FR2607102A1 - Wind propelled craft or vehicle - has sails on structure with three rotating floats which have one to three degrees of freedom - Google Patents

Wind propelled craft or vehicle - has sails on structure with three rotating floats which have one to three degrees of freedom Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2607102A1
FR2607102A1 FR8616368A FR8616368A FR2607102A1 FR 2607102 A1 FR2607102 A1 FR 2607102A1 FR 8616368 A FR8616368 A FR 8616368A FR 8616368 A FR8616368 A FR 8616368A FR 2607102 A1 FR2607102 A1 FR 2607102A1
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FR
France
Prior art keywords
floats
freedom
sails
wind
axis
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
FR8616368A
Other languages
French (fr)
Original Assignee
Contour Bernard
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Contour Bernard filed Critical Contour Bernard
Priority to FR8616368A priority Critical patent/FR2607102A1/en
Publication of FR2607102A1 publication Critical patent/FR2607102A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63HMARINE PROPULSION OR STEERING
    • B63H9/00Marine propulsion provided directly by wind power
    • B63H9/04Marine propulsion provided directly by wind power using sails or like wind-catching surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B1/00Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils
    • B63B1/02Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving lift mainly from water displacement
    • B63B1/10Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving lift mainly from water displacement with multiple hulls
    • B63B1/14Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving lift mainly from water displacement with multiple hulls the hulls being interconnected resiliently or having means for actively varying hull shape or configuration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B1/00Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils
    • B63B1/02Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving lift mainly from water displacement
    • B63B1/10Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving lift mainly from water displacement with multiple hulls
    • B63B1/14Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving lift mainly from water displacement with multiple hulls the hulls being interconnected resiliently or having means for actively varying hull shape or configuration
    • B63B2001/145Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic features of hulls or of hydrofoils deriving lift mainly from water displacement with multiple hulls the hulls being interconnected resiliently or having means for actively varying hull shape or configuration having means for actively varying hull shape or configuration

Abstract

The craft or vehicle propelled by the wind, uses floats (14 - 16), skis of wheels, and has a supporting frame for the sails. There are at least three floats - each having at least one degree of freedom in rotation about a vertical axis (6, 7, 10), and a max. of three degrees of freedom. The two other degrees of freedom comprise rotation about horizontal axes perpendicular and parallel to the main lengthwise axis of the craft. The sail system is in the form of a set of sails supported by a structure connecting two of the floats, while the third float is for balancing. ADVANTAGE - Improved use of wind force.

Description

The present invention relates to configuration and use
isus of locomotives @us by wind and moves
acing on solid or liquid surfaces.

In known locomotion vehicles, such as sailboats,
single or multihulls, sailing yachts, the sails are subject to
a substantially horizontal force, the axis of which is located at
a lifting height relative to the bearing surface.
as a result that the wing exece on the structure of these
gins, in addition to the useful propulsion effort,
your extremely important, which complicate the reQ1isation of
these structures and contribute to their weighting.
the case of the most sophisticated devices currently known
such as trimarans and catamarans, the different hulls are
connected by rigid arms which are subjected to considerable stress due to the shroud and unevenness of the
surface of the sea. These efforts are of course postponed
on the hulls themselves.

The object of the present invention is to avoid these drawbacks
ients by bringing the axis closer to the horizontal force exerted
by the wind from the bearing surface and releasing the movement
relative of the different support elements.
to others
To this end, according to a first characteristic of the inv
ention, the blade is made up of a series of straight sails
angular fixed on a composite beam realized by means
profiles such as angles or tubes, with a horizontal axis, and
of rectangular section. Such a beam lets the
almost free wind. Each sail is stretched between two
vertical uprights fixed on the beam. Under the effect of the wind,
each veil is inflated, and takes a shape close to that
a portion of a cylinder whose plane of symmetry contains
would say the longitudinal axis of the beam. To avoid the development
lopement this eddies harmful to aerodynamic efficiency
of these sails, according to another characteristic of the invention,
the horizontal, upper and lower faces, parallel to the
wind, are made in the form of continuous surfaces of
so that these surfaces assume the shape of an airplane wing.

According to another characteristic of the invention, lz surface
of each sail is modified by winding and unwinding
around the vertical uprights produced in the form of two drums. The swelling.'u = ^ teilecan be done in one direction or the other with respect to the plane passing through its fixing axes .I1 as a result that the beam can occupy two symmetrical positions relative to the relative wind.; Es twopositions optimal correspond to the case where the direction of the relative wind is substantially parallelX leading edge of the star inflated in one direction or the other.

According to another characteristic of the invention, the composite beam is connected at each of its ends b:
-a float in the case of nautical craft
-a wheel in the case of the terrestrial machine
-a skate for use on ice
-a ski for use on snow
Each of these elements: float, wheel, skate, ski, has a preferential re ection of displacement. It is the longitudinal axis of the floats, skates or skis. It is the trace of the plane of the wheel on the ground From the point of view of the invention these elements have - sufficient mechanical analogies and will be collectively referred to as the skate.

 According to another characteristic of the invention, the i: iaisons between beam; and skids comprise at least one, at most three degrees of freedom.The first degree of freedom, compulsory, corresponds to a rotation of the skate around a vertical axis or slightly inclined. The second degree of freedom corresponds to a rotation around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the longitudinal thread of the shoe. It is compulsory for the wheel and recommended in other cases. the third corresponds to a rotation around a horizontal axis parallel to the axis of the skate.

It is only possible in the case of the float or the ski.

The connection point between beam and shoe will be chosen so that the result of the forces exerted on the shoe tends to orient it in the direction of movement
As a result of the second degree of freedom, the beam could tip over. According to another characteristic of the invention, the member ensuring balance is a balance made up of tii or solids, composed beams for example arranged in a V, connected to the beam carrying the wing, and the end of which is equipped with a skate endowed as previously with at least one, at most three degrees of freedom.

 The balance shoe can be on the side of the leading edge of the sail or the opposite side. Except in the case of sails which can be indifferently attacked from one side or the other, once the side chosen, it does not can no longer be modified, and the machine will always evolve with the balance shoe in the wind or downwind, relative to the beam, depending on the side initially chosen.

 Without departing from the scope of the invention, it is possible to give b the beam and the branches of the V forming a pendulum in the form of an arch to increase the clearance on the ground. connection of the pads in the form of telescopic suspensions.

 To direct the machine, and orient the sail, acts, according to another characteristic of the invention, on the rotation of the skids around the vertical axis, either by exerting a torque on this axis of rotation, or in the case of floats in use. -nt rudders arranged at the rear of each of the floats.

The skate rotation control is provided from the cockpit, either by mechanical means, control by cables, for example, or by means of servomotors.

 It is possible to orient the wing and steer '; the machine by acting only on the pads located at the ends of the beam. For this purpose, the angle of orientation given to each of the pads is the sum of two angles, according to another characteristic of the invention, the the first of these angles being said steering angle, and the other angle of swerve. These two angles are adjusted separately. The angle of orientation given to the first skate is equal to the angle of direction increased by the angle d swerve.

The orientation angle given seen second gossip is equal to the direction angle minus the swerve angle.

 The action on the angle of orientation modifies in the same way 1 trajectory of the skates, therefore that of ltengin.

 The action on the angle of swerve takes place by oscillation, @@@@@@ of the zero value which is the normal value when the wing is correctly oriented relative to the relative wind, this angle varies in one direction, returns to zero, starts again in the other direction then returns to zero.The effect of this oscillation is that the skates have swerved in opposite directions, which modified the distance between their trajectories normally pararelles and consequently the orientation of the wing.

 The pad located at the end of the pendulum can :. do not overload, and "follow the movement". However, it can be useful, especially during tacking or jibing maneuvers to use this skate to "assist the movement". In practice, changes of direction and wing orientation '. will be obtained by acting simultaneously on the steering angle, on the swerve angle and on the orientation of the end pad of the balance wheel.

 The steering angle and the swerve angle can be controlled by a single lever. By means of articulated links, it is possible to ensure that the displacement of the end of the lever in a horizontal direction corresponds to a modification of the angle of direction of travel, and that the displacement in a vertical direction corresponds to a modification of swerve angle.

According to another characteristic of the invention, the adjustment of the direction of travel and of the orientation of the wing can be carried out automatically:
-either tl, the angle of a skid with respect to magnetic north
-or A2, the angle of the other shoe
-or O, the angle of the relative wind with respect to the horizontal axis perpendicular to the axis of the beam
-or Bl, the angle of the first shoe relative to the axis of the beam
-or B2, the angle of the second shoe
The angle O has two optimal values: ± t and do according to the direction of inflation of the airfoil.

 The swerve signal E is transmitted at intervals d- T seconds.

I1 has the form:
E = k (Oi - Oc) cos (B1 - B2) sin ut
In this formula:
-Oi is the value of O at the start of the interval T
-k is a constant
-u is a constant
-t is the time variable
During the interval T the swerve signal has the value:
-from O to 2Pi the value given by the above formula 2 Pi u
-from u to T the value O Pi = 3.14159 ....

The signal controlling the orientation of the first skid is the sum of the swerve signal and the signal from a PID regulator comparing It with the direction setpoint.
The signal controlling the orientation of the second shoe is the difference between. the signal from a regulator comparing t2 with the direction setpoint and the swerve signal.

 The mathematical laws previously described are among the simplest of those capable of performing the function.

Other more elaborate laws ensuring the direction and orientation corrections of the airfoil without the use of oscillations can also be used.

The configuration and use of the devices which are the subject of the present invention will be described in more detail with the aid of the appended drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the beam supporting the wing
FIG. 2 is a top view of the structure formed by the beam and the pendulum
FIG. 3 is a front view of this same structure
FIG. 4 is a vertical section of the connection between the structure and a shoe
FIG. 5 is a vertical section perpendicular to the previous one
FIG. 6 is a top view of the structure and of the pads
FIG. 7 is a representation of the speeds and of the forces brought into play during the use of the machine.
FIG. 8 is a vertical section of the beam carrying the wing
FIG. 9 illustrates by successive instantaneous views the evolution of the machine at different gait gaits
FIG. 10 is a view illustrating the modification of orientation of the airfoil by action with pads located at the ends of the beam supporting the airfoil
FIG. 11 is a view illustrating the modification of orientation of the airfoil by action of the shoe located at the end of the balance wheel.
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of the linkage for controlling the orientation of the pads situated at the ends of the beam
FIG. 13 is a top view of the different speeds and angles involved in the operation of the autopilot
According to FIG. 1, the beam supporting the blade is a beam composed of longitudinal profiled elements such as 1, transverse elements such as 2, oblique elements such as 3, and guy wires such as 4 and 5, vertical pivots 6 and 7s located at ends of the beam, and of profiled elements such as s and 9 ensuring the connection between the pivots and the composite beam.

According to Figures 2 and 3, the pivot 10 is made integral with the beam carrying the wing by means of two composite beams forming a V. Each of these two beams are themselves formed of profiled elements such as 11, 12 13 *
According to Figures 4 and 5, the shoe 14 is articulated on the pivot 6 via the part 17 whose cylindrical part rotates inside the corresponding cavity formed in the pivot 6 and the friction ring 18 rde the l9solidaire axis of 17 swiveling in the yokes. 20 and 21 themselves integral with the pad 14. the pad 14 has, relative to the pivot integral with the structure, two degrees of freedom:
- rotation around the vertical zz 'axis
rotation around the horizontal axis yy 'which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the shoe 14
According to Figure 6, the structure formed by the beam carrying the wing and V-shaped beams forming a balance rests on the pads 14,15 and 16respectively through the pivots 6, 7 and l0.1> s joints between 7 and 15 on the one hand, 10 and 16 on the other hand are identical to the articulation between 6 and 14 previously described.

According to FIG. 7, the relative speed of the air relative to the machine results from the vector composition of the wind speed relative to the surface and from the opposite of the speed of movement of the machine.
VR = N - V3
FIG. 7 also schematically represents a top view of the series of sails such as 22 and 23.

The relative wind VR exerts on this series of sails a pressure of which 1 horizontal result is 2f. This effort is also transferred to each of the pads 14 and 15 nar the intermediai ~ e of the pivots 6 and 7. At the pad 14, the force f breaks down into a propelling force p and a force tending to cause the skid of its trajectory.

According to Figure 8 the sail 22 is fixed to the elements 1 of the beam by means of the drums 25 and 24. At rest, the sail is wound on the drum 24 whose rotation around the axes 26 and 27 is ensured by means such that pinion and tangent screw, chain and gear etc ..., not shown in the figure. The sail 22 is provided at its trailing edge with a slat 28 on which are fixed sheets 29, j and 31.w
The sail is bordered or shocked by rotation in one direction or the other of the drum 25. The rotation of this drum is ensured by means similar to those with which the drum 24 can be provided. By conjugation of the rotation of the drums 24 and 25, we adjust the active surface of the sail and s tension
To improve the performance of the sail and reduce the drag due to the elements constituting the upper and lower horizontal faces of the beam, these faces are fitted with covers 30 and 31 respectively, giving these faces the general appearance of airplane wings. trailing edges of these reference wings 32 and 33 can be articulated in the manner of ailerons to increase if necessary the apparent weight of the machine and ensure its stability.

According to FIG. 9, the machine is represented at different gaits:
-33 = crosswind
ed4 = 3/4 rear wind
-35 = rear on one edge
-36 = jibe
-37 = aft on the other side
-38 = 3/4 rear
* 39 = cross
-40 = meadows
-41 = headwind
-42 = upwind
-43 = headwind
-44 = meadows
45 = headwind
-46 = upwind
During these developments, the pendulum gossip is always downwind relative to the beam.

According to FIG. 10, the lines 47 and 48 respectively represent the trajectories of the skids 14 and -15 during a change of orientation of the airfoil
According to Figure 11, line 49 represents the trajectory of the skate. 16 during a change of orientation of the car
melon Figure 12, the axes 50 and 51 cause the rotation of the pads 14 and 15 via mechanical connections not shown in the drawing * The rotation of the axes 50 and 51 is provided by the links 52,53,54,55 , the lever 56, the ball joints movable in the space 57, 58, 59, and the ball 60 fixed to the structure of the machine. By moving the end 61 of the lever 56 in the horizontal direction, the shoes are rotated in the In the same direction moving this end in the vertical direction, they are made to rotate in opposite directions.

According to FIG. 13, the different angles and speeds int erving the operation of the automatic pilot are shown,
The previous description is independent of the size
given to gear. This size can range from that of a toy
to that of transoceanic vehicles through that of scale models and beach machines.

Claims (4)

1. Wind-driven machine moving on a liquid surface, comprising
a structure carrying the wing and at least three floats, each float having with respect to the structure at least one degree of freedom corresponding to a rotation about a substantially vertical axis integral with the structure and at most three, the last two corresponding to rotations with respect to 9 a horizontal axis perpendicular to the major axis of the float and with respect to an axis parallel to the major axis of the float.
2. Machine according to claim I characterized in that the airfoil is constituted by a series of sails supported by a composite beam resting on two of the floats, a third float serving for balancing.
3. Machine according to claim I characterized in that the direction of its displacement and the orientation of its wing with respect to the relative wind are adjusted simultaneously by acting in a coordinated manner on the rotation of the floats, or by exerting on these floats a couple with a substantially vertical axis, or by means of rudders fitted to these floats.
4. Machine according to claims I t 3 characterized in that two of the floats are used to adjust the direction by means of rotations of the same value, and the orientation of the airfoil by means of oscillatory and opposite rotations.
FR8616368A 1986-11-25 1986-11-25 Wind propelled craft or vehicle - has sails on structure with three rotating floats which have one to three degrees of freedom Pending FR2607102A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8616368A FR2607102A1 (en) 1986-11-25 1986-11-25 Wind propelled craft or vehicle - has sails on structure with three rotating floats which have one to three degrees of freedom

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8616368A FR2607102A1 (en) 1986-11-25 1986-11-25 Wind propelled craft or vehicle - has sails on structure with three rotating floats which have one to three degrees of freedom

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
FR2607102A1 true FR2607102A1 (en) 1988-05-27

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002040340A2 (en) * 2000-11-14 2002-05-23 Gray Cooper Treadwell Multihull boat

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB142914A (en) * 1919-02-11 1920-05-11 Isaac Henderson Improvements in sailing craft
FR2451312A1 (en) * 1979-03-14 1980-10-10 Vernier Gabriel Multi-hull hydrofoil vessel - has hulls secured to main structure by joints allowing rolling, pitching and sliding movement
GB2088787A (en) * 1980-12-03 1982-06-16 Potter Francis Norman Trimaran
FR2532271A1 (en) * 1982-08-25 1984-03-02 Duplan Julien Glider moved and lifted by aerofoils.
EP0102886A2 (en) * 1982-08-03 1984-03-14 Jean-Michel Forestier Trimaran having at least vertically orientable halls

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB142914A (en) * 1919-02-11 1920-05-11 Isaac Henderson Improvements in sailing craft
FR2451312A1 (en) * 1979-03-14 1980-10-10 Vernier Gabriel Multi-hull hydrofoil vessel - has hulls secured to main structure by joints allowing rolling, pitching and sliding movement
GB2088787A (en) * 1980-12-03 1982-06-16 Potter Francis Norman Trimaran
EP0102886A2 (en) * 1982-08-03 1984-03-14 Jean-Michel Forestier Trimaran having at least vertically orientable halls
FR2532271A1 (en) * 1982-08-25 1984-03-02 Duplan Julien Glider moved and lifted by aerofoils.

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002040340A2 (en) * 2000-11-14 2002-05-23 Gray Cooper Treadwell Multihull boat
WO2002040340A3 (en) * 2000-11-14 2002-09-26 Gray Cooper Treadwell Multihull boat
US6830003B2 (en) 2000-11-14 2004-12-14 Gray Cooper Treadwell Multihull boat

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