FR2857752A1 - Device for measuring the transition temperature of a resin - Google Patents

Device for measuring the transition temperature of a resin Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2857752A1
FR2857752A1 FR0350333A FR0350333A FR2857752A1 FR 2857752 A1 FR2857752 A1 FR 2857752A1 FR 0350333 A FR0350333 A FR 0350333A FR 0350333 A FR0350333 A FR 0350333A FR 2857752 A1 FR2857752 A1 FR 2857752A1
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Prior art keywords
combs
teeth
resin
characterized
device
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Pending
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FR0350333A
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French (fr)
Inventor
Jean Herve Tortai
Stephan Landis
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Commissariat a l Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
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Commissariat a l Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
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Priority to FR0350333A priority Critical patent/FR2857752A1/en
Publication of FR2857752A1 publication Critical patent/FR2857752A1/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/44Resins; rubber; leather
    • G01N33/442Resins, plastics
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N25/00Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of thermal means
    • G01N25/02Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of thermal means by investigating changes of state or changes of phase; by investigating sintering
    • G01N25/04Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of thermal means by investigating changes of state or changes of phase; by investigating sintering of melting point; of freezing point; of softening point
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material
    • G01N27/22Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material by investigating capacitance
    • G01N27/221Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material by investigating capacitance by investigating the dielectric properties
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/02Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material
    • G01N27/22Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means by investigating the impedance of the material by investigating capacitance
    • G01N27/226Construction of measuring vessels; Electrodes therefor

Abstract

A resin is received on at least two chips (9) mounted on the front of the device (5). Each chip has a pair of conducting combs (A, B), each with a number of teeth (7) and an element (8) connecting the first ends of the teeth to form the external face of the chip. The teeth of a pair of combs are interlaced. One or several combs has one or more geometries different from the rest. The resin is received on at least two chips (9) mounted on the front of the device (5). Each chip has a pair of conducting combs (A, B), each with a number of teeth (7) and an element (8) connecting the first ends of the teeth to form the external face of the chip. The teeth of a pair of combs are interlaced. One or several combs has one or more geometries different from the rest. The different geometries of the combs are obtained by modifying the inter-teeth distance of the combs. At least one pair of combs have an inter-teeth distance different to that of the other combs. Independent claims are also included for the following: (1) Process of making a device for measuring the transition temperature of a resin by supplying the support, placing the chips on one side of the support so their combs are interlaced as described above. (2) Measuring the transition temperature of a resin using such a device by depositing a layer of the resin to be studied onto the face of the device containing at least two chips, connecting elements linking the teeth to a dielectric spectrometer and placing the connected device in a temperature-controlled container.

Description

DEVICE FOR MEASURING THE VITREOUS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF A FILM OF

POLYMER

DESCRIPTION

TECHNICAL AREA

  The invention relates to a device for measuring the glass transition temperature of a polymer film.

STATE OF THE PRIOR ART

  The resolutions of the patterns obtained in microelectronics or nanoimprinting, through lithography resins, have heretofore been determined by the limitations of the patterns of making the patterns and not those of the material itself. However, the industry forecasts predict that the patterns will have sizes close to the smallest dimensions observed with organic resins, ie typically less than 30 nm.

  These new resolutions planned by the microelectronic industry require the determination of the physicochemical properties of the thin-film resins, in order to optimize their annealing temperatures, the exposure doses or the pressing times and temperatures for the nanoimprinting.

  A decisive parameter for the diffusion kinetics and the use of the resins or polymers is the glass transition temperature Tg of these materials. Indeed, below this temperature, the material is glassy, the molecular chains are fixed and the diffusion is slow. On the contrary, above this temperature, the material is deformable and the diffusion processes are greatly accelerated.

  In Germany, it is known that the reduction in the thickness, typically below 10 100 nm, of a thin layer of polymer deposited on a substrate leads to an average variation of the glass transition temperature of said polymer, as well as to variation across the thickness of the thin film of the diffusion coefficients of the macromolecules. This effect is due to the interactions of the material forming the thin layer with the substrate. If these are weakly attractive (Van der Waals type) compared to inter and intra molecular interactions, the macromolecules have increased mobility in the vicinity of the interface of the thin layer and the substrate. The diffusion of the added compounds in the thin layer is then accelerated. If the interactions with the substrate are strong (covalent, ionic or hydrogen type), there is grafting of the molecules on the substrate, which strongly limits the diffusion of the added compounds.

  Therefore, controlling the diffusion kinetics of the various species that make up the resin as well as the mobility of its macromolecules is crucial as to the final resolution obtainable after a lithography step on the thin layer of said resin. The important parameters for making patterns on a thin layer of resin are then the annealing of the resin after its coating, its exposure dose, the annealing after exposure and the kinetics of development of the resin by a base.

  Each of these stages involves the dissemination of species. However, this anisotropy of the diffusion properties according to the thickness leads to the obtaining of inhomogeneous patterns in dimensions, after insolation and development, thus creating feet or strictions at the base of the isolated patterns and bridges between neighboring patterns.

  Current thin film polymer film characterization techniques of optically tracking the change in film thickness upon heating of the material allow the determination of a mean glass transition temperature of the film. For example, a conventional means of measuring this glass transition temperature is the ellipsometric measurement of the film thickness as a function of temperature described by Keddie et al. [1]. This technique, which averages the effects of volume expansion of the film over the entire volume, is based on the fact that when the thermal expansion coefficients of the material to be studied exhibit a slope break, said material is at the temperature Tg. The problem is that these techniques are relatively slow and require a large number of experiments because of the dispersion of the results. The lack of characterization tools for obtaining quickly and simply the thermal properties of resin thin films is problematic for the development and integration of the resins of the future.

  In order to obtain patterns of dimension typically less than 30 nm, it is imperative to optimize all the lithography steps, thanks to a simple technique for controlling the thin film making it possible to quickly obtain the value of its transition temperature. glass. DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION The object of the invention is to make it possible to measure the glass transition temperature Tg of several thicknesses of resin in a single step.

  This and other objects are achieved, according to the invention, by a device for measuring the transition temperature of a resin comprising a support whose face intended to receive said resin comprises at least two chips, each chip being Consisting of a pair of conductive combs, each conductive comb comprising a plurality of teeth and an element connecting first ends of the plurality of teeth, the teeth of a first comb of the pair being intertwined with the teeth of the second comb of 25 the pair so that the teeth of said combs are intermingled, said element facing outwardly of the chip, and one to several combs having one or more geometries different from the rest of the other combs. The advantage of having combs with different geometries is to be able to probe several thicknesses of resin in a single step, as will be seen below.

  According to a particular embodiment, the different geometry or geometries of the combs are obtained by modifying the inter-tooth distance of said combs. Advantageously, at least one pair of combs has a distance between teeth different from those of the other pairs of combs.

  The invention also relates to a method for producing said device for measuring the glass transition temperature of a resin. This method comprises the steps of providing a support, and making on one of the faces of said support 15 at least two of said chips, each chip consisting of a pair of conductive combs, each conductive comb comprising a plurality of teeth and an element connecting the first ends of the plurality of teeth, the teeth of a first comb of the pair being intertwined with the teeth of the second comb of the pair so that the teeth of said combs are intermingled, said member facing outwardly of the chip, and one to several combs having one or more geometries different from the rest of the other combs.

  According to a first particular embodiment, the support is a substrate of insulating material.

  Advantageously, a face of said insulating material substrate is covered with a layer of conductive material.

  According to a second embodiment, the support is a conductive material substrate, one face of which is covered with a layer of insulating material.

  Advantageously, said layer of insulating material 5 is covered with a layer of conductive material.

  If the support is a substrate of insulating material or a substrate of conductive material, one side of which is covered with a layer of insulating material, then the teeth and the elements connecting the teeth can advantageously be made in a part of the insulating material. in a part of the substrate or part of the layer of insulating material.

  To make the teeth and the elements connecting the teeth conductive, metal thin film deposition may advantageously be performed on the sidewalls and the apex of the teeth and elements connecting the teeth made in the insulating material (substrate or layer of insulating material). To achieve this result, the deposit can be made at oblique incidence with respect to the normal to the plane of the support, with an angle of incidence chosen so that the deposit is made only on the flanks and the tops of the teeth. and elements connecting the teeth. The mean direction of the incident atoms must therefore be perpendicular to the long length of the teeth of the combs, each tooth of the combs shading the next. Advantageously, the support can then be rotated in the plane of 180, so that the opposite sides of the combs and the contact areas are also covered with a metal deposit.

  The deposition of the metal layer is carried out according to a conventional thin film deposition technique. Advantageously, the deposition is carried out by evaporation or spraying.

  If the support is a substrate of insulating material, one side of which is covered with a layer of conductive material, or if the support is a conductive material substrate, one side of which is covered with a layer of insulating material, itself coated with a layer of conductive material, then the teeth and the elements connecting the teeth can advantageously be made in the entire thickness of the layer 15 of conductive material.

  Advantageously, said teeth and said elements connecting the teeth can be made in the layer of conductive material and in a part of the underlying insulating material. It is thus possible to move the resin / insulator interfaces away from the conductive zones.

  Advantageously, the teeth and the elements connecting the teeth are made by methods chosen from lithography, nano-printing or nano-printing followed by etching. The lithography processes can be optical or electronic, for example. Nano-printing, for its part, may or may not be followed by an etching transfer of the patterns of the teeth and the elements connecting the teeth.

  Advantageously, the teeth and the elements connecting the teeth have dimensions of between a few nanometers and several micrometers.

  The invention also relates to a method for characterizing the glass transition temperature of a resin using the device according to the invention. This method comprises the following steps: deposition of a layer of said resin to be studied on the face of the device comprising at least two chips, connection of the elements connecting the teeth to a dielectric spectrometer, placement of the connected device in a chamber regulated in temperature.

  Advantageously, the resin to be studied is deposited on the measuring device using a spin (with a syringe) and then undergoes a heat treatment step (a first annealing). The temperature of said heat treatment is generally greater than the glass transition temperature of the resin to compact the resin film and evaporate the largest proportion of possible solvent. Indeed, the presence of solvent in the resin layer promotes the diffusion of chemical species and may limit the performance of the resin.

  This method of characterization makes it possible to carry out the study by dynamic electrical analysis (DEA) of the resin. In particular, this method makes it possible to characterize the variations, as a function of temperature, of the dielectric properties of several thicknesses of resins for a single resin film deposited by coating on a device consisting of a plane support structured in several chips of two combs. inter-digits, that is to say whose teeth are intertwined. The signal analysis obtained by this method gives access to the glass transition temperature Tg, but also to the concentration gradients of the polar species present in the resin for several thicknesses of resin and in a single coating. In addition, the interpretation of the results also makes it possible to characterize the diffusion properties of the species located between the teeth of the combs. These species may be constituents of the resin or may have been created by chemical modification of one of the constituents of said resin (for example, by exposure to radiation or by thermal activation).

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  The invention will be better understood and other advantages and features will become apparent on reading the following description, given by way of non-limiting example, accompanied by the appended drawings in which: FIGS. 1A to 1E show the steps of FIG. 1 example of a method for manufacturing a device for measuring the glass transition temperature of a resin according to the invention; FIG. 2 illustrates the geometry of two inter-digitted combs viewed from above, FIG. illustrates an example of a device for characterizing the vitreous transition temperature of a resin according to the invention; - FIGS. 4A to 4D show the curves of variations of the real and imaginary permittivities of a resin, on the one hand as a function of the frequency applied at constant temperature, and secondly as a function of the constant frequency temperature vm.

  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PARTICULAR EMBODIMENTS

  The present invention consists of carrying on a support interdigitated conductive combs, each comb having teeth which are connected to an element, of several square millimeters making it possible to make an electrical contact by microtip with the combs to realize measurements by dynamic electrical spectroscopy. These connections are connected to an apparatus measuring the capacity of the device thus produced, as well as the angle of loss, introduced by the resin, of the equivalent electrical circuit. For example, a dielectric spectrometer can be used to perform this type of measurement for various frequencies of electrical stress.

  The combs and the contact electrodes 25 of the measuring device according to the invention are made in a conductive or semi-conductive layer on an insulating substrate or any other substrate previously covered with an insulating layer in order to prevent leakage of currents in the substrate without probing the resin. For example, to achieve this measuring device, one can for example use a support consisting of a conductive substrate, covered with an insulating layer and a conductive layer.

  According to FIG. 1A and FIG. 1B, a conductive substrate 1 is initially covered with a deposit of electrical insulating material 2.

  Alternatively, the substrate may also be oxidized on one of its faces. A layer 2 is thus obtained which will make it possible to isolate the substrate 1 from the future conductive patterns constituting the chips, that is to say the measuring cells.

  Then, a conductive layer 3, thick of several tens of nanometers for example (from 10 nm to 1 m), is deposited (see Figure lC). This conductive layer 3 may for example be a layer of polysilicon, metal or conductive polymer.

  Subsequently, the patterns of the combs 4 (teeth 7 and 8 connecting the teeth) can be made by conventional lithography processes (electronic or optical lithography for example) in a resin layer. The patterns made in the resin are then transferred throughout the thickness of the conductive layer 3 and a part or all of the insulating layer 2 (Figure 1D). In fact, the etching is stopped so that the resin-insulator interface is not too close to the region probed between the conductive combs. More specifically, in order to take into account only the influence of the interactions with the comb teeth, oriented parallel to the substrate, and not the interactions with the substrate or the insulating surface, normally oriented to the substrate, the depth of the layer insulating etched (here, oxide layer) is calculated to be greater than the vertical structuring distances, that is to say the height of the teeth of 5 combs, a few tens of nanometers. What is observed in Figure 1D are the teeth 7 of a comb A and the teeth 7 of a comb B placed in an entangled manner and sectional view.

  The measuring device 5 is then produced and it remains only to deposit on its surface, the resin 6 to study, for example using a spinner head (see Figure 1E).

  Finally, because the resin 6 is present between the various teeth 7 of the combs, said combs thus constitute a capacitor whose variations of the electrical characteristics can be monitored with time, with temperature, or else under light exposure or no. The geometry of the combs is chosen so that the measured capacitance is detectable by the commercially available measuring apparatus. To give an example, assume that the capacity must be greater than 100 pF. FIG. 2 depicts the geometry of a chip, viewed from above, consisting of a pair of combs A and B. Let L, the width of the conductive teeth, e the space between two adjacent teeth, 1 the useful length for the measurement of the capacitance and W the width of the chip, the total capacitance of the chip is: 30 hxw W Cr Eor X xl- (1) X e L + S With h the height of the conductive teeth (or the conductive part of the teeth ) perpendicularly to the device surface, and ò and r respectively the permittivity of the vacuum and the characterized resin. Equation (1) makes it possible to choose the geometries of the combs as best as possible in order to obtain a signal

detectable.

  The overall measuring device is designed so that it comprises several combs whose geometry differs. For example, if all the parameters remain fixed (1, W, L as well as the thickness of the conducting lines) except the parameter e, and that the latter varies from chip to chip, one will be able to characterize various thicknesses of resin to the using one and the same measuring device. Indeed, the measurement of the properties of the resin between two teeth is equivalent to measuring the properties of the resin between two layers of the same material constituting the comb teeth. Therefore, by varying the space e between two adjacent teeth, this amounts to changing the thickness of the probed resin.

  The measuring device consists of a structured substrate of several chips which constitute measurement electrodes for the dynamic electrical analysis technique. Consequently, the final measuring device makes it possible to test various thicknesses of resin between two teeth in a horizontal plane, this thickness being different from the total thickness d of resin coated on the measuring device (see FIG. 1E). The measuring device makes it possible to measure by dynamic electrical analysis the real and complex admittance of the parallel capacitances thus produced.

  The methodology consists of coating a resin to be studied on a support on which N chips of two interdigitated combs are made. Then, the operator may optionally apply annealing to stabilize said resin film. Next, the operator positions a 2N contact tip system as detailed in Figure 3; the 2N contact points 10 are connected to either 2N dielectric spectrometers or to one. In the latter case, the operator will have to switch each chip and start the fixed frequency measurement.

  Half of the 2N peaks deliver one voltage, the other half serves to measure the resulting current. Once connected to the (x) spectrometer (s), the measuring device is placed on a hot plate that will allow to sweep the resin film temperature.

  In FIG. 3, the measuring device has N = 16 chips 9, a single dielectric spectrometer controlled by a personal computer, and a switch that makes it possible to select the chip chosen. Thus, N = 16 curves are generated, which makes it possible to determine the thermal behavior of N = 16 resin thicknesses in a single test (for example, the 16 chips can scan thicknesses between 50 nm and 1 m thickness ). Compared with an optical characterization method, the time saving is therefore substantial, since only one coating and one temperature sweep is required.

  Typically, the swept temperature range varies from ambient temperature to a temperature substantially equal to 200 C, ie substantially 180 C amplitude. The temperature rise rates must be relatively slow to allow the material time to heat up, conventional speeds being close to 2 C per minute, a total measurement time of about 1:30. By ellipsometry, apart from the coating and annealing time, it would take a time equivalent to N times 1:30.

  Thanks to the measuring device according to the invention, the operator can therefore characterize the thermal behavior of N different thicknesses of resin in a single coating and in a single temperature rise. Conventionally, N coatings, N annealed and N measurements for each thickness should be made by dielectric or ellipsometric spectroscopy. The saving of time is therefore substantial.

  Once the resin coating is performed and the device is microtip connected to the dielectric spectroscopy device, the measuring device is placed in a temperature controlled enclosure and the combs of the measuring device are applied between the teeth. Periodic voltage U0 (t) of sinusoidal and impulse form, and the current I (t) thus generated is measured.

  The two functions Uo (t) and I (t) are periodic, but there is a phase shift between the two, which gives the angle of loss of the material. The applied voltage is limited by the breakdown voltage of the material, critical value which depends on its thickness.

  Typically, under an alternating electric field, the breakdown fields of the materials are close to 0.1 Mvolts / cm. For example, for a film thickness of 1 am, its breakdown voltage will be close to 100 volts whereas for a film of 50 nm thickness, it will be 5 volts. It is more advantageous to work at high voltage because a more intense current signal is obtained, and the measurements are thus not disturbed by parasitic capacitances or electromagnetic disturbances. Nevertheless, volt voltages give correct results if the capacity of the experimental device is sufficiently high, ie greater than 10 pF.

  By knowing Uo (t) and I (t), the complex capacitance C * of the measuring device can be calculated at a solicitation frequency o given using the following relation: Uo (t) = * lI (t The capacity, complex function, is correlated with the complex relative dielectric permittivity of the insulating material between the two electrodes.

  Where X is the inter-electrode distance (in our case, the distance between the teeth of the comb) and S the surface of the electrodes (hence the surface of the lines forming the measuring comb), with S = hx1, h and 1 having been defined previously. It should be noted that the sensitivity of the measurement of the capacitance increases when the thickness of the probed resin decreases; the ultimate dimension for the inter-electrode distance corresponds to the ultimate manufacturing dimensions of the support in which the electrodes are made.

  Knowing that the complex relative dielectric permittivity E * follows the following relation: * = E '+ iXe one deduces that the measurements obtained by dielectric spectroscopy or dynamic electrical analysis (Dynamic Electrical Analysis in English) make it possible to follow the variations of the real part E 'and imaginary e "of the permittivity either with the frequency of solicitation, or with the temperature at fixed frequency.

  The isothermal study of the real permittivity e 'and imaginary e ", subjected to a frequency sweep varying from 1 MHz to 1 GHz (frequency range determined by the characteristics of the spectrometer used) makes it possible to analyze the mobility under electric fields. The curves of FIGS. 4A and 4B show the typical variations of the real and imaginary permittivity of a polymer as a function of the frequency of the voltage applied at constant temperature. the isochronous measurement frequency Um which must be greater than the transition between the low-frequency and the high-frequency behavior of the material, this measurement frequency is of the order of several tens of kHz, so the measuring time is of the order of the millisecond, which is much faster than the measurements made by ellipsometry.

  Knowing that the transition between the low frequency and high frequency behavior of the material shifts towards the high frequencies when the temperature increases, this transition can be observed by tracing the variation of the real and imaginary permittivities of the same polymer as a function of the temperature and at the same time. constant frequency 1m (see FIGS. 4C and 4D). The temperature at which there is a transition between high frequency and low frequency behavior corresponds to the glass transition temperature of the film.

  The invention has many advantages.

  In particular, since the measuring device is a plate whose surface state has been modified, this tool can be used in lithographic resin industrial coating devices. Compared to the dielectric spectroscopy technique not coupled to this cell, requiring metallization of the upper face of the polymer film (which is constraining, polluting and lasts for several minutes), the use of this cell for spectroscopic measurements The dielectric is fast, does not disturb the material (as in the case of evaporation of metal on the upper face) and does not add any contamination agent in the coating tracks, for example. Once the coating is completed, the system is placed in a temperature controlled enclosure, and the device is connected by microtips to the dielectric spectroscopy device. Thus, this technique can be used in an ultra clean environment like any authorized substrate.

  Furthermore, it has been seen that the measuring device makes it possible to determine, in a single coating, the average physicochemical properties on the volume of several thicknesses of resins, whatever their formulations. The analysis of the results obtained by the dynamic electrical analysis technique makes it possible in particular to determine the glass transition temperature Tg of the resin, and thus to adapt the annealing after exposure of said resin (Post Applied Bake), said annealing to be performed at a temperature slightly higher than Tg; knowing the temperature Tg of a resin is particularly useful during the manufacturing steps of an integrated circuit. The analysis of the results also makes it possible to determine the existence of concentration gradient of polar compounds, and their influence on the mobility of the chains and of the crosslinking agents during the annealing after insolation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  [1] J.L. KEDDIE, R.A.L. JONES, R. A. CORY, Europhys Letter, 27, 59 (1994).

Claims (16)

  1. Device for measuring the transition temperature of a resin, said device (5) being characterized in that it comprises a support whose face intended to receive said resin comprises at least two chips (9), each chip (9) being constituted by a pair of conductive combs (A, B), each conductive comb comprising a plurality of teeth (7) and a member (8) connecting first ends of the plurality of teeth (7), the teeth of a first comb of the pair being intertwined with the teeth of the second comb of the pair so that the teeth (7) of said combs (A, B) are intermingled, said member (8) facing outward from the chip (9), and one to several combs having one or more geometries different from the rest of the other combs.
  2. Device according to the preceding claim 20, characterized in that the or different geometries combs are obtained by changing the inter-tooth distance of said combs.
  3. Device according to claim 25, characterized in that at least one pair of combs has a distance between teeth different from those of other pairs of combs.
  4. A method of producing a device 30 for measuring the transition temperature of a resin according to any one of the preceding claims, said method comprising the following steps: - supply of the support, - realization on one of the faces of said support at least two of said chips (9), each chip (9) consisting of a pair of conductive combs (A, B), each conductive comb comprising a plurality of teeth (7) and a connecting member (8) first ends of the plurality of teeth (7), the teeth of a first comb of the pair being intertwined with the teeth of the second comb of the pair so that the teeth (7) of said combs (A, B) are intertwined said element (8) facing towards the outside of the chip (9), and one to several combs having one or more geometries different from the rest of the other combs.
  5. Production method according to claim 4, characterized in that the support is a substrate of insulating material. 20
6. Production method according to the preceding claim, characterized in that a face of the insulating material substrate is covered with a layer of conductive material. 25
7. Production method according to claim 4, characterized in that the support is a conductive material substrate (1), one side is covered with a layer of insulating material (2). 30
8. Production method according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the layer of insulating material (2) is covered with a layer of conductive material (3).
  9. Production method according to any one of claims 5 or 7, characterized in that the combs (A, B) are made in a portion of the insulating material.
  10. Production method according to any one of claims 6 or 8, characterized in that the combs (A, B) are made in the entire thickness of the layer (3) of conductive material. 15
11. Production method according to any one of claims 6 or 8, characterized in that the combs (A, B) are made in the layer (3) of conductive material and in a portion of the insulating material (2) under -jacent.
  12. Production method according to claim 9, characterized in that a deposit of a thin metal film is formed on the flanks and the top of the combs (A, B) made in the insulating material.
  13. Production method according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the deposition is carried out by evaporation or spraying.
  14. Production method according to claim 4, characterized in that the combs (A, B) are made by methods selected from lithography, nano printing or nano5 printing followed by etching.
  15. Production method according to claim 4, characterized in that the teeth (7) and the elements (8) connecting the teeth have dimensions of between a few nanometers and several micrometers.
  16. A method of characterizing the glass transition temperature of a resin with the aid of a device according to any of claims 1, 2 or 3, said method comprising the steps of: depositing a layer of the resin (6) to be studied on the face of the device comprising at least two chips (9, 9), - connection of the elements (8) connecting the teeth (7) to a dielectric spectrometer, - placement of the connected device in a chamber regulated in temperature.
FR0350333A 2003-07-16 2003-07-16 Device for measuring the transition temperature of a resin Pending FR2857752A1 (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2982954A1 (en) * 2011-11-23 2013-05-24 Aircelle Sa Method for detecting the presence of bubbles during resin injection operations for the manufacture of fibrous composite parts

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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