These alloys are for example used in aeronautical turbines. Tests carried out by the inventors on the Ti6242 alloys show that a part obtained by a process according to the invention has better fatigue properties than a part obtained by a method according to the prior art.

The part manufactured by a method as described above is for example an aeronautical turbine disk. This piece is for example an aeronautical turbine drum. In some cases, depending on the nature of the titanium alloy and the type of part being treated, only a part of the part is heated above the 13-transus temperature and undergoes a process according to the invention. This forging is then called a push-back.20

Claims (11)

  1. REVENDICATIONS1. A process for producing a titanium alloy part, comprising heating said workpiece to a temperature T1 until the temperature of said workpiece is substantially homogeneous, an initial forging operation of said workpiece with a work rate of deformation higher than 0.7, immediately followed by quenching said room to room temperature, heating said room to a temperature T2, followed by a final forging operation of said room at said temperature T2 and immediately by a quenching of said piece, said final forging operation being able to give said piece its final shape, said method being characterized in that said temperature T1 is greater than the I3-transus temperature of said alloy, said temperature T2 is below the temperature I3-transus, the only heating of said room above the I3-transus temperature is the heating at the temperature T1, l The initial forging precedes said final forging, this initial forging being performed as soon as the temperature of said part is substantially homogeneous, and said quenching is performed at a speed greater than 150 ° C / min.
  2. 2. Method according to claim 1 characterized in that said deformation rate is greater than 1.
  3. 3. Method according to claim 1 characterized in that said deformation rate is greater than 1.6.
  4. 4. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 3 characterized in that said quenching is performed at a speed substantially equal to 250 ° C / min.
  5. 5. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 4 characterized in that said final forging is followed by a revenue operation in phase 14.
  6. 6. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 5 characterized in that said titanium alloy is an alloy of the family of titanium a4 or quasi a.
  7. 7. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 6 characterized in that said titanium alloy is selected between TA6V alloy and Ti6242 alloy.
  8. 8. Method according to any one of claims 1 to 7 5 characterized in that said shape of the piece immediately after the initial forging is of the diabolo or frustoconical type.
  9. Revolutionary turbine engine part manufactured by a method according to any one of claims 1 to 8.
  10. 10. Aeronautical turbine disk characterized in that it is manufactured by a method according to any one of claims 1 to 8.
  11. Aeronautical turbine drum characterized in that it is manufactured by a method according to any one of claims 1 to 8.
FR0856339A 2008-09-22 2008-09-22 Process for the manufacture of a titanium piece with initial forging in the beta domain Active FR2936173B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0856339A FR2936173B1 (en) 2008-09-22 2008-09-22 Process for the manufacture of a titanium piece with initial forging in the beta domain

Applications Claiming Priority (10)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0856339A FR2936173B1 (en) 2008-09-22 2008-09-22 Process for the manufacture of a titanium piece with initial forging in the beta domain
CA 2738007 CA2738007A1 (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 Method for manufacturing a titanium part through initial .beta. forging
PCT/FR2009/051786 WO2010031985A1 (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 Method for manufacturing a titanium part through initial β forging
JP2011527388A JP2012503098A (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 Method of manufacturing titanium parts by initial β forging
CN2009801467009A CN102223964A (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 Method for manufacturing a titanium part through initial forging
BRPI0919278A BRPI0919278A2 (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 process for manufacturing a titanium alloy
EP09748423A EP2346629A1 (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 Method for manufacturing a titanium part through initial forging
RU2011115833/02A RU2011115833A (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 Method for producing titanium parts by initial stamping beta
US13/120,243 US20110240181A1 (en) 2008-09-22 2009-09-22 Method for manufacturing a titanium part through initial beta forging
IL21187611A IL211876D0 (en) 2008-09-22 2011-03-22 Method for manufacturing a titanium part through initial ?? forging

Publications (2)

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FR2936173A1 true FR2936173A1 (en) 2010-03-26
FR2936173B1 FR2936173B1 (en) 2012-09-21

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US (1) US20110240181A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2346629A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2012503098A (en)
CN (1) CN102223964A (en)
BR (1) BRPI0919278A2 (en)
CA (1) CA2738007A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2936173B1 (en)
IL (1) IL211876D0 (en)
RU (1) RU2011115833A (en)
WO (1) WO2010031985A1 (en)

Cited By (1)

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FR2979702A1 (en) * 2011-09-05 2013-03-08 Snecma Process for the preparation of tests with mechanical characterization of a titanium alloy

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FR2982279B1 (en) * 2011-11-08 2013-12-13 Snecma Process for manufacturing a piece produced in a titanium alloy ta6zr4de
PT2975028T (en) * 2013-03-15 2018-03-29 Japan Tobacco Inc Pyrazole-amide compound and medicinal uses therefor
WO2014196042A1 (en) * 2013-06-05 2014-12-11 株式会社神戸製鋼所 Forged titanium alloy material and method for producing same, and ultrasonic testing method
RU2635595C1 (en) * 2016-09-23 2017-11-14 Акционерное общество "Военно-промышленная корпорация "Научно-производственное объединение машиностроения" METHOD OF PRODUCING PARTS FOR GAS TURBINE ENGINES MADE OF TITANIUM PSEUDO-β-NICKEL ALLOY WITH Ti-Al-Mo-V-Cr-Fe MASTER ALLOY
RU2660461C1 (en) * 2017-04-25 2018-07-06 Акционерное общество "Военно-промышленная корпорация "Научно-производственное объединение машиностроения" METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING PARTS OF TITANIUM PSEUDO-α-ALLOYS
CN107824731B (en) * 2017-09-28 2019-04-26 湖南金天钛业科技有限公司 A kind of Ti55 titanium alloy large size bar forging method

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US5861070A (en) * 1996-02-27 1999-01-19 Oregon Metallurgical Corporation Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloys and products made using such alloys
US5795413A (en) * 1996-12-24 1998-08-18 General Electric Company Dual-property alpha-beta titanium alloy forgings
EP1136582A1 (en) * 2000-03-24 2001-09-26 General Electric Company Processing of titanium-alloy billet for improved ultrasonic inspectability
US20040035509A1 (en) * 2002-08-26 2004-02-26 Woodfield Andrew Philip Processing of alpha-beta titanium alloy workpieces for good ultrasonic inspectability

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2979702A1 (en) * 2011-09-05 2013-03-08 Snecma Process for the preparation of tests with mechanical characterization of a titanium alloy
WO2013034851A1 (en) * 2011-09-05 2013-03-14 Snecma Method for preparing test parts for the mechanical characterisation of a titanium alloy

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CA2738007A1 (en) 2010-03-25
EP2346629A1 (en) 2011-07-27
WO2010031985A1 (en) 2010-03-25
CN102223964A (en) 2011-10-19
FR2936173B1 (en) 2012-09-21
IL211876D0 (en) 2011-06-30
JP2012503098A (en) 2012-02-02
RU2011115833A (en) 2012-10-27
US20110240181A1 (en) 2011-10-06
BRPI0919278A2 (en) 2015-12-15

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