FR2547029A1 - Methods of harnessing solar and wind energies - Google Patents

Methods of harnessing solar and wind energies Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2547029A1
FR2547029A1 FR8309136A FR8309136A FR2547029A1 FR 2547029 A1 FR2547029 A1 FR 2547029A1 FR 8309136 A FR8309136 A FR 8309136A FR 8309136 A FR8309136 A FR 8309136A FR 2547029 A1 FR2547029 A1 FR 2547029A1
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France
Prior art keywords
axis
wind
solar
concentrator
sphere
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FR8309136A
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French (fr)
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FR2547029B1 (en
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NOUYRIGAT MARCEL
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NOUYRIGAT MARCEL
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03GSPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03G6/00Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy
    • F03G6/02Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy using a single state working fluid
    • F03G6/04Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy using a single state working fluid gaseous
    • F03G6/045Devices for producing mechanical power from solar energy using a single state working fluid gaseous by producing an updraft of heated gas, e.g. air driving an engine
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/20Solar heat collectors for receiving concentrated solar energy, e.g. receivers for solar power plants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S23/00Arrangements for concentrating solar-rays for solar heat collectors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • F24S50/20Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors for tracking
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2220/00Application
    • F05B2220/70Application in combination with
    • F05B2220/708Photoelectric means, i.e. photovoltaic or solar cells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/46Conversion of thermal power into mechanical power, e.g. Rankine, Stirling or solar thermal engines
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/47Mountings or tracking

Abstract

Produced by means of a combined solar/wind device, characterised in that it comprises: a concentrator constituted by a conical section 1 concentrating the sun onto the inside, which is made reflecting, or concentrating the wind onto the small base by using this conical section as a venturi; a spherical collector 2 with an instantaneous switchover device allowing the absorption of solar or wind energies in a heat-carrying liquid at 250 DEG ; a storage system 4 at 200 DEG allowing heating, pumping, use of compressed air etc.; a support 3 manually or automatically tracking the sun or aiming directly into the wind; the separate use of the concentrator alone allowing the direct use of solar radiation in concentration or dilution, on foodstuffs - for their preservation - on premises, for their heating, on any element for sterilisation or drying, on cultures, and on the human body, for therapeutic treatment. <IMAGE>

Description

METHODS FOR DOMESTICATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY.

The invention relates to a device for controlling solar and wind energy; we know many ways to use these energies, but "scientific and technical research has not produced sufficient results for us to take immediate advantage of new energies" (R.-F. BIZEC, in the Preface research on new energies - 1980).

 Indeed, despite a promising commercial start, solar power is marking time on Fronce, while the equipment, they seem to be well developed.

This half-failure would admit for essential reason the study of solar and wind projects in the detail of the devices3 instead of the whole process.

For example: to carry out a complete solar installation, Ze cost of the collector-planes is of the order of "1", while that real of the unit reaches between three to four times this price. In addition, the unreliability of the instal
Solar ration with regard to the irregularities of the seasons and the nightfall obZy the doubling of the installation by that of a conventional auxiliary heating, making the price ... prohibitive.

We can also judge this drawback compared to the solar water heater which Ze doubly inside the balloon by a simple eZeco trique resistance makes the installation reliable, without big impact on the price, thus explaining the favor of the public for solar water heaters, unlike heating installations.

 Finally, when we want to concentrate the radiation to reach higher temperatures, the use of parabolic type mirrors we train optical constraints requiring a precise construction material, equipped with classic glass mirrors, and usable in a region very pure atmosphere. In addition, the compulsory automatic tracking of the sun requires a lot of time keeping, which involves the use of electronic equipment with a computer; the whole being of course very high price.

Results on solar power plants of this type (example:
THEMIS) confirm in figures the reality of these difficulties. The amount of sunshine was only forty-five to fifty percent, average during the three summer months. These faults remain true for miniature systems such as solar cookers, with the added bonus of being dangerous. arrangement of the hearth of the parabolic mirrors obliging for the manipulations of the kitchen to be held above the concentrator, Ze all remaining always dependent on
Z'ensoZeiZZement.

THE PRESENT INVENTION HAS THE PURPOSE TO REMEDY THESE INCONVENIENCES @ by the creation of a device synthesizing the continuation of the operations of the capture
Z'empZoi of solar, and eoZien energies. To this end, we are creating a device intended in particular for domestic heating and for the local supply of mechanical energy which must compensate for solar irregularity by a mixed solar / wind device, the reliability of the solar concentration being ensured by creation of a frustoconical mirror applying the thermodynamic theory of radiation concentration in a mirror of this shape, which allows the capture of any solar radiation, even masked by the clouds. The lowering of the cost price of the mircirs is always obtained thanks to this new concept which frees us from the very precise constraints of parabolic optics, allowing us in addition to create rigid self-supporting mirrors in modern materials; of the plastics type. The reliability and low cost of capturing wind energy is achieved thanks to the venturia device constituted by the previous truncated cone which induces the contraction of the wind vein around the rotor placed in the small base of the trunk of cone, thus reducing the size of the rotor by three-quarters for the same power collected. Behind the concentrator, the creation of a device allows the permutation of solar to wind, and the pursuit of the sun
This device will be of low cost price because it benefits from the advantages which the lightness of the plastic mirrors brings to it and the tolerance of pointing of the sun, this one because approximate, allowing the lightening of the structures and the cogs. d the automated electronic tracking of the sun are annihilated by the creation of a rustic device operating by successive notches engaged by a thermal bimetallic strip.

The reliability in availability of these energies is obtained by a new spherical boiler device at medium temperature from 200 to 250, irrigated with a single-phase heat transfer liquid. Its structure, which is made for 3/4 of plastic material of the polycarbonate type resistant to medium temperatures, allows to reduce the cost. In addition, this energy from the exchanger, in the form of heat energy, retains its reliability by creating storage, the importance of which benefits from the complementarity of solar and wind energy, to reduce the cost by "3 "to" 1 ". In addition, the average temperature of 200, below which this ste c1 storage takes place, can reduce its volume by four to five times compared to those operating at the temperature of 50 This same temperature of 2000 makes it possible by transforming these energies into pneumatic energy. by means of a new membrane device inserted between the storage of calories and that of compressed air, the use of mechanical energies. The invention also brings new possibilities to the sun by allowing, in particular thanks to the homogeneous -concentrations of radiation, its direct use, on the one hand, in the concentrated range: by interposition of objects or food (conservation), for the sterilization, discharging ... on the other hand, in the diluted bundle: for heating or lighting all premises, by passage of the radiation at the place of its concentration, through one. orifice made in their walls. In addition, in specific application therapy and hygiene, cultures in closed environment
The present invention will be better understood with the aid of the appended drawings which represent, without any limiting character, an example of the construction of a set for the domestication of wind and solar energies.
Zon the invention.

Figure 1. PL1., Is a set in perspective synthesizing the elements
realizing the domestication of solar and wind energy.

Figure 2. PL2., Is a vertical section along the "x - y" axis of Z'appareiZ
concentrator and sensor.

FIG. 3. PL3., Is a 1/2 section5 as a variant for the support of the sensor,
giving Ze detail of their hanging on the tower by Z'in-
intermediate of the orientation device.

Figure 4. PL4., Cross-section on the sensor at the center of the sensor.

Figure 5. PL4., Plan section at the level of the lowest generator of the
concentrator on the orientation support subject to the
tower.

Figure 6. PL5., Is a vertical section of the device on sensor and sup
port, and tower, operating manually.

Figure 7. PL6., Is a diagram of the automatic hydraulic control device
the sun tracking system.

Figure 8. PL6., Is a standard diagram on a mechanical device (spring)
automated sun tracking.

Figure 9. PL7., Is a schematic view from above, and in elevation5 of a
typical concentrator device consisting of four modules.

Figure 10. PL7., Is an assembly diagram of the modules for a concentra
tion of thirty soZeiZs.

Figure 11. PL7., Is a section on a typical device of mirror structure
frustoconical.

Figure 22. PL8., Is a perspective view of a type of sandwich structure
suitable for the mixed solar - eoZien concentrator.

Figure 13. PL8., Is a schematic perspective view of another device
for building the concentrator modules by elements
thermoformed.

Figure 24. PL9., Is a schematic developed and perspective view of an au
be the constituent device Ze concentrating from
the pZane surface developed.

Figure 15. PL9., Is a typical sectional view of the hooking devices and
of hinge allowing the realization of figure 14.

Figure 16. PL10, is a schematic section and detail sections on a
other device allowing the constitution of a concen
trator by rigid structure tone conical suppor
both the reflective film.

Figure 17. PL11., is a typical section on Ze solar collector device
eoZien.

Figure 18. PL12., Is a schematic plan view and vertical section of a
heat storage device in 2000.

Figure 19. PL13., Is a schematic plan view and section of another dis
positive storage. perspective effect,
Figure 20. PL14., Is a schematic section on a device allowing the
transformation of heat energy into pneuma energy
tick, as well as Ze pumping liquids.

Figure 21. PL14., is a schematic section on Ze pumping device
water by energy from the solar, after transformation
Figure 22. PL14., Is another schematic section on the pumping device
age of water from solar energy after trans
compressed air training.

Figure 23. PL15., Is a schematic perspective view of a device
allowing live recording on Z'éner's premises
solar radiant finfra-red for heating, but
also lighting, etc.).

Figure 24. PL16., Is a schematic perspective view of a device
other allowing direct use of radiation
solar.

 According to FIG. 1., this device for the domestication of solar and eoZian energies comprises a concentrator (1.) of frustoconical shape made reflective inside and Zisse outside. This frustoconical mirror (1.), when it is directed towards the sun, has the property of concentrating solar radiation on a homogeneous range at a distance below the small base (22.) of the truncated cone (1.) . Concentration is accomplished by means of a single reflection.

 the dimension of the opening of the cone trunk is, for example, of 7.00 meters in diameter for the large base giving a power of Z'order of 20 kw to 25 kW capable of heating a medium house or pavilion and a concentration , for example, of thirty suns, that is one. radiation power of the order of three watts / square centimeter, easily allowing temperatures of the order of 3000 to 6000 and pZus.

This truncated cone (1.), when placed in the wind bed - the small base being directed towards the wind - holds Zieu de venturi, concentrating
Z'écouZement of Z'air through the small base of the cone trunk. The rotor (11.), about 2.40 m in diameter, placed in Z'aze of this vein, can produce a power of Z'order of 5 kW to 6 kW in normal wind.

 A mixed wind / solar collector (2.) is placed below and in the "x - y" axis of the truncated cone (1.). It is characterized by a sphere-shaped boiler (8.), 1.50 m in diameter, approximately, admitting a transparent cap (20.) which is placed in the axis of the concentration range (1G thanks to the pivoting of the sphere t 8.) on a vertical axis (14.) materialized by a disc (25.), below the sphere (8.), in this drawing. This pivot @ also causes the pivoting of the rotor axis ( 11.) which crosses the latter right through while the fairing (13.) of the rotor (11.) is carried by dishes making it integral with the sphere (8.).

 When the axis (16.) of the rotor coincides with the axis "z - y" of the truncated cone (1.), Ze fairing (13.) joins tightly with the small base (12.) of the truncated cone ( 2.); the sensor is in the wind position.

The operation is controlled by means of a hydraulic cylinder (19, double acting which blocks the end positions of the solar and wind positions.

 On the axis of the rotor (16.), an alternator (9.) admits its rotor (17.) secured to the wind rotor (16.), and its stator (18.) secured to the sphere (8.), delivers on resistors (125.) inside the boiler which are brought to the temperature of 200. Below the concentrator - sensor assembly, and supporting them: a device (3.) in the form of a tube cradle is attached to the concentrator on three generators, first on either side of the "x - y" axis "(and to limit the swing from left to right) and second, on the lowest generator; d the head of the truncated cone (1.), and at the base, with the tower or with the mast (33.), by means of a device characterized in that it allows the adjustment of the inclination of the "x - y" axis from 0 to 900 and the rotation to 2600 of the assembly (1. - 2. - 3.) concentrator - receiver.

 Below, the support of the assembly (1. - 2. - 3.), is carried here a mast with shrouds (35.) on the head plate (3 4.).

 A single-phase heat transfer fluid circulates inside the boiler (2.) or it is brought to 2500. It is then led by a thermally insulated pipe to the storage block (4.) calorific located if possible near the mat (33.) and embedded in the ground. He deposits in his heart the calories which are then taken up by a secondary circuit - Caloporte @ fluid which distributes the calories by circulating in the alveoli filled with water, from the center to the periphery, the whole being insulated on the floors, walls and ceiling, the periphery being calculated to be brought to a maximum temperature of 500.

 The amount of storage depends on the deficit, during the winter months; this is reduced from "3" to "1" due to the wind complement in the winter month. In addition, the device is oversized, so as to be sure of the calculation and to be able to eliminate conventional equipment.

 The return from storage goes through a double airlock device (181.) putting the circuit under pneumatic pressure; so as to allow adjustment by valve, controlled by a thermal bimetal, of the flow of the coolant at constant temperature which can follow the fluctuations of the solar radiation.

 The use of the heat transfer fluid in the secondary circuit, teZ that the water, under 200, can be carried out by direct connection on the circuit, in the center, when the sensor works; otherwise, the fluid is removed from the periphery towards the center5 which supplies the water vapor to 2000; or at low temperature, 70 or 50, at the periphery, for heating.

 The energy supplied by this vapor is transformed into stable pneumatic energy by means of a membrane device (5.) which flows into a reservoir (6.) of compressed air used either in a device (A. ) similar to (5.); either by taking pressure from the well at (B.), or by emulsion reducing the liquid to be pumped (C.).

puts to practice pumping (7.) of water @
A compressed air intake which perm @@ @@ @@ is connected to the véreine of the device, of which it allows energy autonomy. It is also used for regulating the flow by pressurizing the airlock. @ A socket allows mechanical use (181.), by a workshop of the traditional type, for example.

The alternator (9.) mounted on the wind rotor (16.) has a
(17) device separating its rotor @@@@@ from the shaft carrying the propeller, as well as a compressed air turbine (123.) capable of driving it, and thus allowing the continuous use of electricity , without the need for electrical storage.

 Figure 2. shows in section the mixed solar / wind collector in wind function. It is characterized on the one hand by the spherical shape of the boiler (8.) which allows the gaseous air stream to be channeled by suction around it towards the nozzle (13.) which - squares the rotor ; on the other hand, by the axis (27.), supported by the frame (28.) in extension of the concentrator, allowing the sphere to pivot. Then the axis of the rotor 1 16), passing right through the sphere, is supported by bearings located outside the sphere.

 Finally, supported by the sphere (8.), a nozzle (13.) housing the rotor (11.) comes into joint with the small base (12.) of the concentrator, by simple rotation of the sphere, thanks to the special shape contact surfaces which are, for the nozzle, the outside of a spherical ring, of center of the sphere (8.); for the base of the truncated cone, the interior of this same ring; and allows the sensor assembly to come into jointing on the base of the concentrator, thus avoiding any eddies and keep the nozzle around the propeller in an ideal position, this without changing anything to the sensor assembly.

On the same figure is located Ze electricity generator (9., whose rotor (17.) is secured to that of the wind, by pins (20.), ta @ dis that the stator is fixed in the sphere at (18. ), a turbine (123.) a. compressed air resting on the sphere, impulses the rotor (17 @) separated from Z'aze eoli thanks to the simultaneous action of compressed air on the pins (20. q @
and the turbine (123.).

releases the electric rotor from the axis. In (29.) the double-acting cylinder (pneumatic or hydraulic) is supported on the frame by means of a vertical axis caZ (30.); the head of the rod of the jack is integral with the sphere, by the median Z'inter of a vertical axis (31.) disposed on the sphere at a good distance from the axis (16.) so that when Ze jack is deploys, iZ rotates the sphere, for example, from the wind position to the solar position when it reaches the end of its travel; the recoil at the end of its travel, in contrast, placing the wind position, the two positions being kept blocked by the pressure on the jacks.

 Figure 3. shows a 1/2 section on a solar / wind mix sensor variant, concerning the support axis which, here, is characterized by a single axis (14.) located under the sphere, made stable thanks to the adaptation a rotation device composed of a fixed disc (25.) integral with the frame (3.) and cradle (@@.) movable around (14.); the two vertical branches of the "U" support @ the sphere joined by birds.

The jack (19.) rests on the axis (15.) integral with (14.). IZ rotates Ze "U", therefore Ze mixed sensor, from solar to wind, and vice versa, by means of an axis (26.) secured to the lower base of "l
This arrangement allows greater simplicity of the organs: eZZe removes the frame in extension of the concentrator and thus gives better wind aerodynamics.

 Figure 4. which represents a plan view - section of figure 2 but in solar operation, center level of the sphere, makes it possible to distinguish the transparent range (10.). which is located at the level of the concentration range of solar radiation, and in the axis "x - yn of the truncated cone. We can also distinguish Z'empZacement from Z 'axis (30.) of the jack (29. ) integral with the frame (28.), but slightly offset from it, as well as the axis on the sphere (31.) which is also supported by a shoulder which deviates from the sphere.

 We can see the operation of the permutation of the eo @ device in dotted lines at "A" in the current solar layout, the rotor propeller being locked at "B" by the jack (29.).

Finally, the singularity of the contact surfaces (13.) (12.) between the truncated cone and the nozzle in the form of a spherical ring, which allows the rotation of
Z'ensembZe, without modifying anything to device 2.

 Figure 5. which is a section on Figure 3. shows the device, in elevation on (3.), of connection between the concentrator, the sensors and the tower - or mast - (33.); iZ is characterized by, at the base, so Zidaire du mat, a rigid trapezoid (34.) on which comes to rest a plate of the same shape (36.) with in its center an axis (d0.) perpendicular to its surface, a third plate (37.), this one in the shape of a "U", inscribed in the trapezoid of the previous one, fits by its hollow center in the axis (40.), the plate, in position rest, is in contact with (34.); however, thanks to hinges (38.), iZ is connected to (34.), which allows it to move in rotation around (38.), thanks to the action of the jack (47.) resting on (34.) by a horizontal pivot (39.) and on (36.) by another horizontal pivot (48.).

 This rotation will allow the axis "x - y" of the device which is parallel to the plate (36.) to move from Oq necessary position to the device in the Zit of the wind, up to 90, position which allows the tilting of the "x - y" axis to follow the height of the sun at noon on the horizon depending on the season.

 The central connection by an axis (40.) of the U-shaped plates (37.) and (36.) has the advantage of distributing over a large area the pressures and movements of the entire concentrator - sensor device. .

 It allows this set to rotate 3600 thanks to the device of a single double-acting cylinder (49.), supported on the plate (36.) by an axis (50.) allowing the rotation of the cylinder and on (37.) by another solid axis of the actuator rod head, Z'ensembZe constituting a piston and crank device transforming the reciprocating movement of the rotating cylinder 3600 of the pZateau (37.), this rotation allowing the "x - y" axis to take place in the Zit of the wind When the pZateau (36.) is in horizontal position with the wind device in place, while ZWhen the inclination of (36.) is directed towards the sun at noon, the sensor being in the solar position, the rotation of the pZateau (37.) under the action of the jack (49.) allows the "x - y" axis to continue the sun during the day.

The connection between the movable pZateau (37.) and the concentrator assembly (1.) is characterized by the cradle shape of the rigid structure in four tubes (1.), the ends being flattened beforehand, before being bolted : d first on the truncated cone on either side of the "x" axis in the horizontal plane, on the pZatines (45.) supporting the bars (42.), then at the base, on both branches of the "U", this frame being consolidated by transverse bars (43.) (44.); the support of the collector (2.) mixed solar / eoZien is carried out either on the frame of the trunk of cbne, in extension, case of Figure 1., or here, Figure 5., by a console built by extending the bars (43.) under Ze support disc (25.) and
Z subjecting itself to the plate (45.) by a gusset (15.), connecting the two bars (43.) (d4.) And the support assembly (25.) (14.).

 Figure 6. shows a variant of the device of Figure 2. characterized in that the control of all operations - that of permutation of wind in solar; - or else to adjust the inclination, - and the orientation of the x-axis - y are carried out exclusively manually.

 The solar wind turbine passage device is characterized by the extension of the axis supporting the sphere by a tube (59.) guided by sleeves (183.) soZidaries of the frame (3.) and ending downwards. , at breast height, by a crank (61.) integral with the tube, which allows its operation, this tube being foldable thanks to a hinge (62.).

 A device 1 63.) integral with (59.), allows by ratchet fasteners (64.) fixed to the sheath (183) the locking of the positions, Ze device being released by traction on a cable at the steering wheel. The tilting and rotating device is characterized by the use for these two operations of a single threaded rod (52.) of the "Arteon" type (registered trademark), guided by sleeves (54.) in the axis of the tower and crossing the plates (36.) and (38 in their center. EZZe also passes through a device (57.) consisting of a nut (85.) capable on the one hand of being made integral with the tower - which allows the threaded rod (52.) Zorsqu'eZZe pivots under the action of the flywheel (53.

to mount by leaning on the tower (66.) - on the other hand, to be fixed by (182.) to the one of the tower, but rod, which allows the nut to become detached to turn, while remaining wedged on a plate (67.) integral with the tower, thus maintaining the rod at the same level.

 In addition, under the plate (36.), eZZe has a shoulder (68.) which allows the rod, when eZZe goes up, to drive the center of the plates which makes them rotate around the hinge (3 8. ).

 Finally, at the end of the rod, a clutch system (55.) controlled by an eabZe (56.) in a sheath allows the rod to drive the plate (37.) in its rotation while, when the latter is disengaged, Ze cable being pulled, the rod turns empty.

 The operation of the device allows all positions, from that in the wind position; Ze pZateau (38.) is brought back to the horizontal, by securing the rod nut, and Z'on disengages the plate (37.) from the rod, the rotation of the steering wheel clockwise brings down the rod which rotates the assembly (36.) - (37.) around the hinge (38.

the plate (36.) coming to bear on the head of the tower.

 We engage the plate (37.), the device behaves like a weather vane, starts in the bed of the wind turning, with gentle friction, disc (37.) on disc (36.).

 For positioning in the solar position, the nut (65.) is soZidarized from the tower, and detached from the rod. The rod is disengaged at the head of the disc (37.); Zing the dial in the opposite direction to the clockwise; the rod rises, carrying by the flow 1 68.) the whole assembly (36.) and (37.) which inclines according to the seasons; at these places, the rod carries holes in which pins engage, making the nut integral with the rod, the nut is detached from the tower and the disc is engaged (37.).

 The rotation of the rod rotates the disc (37.) with gentle friction, on the disc (36.). It is fixed, making the nut already integral with the rod integral with the Z'ensembZe tower pointed towards the sun about every hour. The nut is released and the handwheel is turned by about 15.

Figure 7. shows a diaphragm pump diagram (178.). which causes the same amount of fluid to pass through a circuit at each expansion of the bimetallic strip;
EZZe is characterized by a bypass (69.) connected in high and low pressure (70.) of the fluid, in two chambers (71.) - (72.) 1/2-spherical, separated by a metal membrane (73 .) for example ; possibly fitted with a spring (74.) in the chamber (72.);
The room (71.) being connected to the bypass,
The chamber (72.) with two "HP" and Low Pressure circuits, via twisted valves, these circuits being connected to the jack (49.) actuating the orientation, the operation of the assembly is conditioned by the properties of the conical trunk concentrator, vis-à-vis the solar radiation, which makes it possible to maintain a yield at Z'appareiZ, even if Z'angZe is made by the axis "x - y" of the device with the solar axis differs from 150.

 The automated tracking of the sun is therefore characterized by the use of a thermal bimetal strip (75.) placed in the plane and on the side of the concentration range (10.) on the sphere - here figure 4. in ( 75.) - which is heated by solar radiation When the "x - y" axis deviates by 150.

The movement of the bimetal simultaneously controls the opening of the "H. P." valve (70.) and closing the valve "B. P." (70.).

The fluid enters the chamber (71.) pushing the flexible membrane (73.) which transmits the pressure to the chamber (72.) compressing the spring (74.) in the chamber (72.) the fluid which rises in firm pressure. the "BP" valve (78.) and opens the valve "H. P." (77.), letting flow in the "H. P." circuit of the jack (49.) the fluid "H. P." which supplies one of the cylinder orientation cylinder sides with a quantity of fluid "q", causes the axis "x - y" of 15 to move, placing the bimetallic strip in the shadow.

 This, while cooling, closes the "H. P." circuit (70.) and opens the "Low Pressure" circuit in the chamber (71.) under "B. P." lets the membrane (73.) pushed by the spring (74.) return to the first position; the resulting vacuum closes the "H.P." valve (77.) and opens the valve "B.P." (76.) which lets in the fluid which rempZit the chamber (72.) as the membrane moves, enlarging the chamber (72.), to return to the starting position.

 The value of "q" is adjusted using a needle screw (? 8.) Zimiting the spring travel.

Figure 8. shows an automated sun tracking device using the rotational energy of the sensor-concentrator assembly has a torsion spring, (79.), preaZabZement tensioned by means of the flywheel (53.); Or d '' a load descending in free fall.
The device is characterized by sleeves (83.) fixed at regular intervals of 150 all around the circular pZateau (36.); "L" shaped pins (80.) slide there by the large "L" branch, Zeur protrudes downward remaining fixed, by means of a spring (82.), and two small pins (81.), on a stop (85) integral with the disc (38.); the overhangs of the pins come into abutment on (85.).

This same stop (85.) supports another goupiZZe (84.) in "L", sembZabZes a (80.) but in a reverse arrangement so that the small branch of "L" is on the small branch of l 'other
Finally, the judgment (85.), supports the pouZies on ZesqueZZes slide the cable actuated by the bimetallic strip (75.); When this one expands, its displacement generates by pulling the cable the rise of the pin (84.) which raises, by the small branch of "L", the other "L" (80.), Zibere the disc ( 37.

not called in (85.) which rotates 150 until the next pin (86.) stops. The "x - y" axis has moved 150; Ze bimetal which is again in the shadows contracts, returns to its original position.

 Figure 9. shows the assembly detail of sembZabZes modules (1., - 2. - 3. - & 4.) allowing the construction of a truncated cone concentrator, starting from a single mezZ, the parts between modules holding stiffener Zieu (138.).

FIG. 10. represents the assembly of trunks of cones, of different characteristics I., - II., III., With only three types of modules; this makes it possible to realize, starting from only three types of molds, variable concentrations: - I. = 10 suns,
- I. + He. = 20 suns,
- I. + He. + III. = 30 suns,
Ze principle of calculation takes into account the angle of inclination of each of the types of mirrors, so that their concentrations are superimposed.

 Figure 11. shows the detail of the structure of the moduZes.

The construction of the mirrors in pZastic material is carried out by means of molds on the bottom of which there is - a transparent protection (89.) of the "Mylard", or "Tedlar", "Plexiglass" type.
(marks removed) or any other transparent synthetic product, then - a part made reflective (90.) by vacuum metallization, or
a reflective (polished) aluminum sheet, adhering to the protections, or
still synthetic products made reflective by adding party
metallic cuZes; then - a compression table 1 91.) made of cardboard soaked in resins.

 finally, - a tension table (92.) made of a fiber reinforced plastic ...

The rigidity of the assembly is consolidated by means of stiffeners (93) of the same material coated with fibers + resins.

 Figure 12. shows a structural variant particularly suitable for the mixed / wind / solar system.

The truncated cone consists of two concentric frustoconical molds (95.) - (96.) (see perspective figure 12.), on which have been previously deposited: - for the interior (95.) the layers (89 .) - (90.), reinforced with -resin
C 92.) and glass fibers; - for the exterior (96.), inside, resin + fiber protection
(92.).

 Between these two molds (95.) - (96.) whose bases have been previously closed, an expanded plastic material (94.) of the polyurethane or plastic phenolic resin type is poured, which joins the two interior and exterior surfaces; the assembly having the advantage of being of great rigidity conferred upon it by sandwich-type material, and of presenting on the outside a smooth wall, suitable for use in venturi.

This type of structure can also be produced starting from a single mold, for example, the interior one on which the assembly is applied.
(89.) - (90.) + fiberglass resin (92.), then a "honeycomb adherent to the resin, ending with a layer of laminated fiber resin (92.), -eoZZée in the nest d 'abei2Ze.

However, this type of structure does not accommodate cutting
in module; we therefore construct in a single liver Ze trunk of cone, of different characteristics I., II., III., three different molds of the size of the
trunk of cone.

 FIG. 13. shows a variant of industrialized construction of the modules by thermofusion, the truncated cone is formed by fitting these modules of box structure.

 FIG. 14., and FIG. 15., represent another variant in the construction of the truncated cone, from the flat, semi-flexib @ developed surface of the truncated cone (FIG. 14.), made with a sheet of plastic material laminated with fiberglass, for example, and coated on one side with reflective material such as (89.) and (90.), figure 11.

 Ze truncated cone is obtained (Figure 24.) by hanging along a generatrix of the two ends of the developed surface (97.), the re-bending surface being interior (89.) - (90.).

 The inertia of the sheet in bending is calculated so as to allow bending in order to obtain the curvature of the truncated cone, while giving it good resistance to weathering, in Zui avoiding deformation.

 The characteristic of the closures attaching the ends is to keep the same inertia on the sheet from this location which is produced at 1 99.) by a chicane joint (98.), the closure (99.) being of the hook type. , hinge with removable axis, "Velcro" strip (registered trademark) ... or else, in (100.), by plastic clip with tenon and mortise.

 Another characteristic, in order to reduce the size of the elements of the developed surface, this is divided into parts connected by hinges (101.) arranged along the generatrices.

An economical variant consists in thermoforming Z'ensembZe of the surface in a single operation, including the hinges, which are produced (102.) by overlapping parts (103.) reZié by fibers (104.) resistant to bending. , as well as closing the type (100.).

 Another advantageous variant consists in taking advantage of the value and the reliability of the reflective surfaces based on aluminum sheet ('.) Anodized and cut according to classic trapezoids or mirror corresponding to the facets of the pyramid thrones which are mounted on a set of plastic material of hinge, of the preceding type (102.).

 Figure 16. shows the reconstitution, in another very economical variant, of the truncated cone - concentrator, characterized by two rigid circles (106.) bases of the truncated cone, and of a film (107.) one of which faces the the less this inner ZZe at the truncated cone is reflective.

 This film is stretched on both sides of these rings while d @@@@@@@@@@ des @@@@@ @ i @@ des (1 @@,) which @@@@ @ r @ v @ @e @@@ keep @eur widely apart.

 The tension of the films is obtained either by varying the distance between the rings by means of screws (109.), or by tension (110.) of the films at the location of the closure.

 Obtaining successive concentrations I., II., III., With cone thrones of different characteristics superimposed is obtained by mounting the rings, two by truncated cone, of rods admitting the variations of the slopes of the various trunks, the rigidity of this mirror is ensured by the protection of the curvature of the internal wall by external ceZZe; indeed, bad weather, wind for example, exert a pressure on the external wall, digging the latter and exerting a tension on the internal wall, Z'in terstice between the two films not being waterproof, in this variation of volume, the air remains at atmospheric pressure; the interior mirror film remains stretched, undeformed.

 FIG. 17. represents the internal structure of the mixed wind / solar boiler, characterized by its spherical shape (8.), by a sheath (111.) passing right through it, which supports at the end by paZiers (112. ) the axis (16.) of the rotor.

 It is made up, from the outside, by a double spherical envelope (113.) in transparent plastic material of tube @@ ycarbonate or phenolic, with high resistance, mechanical and thermal, @ dme (114-.) In expanded synthetic materials consolidates and thermally insulates the entire wall, except at the transparent place (10.) centered on the concentration range (115.).

 The construction of each sphere is carried out by thermoforming in two parts; The scabbard (119.) is added next.

 The heat exchanger (116.) inside is also spherical in shape with a double wall, the sheath (111.) passing through them; a sheath (117.) is mounted, concentric with the latter, projecting from the envelope on the side opposite the rotor (11.): opening onto the interior of the sphere on the rotor side; a third sleeve (118.) opposite the rotor, channels from the boiler to the outside of the envelope, the outlet of the heat transfer fluid.

 This boiler is open (119.) on the transparent range side, to allow the radiation to penetrate.

 The two spheres are interrupted, then caulked by return parts, conforming to the conical trunk shape (120.), the smallest base being inwards, in the concentration angle produced by the frustoconical concentrator.

 This exchanger (116.) is made of metal sheet from elements of the cylindrical tube constituting the sleeves (117.) and of a hemisphere, stamped, of the same design as those used for constituting the envelope, with, at the place of the opening, returns allowing the caulking between spheres, around this opening.

 In its operation, Ze single-phase heat transfer fluid at 3000 and more penetrates under pneumatic pressure (see device) through the annular opening (121.) surrounding the sheath (111.). IZ flows Ze Zong from the sleeve (111.) - (117.), then iZ enters through an annular opening in the exchanger (116.), where the judicious arrangement of nozzles distributes Ze Ziquide with great homogeneity of speed d flow over the entire sphere. IZ recovers the calories there on the interior sphere which receives Ze solar radiation after its passage through the transparent part of the envelope and its penetration in the interior of the exchanger, by the opening whose plane coincides with the beach - solar concentrate - and the larger size allowing the solar beam (see adjustment) to penetrate entirely, despite the variations of the 150 of the offset produced by the solar tracking.

 The envelope being sealed, to avoid overpressures, and between the thermal parts by connection, either a relative vacuum is created inside, or a calibrated valve makes it possible to avoid overpressures of the boiler.

 The temperature control (in 122.) is carried out by means of a temperature selective bimetallic strip which actuates the opening of the outlet valve places in (122.), the heat transfer fluid being under constant pneumatic pressure, Ze setting the single flow allows you to set the temperature.

 The liquid single-phase heat transfer fluid, at 3000 and above, of the silicone type, which allows saving on the resistance of the exchanger to be protected from overpressures by regulating the temperature at 2500 maximum.

In addition, we notice on the eoZian rotor side the electric generator assembly (9.) comprising: Ze rotor (17.) fixed to Z'aze (16.) and Ze stator (18.) to sphere 1 8.), the generator rotor drive turbine at the end (123), - the compressed air supply bearing on the stator (18.) ;;
Inside the sphere, inside the exchanger, around the sheath (117.) takes place the winding of the resistance (125.) which transforms wind energy into calorific energy, under about 2000 , this arrangement having the great advantage of distributing the calories uniformly, and of finding in this contact a uniform current of heat transfer fluid, to absorb them.

 FIG. 18. shows in cross section and vertical section Ze device for storing calories from the source (126.) of the mixed sensor.

IZ is characterized by a juxtaposition of identical cells (127.) - here prisms of square sections, fifty-six in number - separated by partitions (128.) made of sandwich materials based on pipes (129.) " Eternit "(registered trademark) with maximum thermal resistance of 350, squares, evenly spaced and thus achieving the interior planes of the sandwich, between
which an expanded plastic, or an insulating refractory concrete,
constitutes the core (130), the two top and bottom ends of these cells being closed
by means of pZaque by Eternit (registered trademark) supported by stoppers
same nature as the soul; around these cells, an insulating material (131.) so
Zide, under low temperature - 700 and more - of sludge type solidified by concrete, aluminous, of high specific heat, close to "one" allows the useful
sation at low temperature of the heating energy, and lowers the temperature
ring road around 40; all the storage being thermally insulated
only, and moisture, all around by a plastic foam to
closed bubbles (179.) for example.

In the heart (133.) of the device, all the alveoli are by
run by a primary exchanger circuit (126.) where Ze monophase fluid circulates
at around 2500, coming from the mixed sensor, constituted by a tube (126.) arranged
serpentine or rectangular with fins, running through each cell in
descending from top to bottom then ascending from bottom to top; the same tube making
their series connection, at the head the connections being made in plan according to Ze - drawing of a spiral starting from the center of the repository, being limited here to four cells (1. - 2. - 3. and 4.).

The secondary circuit consists of a tube (134.). n also leaves
of the Center of the device for routing as before, putting the cells in series (1. - 2. - 3. - 4. - 5. - 6. - 7. --... - ... - 54. - 55. - 56. -) according to
the plan drawing, also in a spiral.

Inside this tube circulates a fluid, for example, water;
In the alveoli, a fluid with high specific heat (135.), for example, of water.

The principle of storage operation is characterized by the exchanges between two circuits, Ze primary circuit coming from the mixed sensor
solar / wind, which provides calories to partially filling water
the alveoli, the secondary circuit borrowing calories from water by the fluid which circulates inside the tube, here, of water> to then deposit
these caZories in the alveoli partly filled with water, gradually decreasing
less and less calories in each alveolus, so that, leaving with a temperature of 2500 at the center we arrive, at the periphery, with Z'eau
cells brought to 700 and that the stress that the walls undergo between cells of two contiguous branches of the spiral, corresponds to a shift of
temperature such that the pressure differences between these cells are infre
less than 10 kg / cm2; the wall of the sandwich between cells resisting well, iZ
is possible to build standard cells.

At the outlet of the secondary circuit tube, the temperature of the fluid
is approximately of the order of 70, which is seconded by 300 by having the tube deposited
calories in a circuit inside the surrounding solid mass (131.)
the alveoli.

It is thus possible to recycle the circuit by returning it to
start of the primary circuit (134.).

By operating on the stock, we can have water at 50, by
recovering at the peripheral output of the secondary circuit (136.).

If we want to get 200% water vapor, we circulate
the water in this circuit, in the periphery / center direction. When the sensor
works, Z'on can have water at 200, by connecting, here, at the outlet
of the fourth alveolus, when the fluid reaches it (137.).

Figure 19. shows another storage model for the secondary network: the tube here (13 3) is always continuous, but the cells stored side by side are replaced by another larger tube (239.) in which
the tube of the secondary network (133.) circulates in the center called from place to place by rings (141.) which rest on the tube (139.). These rings only allow
not try the free circulation of water which stores calories as detailed
(141.).

 The entire device is produced continuously; iZ retains a certain flexibility.

First, the complex (139.) is mounted in the heart (144.) according to an elongated cylinder. In the central tube (133.) circulates, at the temperature of about 200, coming from the sensor, the heat transfer fluid
the primary network (142.). Between the tubes (239.) and (138.) of Z'eau
borrows calories from this fluid. The calluses (141.) allow the fluid to pass here
Second, the secondary network (143.) borrows in (245.) this
water thus heated to around 200 and channels it through the central tybe (139.)
the interior of the complex which is wound and with a contiguous turn (146.), around the heart (144.), in the shape of a cylinder (247.), by superimposed successive layers.

Between each layer and around the heart; a foam type Ziant
phenolic (175.). made by hooking the layers together a sand material
wich admitting the walls of the tubes as a resistant plane and binding it as a core.

Figure 20. shows the device for transforming
The heat energy obtained in the form of water vapor, under pressure at 2000
approximately, coming from the solar collector, by pneumatic energy stored under
form of compressed air in a tank.

It consists of a separate room in two parts, (149.) (150.),
by a metallic membrane (151.); the first bedroom (149.) communicates with
the atmosphere by two valves (152.), with the air reservoir compressed by 'the
valve (153.) .; the second chamber (150.) communicates with the atmosphere, or the condenser, by light (154.), with the vapor circuit, @u other fluid of the secondary circuit by (155.).

 The opening of the cZapets (152.) takes place by means of the depression inside the chamber (149.) while the opening of the cZapets (153.) takes place by the action of pressure in the chamber (149.), the closure being carried out when the pressure inside the chamber decreases by the pressure action on the valve of the compressed air of the reservoir.

 In the bedroom, the opening of the lights takes place via a drawer (156.) sliding in a cylinder (157.), integral with a rod (158.) actuated by the displacement of the membrane (151.). The opening of the light (155.) being obtained when the membrane is in the rest position "A.", its closure ZWhen the membrane has arrived in "B.", the opening of the light (154.) being obtained when the membrane leaves from position "B.", its closure when it arrives in position "tA." "; in its operation, the membrane being in position "A.", the open light (155.) allows the admission into the chamber (150.) of the pressurized steam, the light (154.) being closed, this pressure pushes the membrane at "B.", the air in the chamber (149.) pressurized closes the valves (152.-) and forces Ze passage into the tank, by the valve (153.) in position "B." the light (155.) being closed, the light (154.) open, the vapor escapes by (154.) into the atmosphere or the condenser; the metal membrane (152.) returns to its rest position "A." by relaxing; the valves (152.) open under the action of the decompression of the chamber (149.) due to the displacement of the membrane, letting the air fill the chamber (149.): Ze cycle is finished.

 This same device can operate as a pump by placing the assembly @@ in the water from a well and replacing (155.) the pressurized water vapor with compressed air, then plugging into the valve. (153.) a pipe: iZ channels the rise in water from the well.

 Figures 21. and 22. represent another mode of solar pumping which, thanks to the chain device: solar energy - water vapor - compressed air to pump water from a well either by putting pressure inside from the well (figure 21.), or by emulsifying Z'eau, still using solar energy (figure 22.).

Figure 23. shows the simplified device in application to the standard mixed device of Figure 7., it is characterized in that it captures concentrated solar radiation in a frustoconical mirror (1.) for direct use, without no transformation, for heating or lighting, for example, of premises by taking advantage of the homogeneous concentration of the beam produced by the mirror to introduce all of the radiant energy received by the mirror, inside an enclosure (159.) thermal
and opaque, by making this reduced surface area coincide, for example
for thirty suns (here 1 / 30th of the surface of normal solar radiation)
with a small area of the enclosure made transparent (260.) while making use of the property possessed by the beam to then expand to re
leaving under low power and large area (161.) (substantially, at the concen
normal solar energy) this heating and illuminating energy inside
1 enclosure (159.) thus providing a very economical device for heating and
lighting of premises without any accessory (exchanger) or conduit, the mass
even from the enclosure (floor, brick wall) judiciously arranged playing Ze
role of accumulator, as well as the atmosphere of the room.

In addition, the device has the advantage of capturing the concen
trator an energy per square meter two to three times stronger than that received
by the equivalent of glass surface, thanks to the servo-control of the device
chasing the sun.

Finally, iZ does not oblige, as cgest the case for the bay windows
during the nights, has an isoZation preventing radiation loss and
conduction.

This device is characterized by a tapered mirror (l.) Sup
carried by the enclosure (159.), on either side of the orifice (160.), by means of
two flexible rods (162.) made of special steel - "Artéon" rod type (registered trademark
) - arranged in a vertical plane passing through the "x - y" axis of the mirror and soli
daire of it, on both sides of "x - y".

In the same plane, and on one side, a double-acting cylinder
(163.) controls the seasonal tilt of the "x - y" axis by relying on the truncated cone, by a horizontal hinge (164.) and on the enclosure by a
ball joint (165.).

In a plane containing "x - y", and perpendicular to the previous-
teeth another jack - (166.) double acting, rests on the enclosure by a
ball joint (167.) and on the truncated cone thanks to a perpendicular axis (168.) to the
work surface of the rod, and ensures the orientation of "te - y" in the
followed by the sun, the window surface being enlarged to take into account, when
displacement of the truncated cone, a slight sweeping effect through the concen
opening on the surface of the orifice, which is double, substantially, in the direc
horizontal tion, relative to that of the range.

The whole device can, as provided on the standard model,
be automated in pursuit of the sun, by placing a bimetallic strip attached to the trunk
cone, at height and at the edge of the concentration range, this device
can be used as a drying device or as a product sterilizer
food, by placing the material to be treated in place of the orifice, on a support device, whether it is:
- fixed: griZZe or transparent box,
- or mobile: thanks to an axis parallel to the beach,
around which these supports revolve,
- or, again, mobile: thanks to a conveyor belt (169.),
the plane (170.) of the mat merging
with the track (10.), actuated by a
cylinder (191.) controlled by a bimetallic strip
(172.), in automatic devices
similar to those used for the
chasing the sun but equipped with
temperature selective bimetallic strips, which
are placed in the axis of the ranges, on
the carpet ; the part in front of the beach
moving when the temperature Zi
moth is reached, spreading the section
in the shadow, placing a new section
lesson in the concentrated range, which con
holds another bimetallic strip. The first bimetallic strip
cools down during rotation time
of the treadmill, this one returning to
its starting point.

 This system has, in addition, the advantage of allowing recycling of different temperatures, depending on the state of drying, for example for continuous drying of the foods to be treated, according to the number of passages made under concentrated solar radiation.

 FIG. 24. represents a perspective view on another device similar to that of FIG. 23. IZ is characterized by the simplification brought to the support consisting of a single flexible rod (173.) carrying in console (174.) the frustoconical mirror (1.) and possibly receivers (175.).

 The rod (173.) is secured at its top (190.) by two rears (177.) - (178.) Attached to the ground (191.) - (180.), Which work, for one (177. ) in the North-South vertical plane, for the other (178.), in the plane perpendicular to it (East-West).

 To follow the sun, we pull on the cable (178.), we move the rod so the axis "x - y" of the concentrator, either every hour from 15 to 15, manually, or automatically.

 The cable (177.) having been previously fixed to the soZ has a system which matches the inclination of the rod - therefore of the "x - y" axis - to the pointing of the sun at noon, depending on the season. The tracking of the sun is based on Ze principle admitting that Ze sun remains in Ze inclined plane, materialized by the surface described by the inclined bar (according to the seasons) by means of the cable (177.) and pulled by Ze cable (191.) chasing the sun.

The approximation which takes into account the pointing tolerance of the conical mirror keeps the overall efficiency, taking care to keep the pitch (177.) a sufficient length, in order to keep the surface swept by the rod a shape close to the theoretical inclined plane.

 These variations can be automated @ by applying the device already studied; the accessories - already studied previously: grid, conveyor belt, boiler ... - can be adapted.

 The two devices shown diagrammatically in FIGS. 23 and 24 can allow therapeutic applications by controlling the intensity of the radiation, by means of diaphragms (180.) slaved to reader-detectors sensitive to these types of radiation, for their control.

Claims (1)

    CLAIMS conservation ... sterilization, concentrated drying1 of local radiation, for their heating and lighting; - a device (Figures 23. - 24.) allowing by interposition in the automated range, connecting directly via an orifice - in all continuous electrical energy (9.); - a device (fig. 23-24) performs by means of the solar concentrator alone the production of mechanical pneumatic energy (5.) - (6.), pumping (7.), use in steps of 2% to 3%, - device chains making it possible to transform the calorific energy for an automatic control of all these movements, - a calorific storage of these energies under approximately 2500, with losses only. that of orientation in pursuit of the sun, that of tilting, sun at noon, according to the seasons, the setting in horizontal wind position in the bed of the wind, the fixed part, tower or mat, allowing to pass from one to the other, a simplified (solid) connection of the concentrator-collector and tick assembly (1.), - a wind concentrator (1.) constitutes by the same truncated cone, - a mixed solar collector / wind (2.), spherical, instantly allowing CLAIM 1.: Mixed solar / wind device automated by the action of a thermal bimetal, thanks to the devices characterized in that it comprises a solar concentrator constituted by a frustoconical mirror in plas material for the base of the cane trunk, the inside of this ring. sphere (8.), and, for the nozzle, the exterior of a spherical ring with the same center as the fectue by means of surfaces which are - the jointing between the nozzle (13.) and the base of the trunk of cone (12.) blows ;; of the shaft (16.) of the rotor, obtained by means of compressed air actuating the latter 'is not driven by the wind rotor, thanks to a separation p - a compressed air turbine drives the rotor ( 17.) of the alternator when air streams bent by the sphere; by the. sphere, allowing optimum distribution in the axis of the rotor and heating the exchanger when the wind turbine is in operation; the rotor of the wind turbine (11.) is faired by a circular nozzle (13. electric suppor (125.) internal to the sphere (8.) and around the sheath (117.) of which the stator (18.) integral with the sphere is connected to resistors inside a sheath on which is mounted the rotor of the alternator (i ;; of man; - the wind rotor is secured to a shaft (16.), passing through the sphere (8.) extending the axis ('14.) or (27.) to end with a flywheel (@@) at height by the jack (29.) or (19.) at the end of its travel, - this same rotation can be carried out manually by means of an age (3'2.) - the two positions - solar or. wind - are locked in both cases on the axis of rotation (26.) fixed in " U "(24.); rin (19.) pivoting around the axis (15.) integral with (14.) and bearing (14.) vertically, by means of a bi.elle crank system which constitutes the vé (24.) supported by the disc (25.) and free to pivot about the axis (28.) acting on the sphere by the axis (31.), either on the "U" -shaped cradle by means of the jack (29.) supported by the axis (30.) integral with the frame only, or on the vertical axes (27.) integral with the frame (28.) - the sphere pivots from the solar position to the wind position, and reciprocated by suction around the sphere; base of the concentrator (12.) capturing the wind energy from the tration air stream (&15.); said sphere supports a wind rotor (11.) places both a transparent cap (10.) placed in the axis of the concentration range CLAIM 2.: Mixed solar / wind device according to claim 1., characterized in that the collector - consists of a sphere 8.) playing the role of solar collector and admits cultures in an enclosure isolated from the atmosphere of the premises, to carry out therapeutic or hygienic treatments, of all objects and food; - a device allowing, in the concentrated or diffuse beam, inside in rotation, to remain at the same level, supported on the tower by the plate (67.). support on the tower by securing it to the rod (52.) and allows the latter, (9.) by the command (182.), - the same command (58.) releases the nut (65.) from the tower, keeping it in (66.), thereby raising the rod in rotation by pressing on the nut simple manual control (58.) to make the nut (59.) integral with the traction tower on the cable (56 .) -; In the device (57.) mounted on the. threaded rod (52.) it is allowed by means of the clutch (55.), the disengagement of the latter being produced by a vertically, guided by sleeves (54.) in the axis of the tower; - the U-shaped cradle (37.) is driven by the rotation of the rod (52.) to the single rod (52.) threaded, pivoting using a flywheel (53.) and moving the end of its rod-on the axis of rotation (51.) fixed to "U" (37.); a manual orientation and tilting system operating with the aid of a (49.) pivoting on the axis (50.) integral with a duplateau (36.) and being supported by a "U" shaped hoop (37. ) by means of the crank connecting rod system constituted by the sun cylinder and the setting in the wind bed is obtained by rotating the cradle around the hinge (38.) ;; the rotation of the axis "x - y", from 0 to 360, necessary for the continuation of (39.) whose head pushes the axis (48.), the plate (36.) making it rotate zontally, s '' is carried out by means of a double-acting cylinder (47.) pivoting on the axis according to the seasons and by wind vane, in the wind position, in line with the tubes (41.) and the connection ( 45.) at the base of the truncated cone. (12.) with the generator (46.) ;; the inclination of the axis "x - y", from O to 90, necessary for the pursuit of the sun by means of a console made up of four tubes - two (43.) and two (44.) "x - y ", ~ and to the sensor via the disc (25.) and the axis (14.) two generators (42.) in the horizontal plane, on either side of the dicular axis. the axis (40.) is in relief; - a "U" shaped cradle (37.), superimposed on (36.), fits into the axis (40.) - this is connected by four tubes (41.) to the concentrator assembly, on them an axis parallel (48.) to the latter, while, in its center and perpen ci, subject to the hinge (38.) on the wide side and having, on the other side, - On this plate, is supported a rigid plate (36.) in the same shape as the small one - a horizontal @ke (30.) @ trapezoid supporting - the largest side - a hinge (38.) and - the side most born by (35.) is connected to a horizontal plate (34.) which has the shape of a characterized in that the sensor-concentrator assembly and the mast (33.) guy cable CLAIM 3.: Mixed solar / wind device according to claim 1., CLAIM 4.: Mixed solar / wind device according to claims 1, 2. (-75.) Controlling the above devices. relative to the axis of the sun, causing the expansion of the solar bimetallic strip by heating when the axis of the concentrator (1.) deviates by approximately 150 by and at the edge of the solar concentration range is illuminated by the radius of fluid, moving the axis "x - y" of the sensor by about 15 - a thermal bimetal strip (75.) attached to the receiver (10.) substantially at the level of the action of a bimetallic strip (75.) makes it penetrate into the actuator (49 .) the same quan membrane pump system (176.) each operation of which controlled by a bimetallic strip (75.) ;; - the double-acting actuator (49. actuating the orientation) is supplied by one of successive notches, every 150 of the disc (37.), unlocked under the spring actior (79.), or a load in free fall, which is subject to a system of the order of 15; - A disc (37.) integral with the orientation to its rotation actuated by a dement to the sensor, by pivoting its axis only by successive notches of frustoconical concentrator on the sun which allows to keep a good ren se @ ary; - the sun tracking device uses the large pointing tolerance (49.), (47.) the permutation of the solar positions in wind or wind in control successively by means of the jacks (47.), (49.) (19. ) or (19.), and 3., characterized in that the automation of the permutation of the solar into wind and vice versa, of the orientation and the inclination of the assembly is obtained by - a thermal bimetal (60 .) located in the center of the heating beach which requires ten "I" type (86.), for ten suns. types of modules, such that cones (86.) - (87.) - (88.) are characterized differently, with a minimum EITHER by assembly by interlocking of thermoformed elements (177.); - The different concentrations are obtained by superimposing trunks of the overall rigidity obtained by stiffeners (93.) finally, a tension table (92.), then a compression table (91.); then, a reflective part (90.), a transparent protective part (89.), plastic. EITHER by successive superimpositions, from the inside to the outside, identical or modules (86.). The walls of the elements are made up of my CLAIM 5.: Mixed solar / wind device according to claims 1. and 2., characterized in that - the truncated cone (1.) is made up of an assembly of several smooth exterior elements. provided on the basis of two frustoconical noules (95.) - (96.) gives a surface or phenolic, or, by a structure "honeycomb" -; t rrstruc-ion CLAIM 6.: Mixed solar / wind device, according to claim 5., characterized in that the truncated cone consists of a composite comprising, on its inner surface (89.), a reinforced reflective film (90.) - (on its outer surface, a protective film also reinforced (92.), the core (@ 94.) of this composite being a cellular material of polyurethane type, (88.) (therefore (86.) + (87.) + (88.).) for thirty suns , you need a type "I", plus type "II", plus type "III" for twenty suns, you need a type "I", plus type "II" (87.), traditional rigid black or aluminum sheets planar parts (105.), allows for assemblies starting from mid the adaptation of this system-e, replacing the curved part between hinges by both closing the truncated cone ;; - fasteners (10 O) d u type with tenons and mortises integral with the plane allows that elsewhere, ligated by flexible fibers (104.); - a reinforcement (103.) or shoulder then gives the hinge the same plane inertia at the location of the generators; - this hinge (101.) is made by weakening the thickness of this the same inertia as the sheet, by baffle (98.) more closure (99.) the hinges (101.), the attachment (97. ) following the conserving generators is made from a flat sheet, one face of which is made reflective; frustoconical by attachment according to the two generators (97.) Its construction to resist weathering but allowing the realization of the cone surface (178.) admits properties of rigidity - and flexibility - sufficient cations 5. and 6., characterized in what the flat developed surface of the trunk of CLAIM 7.: Mixed solar / wind device, according to. sold the assembly between film being made by attaching the external parts of the truncated cone; - the distance between the two rigid circles is maintained by rods (108.). on these and of which at least the part on the inner surface is reflective, is by two rigid circles (106.), bases of the truncated cone, and of a stretched film (107.) cations 5, 6 and 7 ., ## characterized in that the frusto-conical mirror is realistic. CLAIM 8.: Mixed solar Y wind device, according to the sold films (107.) when the wind deforms the external film. cutting the films allows air to escape from the space between the two on the bars (108); either by a device for lengthening the distances between circles acting either on the closure connecting the two interior and exterior films, in (110.), - the tension of the two films is obtained: a few centimeters. of the sphere and supported by the outer sheath (111. concentrator, along the plane (115.) of the concentration range, located at positive double spherical envelope (116.), notched (119.) and being g heating the exchanger (117.) at about 200 ;; - the capture of solar radiation is ensured by means of an electric dis is transformed into heat by electrical resistances (125.) - the capture of wind energy obtained by transformation into energy resistant materials, polycarbonate type, with core (114.) in ex @@ bandaged material, except for the transparent part of the sphere (10.); - the outer sphere (8.) consists of a double envelope ( 113.) characterized in that CLAIM 9.: Mixed solar / wind receiver, according to claim 1., the losses by conduction ... or, by increasing its resistance, a relative vacuum is made to decrease either it is provided a calibrated valve (124.) to avoid overpressure, temperature reading ;; - the sphere being airtight gor, in (122.), and the opening of which is controlled by a thermal bimetallic strip sewn in second, by the adjustment of the flow rate by a valve placed at the outlet of the ech tank, then switching it off and filling it; and ready to be empty automatically controlling the switching on of the other constant, at the outlet of the storage, by a double tank (181.), that in service the exchanger being ensured, first by the pneumatic pressurization single-phase type carrier (121.), at 250 and more, its regular flow around which circulates, channeled by a second sheath (117.), the heat transfer fluid in each element, depositing calories therein. following a spiral (1., 2., 3., 4., ... ..., 56.) descending then going back up heat transfer liquid from the sensor (2.), travels in plan of prism in prism, coming from central exchanger (133.), primary (126.), supplied by the. a. tube (136.) in which circulates steam superheated to 2000,. each prism is filled with an absorbent fluid (135.) calorific; contiguous oles; filled with a binder (130.) thereby producing a sandwich material (128.) between the cells being closed in the same material; the space left free between them being CLAIMED 10.: Mixed solar / wind device according to claims 5. and 9. characterized between that the device for storing the heat energy is produced: - either by vertical tubes (127.) juxtaposed standards, the top and bottom e the order of 10 kg / cm2; In the heart, the wedges (141.) are perforated. at temperatures of 300 and internal pressures and tensions of central pipe and tangent internally to the external tube, capable of withstanding (141.) - or closed ring - arranged at regular intervals, mounted on the (139.) (133.) of which the arrangement is kept by means of circular damp wedges; - Either by the exclusive use of a material consisting of two concentric plastic tubes with closed bubbles (179.), so as to make the assembly impervious below, all around, and above the absorbent (135.), in spherical material drops to at least 50; -a sealed thermal enclosure is made, the thickness of which is calculated so that the temperature at the high specific peri heat - close to "1" - resistant to at least 70, all around these cells are placed a solid material (131.) of the sandwich (129.) - (130.) - (129.) / that is to say (128.) ;; the walls, of the order of 5 kg to 10 kg / cm 2, which are absorbed by the redifferences causing stresses due to the different pressures on erasures of the contiguous elements forming part of two successive turns, of the elements at the periphery. This provision establishing, between the tempé goes from 200 in the fourth cell, for the central prisms, and to 700 for. by this series mounting of elements, the temperature of the absorbent (135.) the non-static use of this storage. under 200 in the center and 700 at the periphery; outside, a sealed and resistant thermal enclosure (148.) allows a secondary, the peripheral tube of which is filled with water storing the cooked calories and then distributes them, under 200, through the central pipe (145.) of the circuit in the tube peripheral (139.), water absorbs the calories of this primary cir, at 250; the central tube (142.) is used to channel the heat transfer fluid of the cessive circuit. In the heart (144.) (175.) to constitute the core of the sandwich, between the tubes of two layers of the substance, the connection between the layers being made with a material which is absorbable by windings (146.) in superimposed layers, from the heart to the peri - starting from the heart itself (144.) made up in the same way, the adjustment is made. a bimetallic strip at selective temperature placed in the axis of the range in self-control of the intensity a diaphragm (180.) reflecting outwards, adjustable, allows the ble of the beam received by the concentrator (1.) in the enclosure (159.) the concentration range of the device, allows the penetration of the whole orifice (160.) of the enclosure, of dimensions slightly larger than in the pursuit of the sun 9 concentrator by an axis ( 168.), realizing the orientation of the axis "x - y" in the East I West plane, attached to the enclosure by a ball joint (167.), to another hydraulic or screw jack (166.), with double effect, working the "y - y" axis
  1.  (1.) by an axis (164.), realizing according to the seasons the inclination of
     same plane, attached to the enclosure by a ball joint (165.) and to the concentrator
     a hydraulic or screw jack (163.), double acting, working-in the
     (160.) and on the truncated cone (1.) on two opposite generatrices
     North / South cal, anchored in enclosure (159.) on either side of the orifice
     hygienic, people, cultures, inside closed enclosures, ... controlling, then using concentrated, dilute, or normal solar radiation, characterized in that the support of the collector is constituted - Either by two flexible bars (162.) and threaded, placed in the vertical plane
    CLAIM Island: Application of the mixed solar / wind device, according to all of claims 1 to 10, in the production of a sensor adapted to the operations of - heating and lighting of premises, - sterilization or drying, preservation of objects and food, - treatments:. therapeutic,
     range to another and masters the automation of drying operations.
     and treadmills (169.). This set allows the substitution of a
     same bie-le and crank device activating the grating of the grids
     range (115.), commend a double-acting cylinder (171.) which constitutes the
     bimetals at selective temperature (172.), placed in the axis of each
     .. treadmills (169.),
     .. fixed or rotating grids,
     The plane of the orifice is substituted
     also automated by means of a bimetallic strip.
     in pursuit of the sun, in successive steps of 15. This system can be
     on the ground in (180.) and at the head of the rod in (190.), the axis "x - y" is moved,
     By another cable (178.), working in the East / West plane, fixed
     (191.) and at the stem head in (190), the inclination is given to the axis "x - y" according to the seasons
     By a cable (177.) working in the North / South plane, fixed to the ground in
     concentrator (1.), Te sensor (175.),
    - Either by a flexible bar (173.) threaded, carrying in console (174.) the
     to the other and masters the automation of drying operations.
     and treadmills (169.). This set allows the substitution of a range
     the same rod and crank device actuating the rotation of the grids
     range (115.), order a double-acting cylinder (171.) which constitutes
     bimetallic strips (172.) at selective temperature D placed in the axis of each
     @ treadmills, (169.),
     fixed or rotating grids,
     automated by means of a bimetallic strip.
     following the sun, in successive steps of 15. This system can also be
     in (180.) and at the stem head in (176.), we move the axis "x - y", in order
     By another cable (178.), working in the east / west plane fixed to the ground
     "x - yll according to the seasons s
     (179.) and at the stem head in (176.), we give the inclination to the axis
     By a cable (177.) working in the. North / South plan, fixed to the ground in
     concentrator (1.), the sensor (175.),
    - Either by a flexible bar (173.) threaded, carrying in console (174.) the
FR8309136A 1983-06-02 1983-06-02 Methods of domestication of solar and wind energy Expired FR2547029B1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8309136A FR2547029B1 (en) 1983-06-02 1983-06-02 Methods of domestication of solar and wind energy

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FR2547029A1 true FR2547029A1 (en) 1984-12-07
FR2547029B1 FR2547029B1 (en) 1985-09-06

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL8702137A (en) * 1987-09-09 1989-04-03 Henricus Johannus Van Duin Device for generating energy.
BE1017434A3 (en) * 2007-01-08 2008-09-02 Adriaenssens Jozef Wind motor for generating electricity, includes drive mechanism for tilting pivotally mounted wind guide up or down
US20130181456A1 (en) * 2012-01-17 2013-07-18 Robert Sun Tri-energy power generating device

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1424932A (en) * 1920-08-28 1922-08-08 Moreau Marcel Eloi Solar heating device
FR2300913A1 (en) * 1975-02-11 1976-09-10 Roche Michel Utilisation of solar energy with balloon mounted mirror - transmits energy to ground by balloon mooring cables
US4015584A (en) * 1975-08-18 1977-04-05 Haberman Louis B Parabolic solar energy heat exchanger
DE2738435A1 (en) * 1977-08-19 1979-03-08 Bruno Schwenteit Power generator using solar and wind energy conversion - has parabolic mirror contg. bladed rotor with appropriate air nozzles
EP0003185A2 (en) * 1978-01-18 1979-07-25 Stephen Robert Snook Harnessing natural energy
DE2908579A1 (en) * 1979-03-05 1980-09-11 Erich Koerber Solar collector with wind-operated setting device - also used to generate energy by wind rotation of solar panel, dependant on wind strength
GB2060926A (en) * 1979-07-11 1981-05-07 Bratland E A A device for utilising solar energy
FR2478281A1 (en) * 1980-03-14 1981-09-18 Opthra Ste Civile Solar oven with selective radiation absorption - has internal shield preventing escape of internally reflected radiation
US4311011A (en) * 1979-09-26 1982-01-19 Lewis Arlin C Solar-wind energy conversion system

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1424932A (en) * 1920-08-28 1922-08-08 Moreau Marcel Eloi Solar heating device
FR2300913A1 (en) * 1975-02-11 1976-09-10 Roche Michel Utilisation of solar energy with balloon mounted mirror - transmits energy to ground by balloon mooring cables
US4015584A (en) * 1975-08-18 1977-04-05 Haberman Louis B Parabolic solar energy heat exchanger
DE2738435A1 (en) * 1977-08-19 1979-03-08 Bruno Schwenteit Power generator using solar and wind energy conversion - has parabolic mirror contg. bladed rotor with appropriate air nozzles
EP0003185A2 (en) * 1978-01-18 1979-07-25 Stephen Robert Snook Harnessing natural energy
DE2908579A1 (en) * 1979-03-05 1980-09-11 Erich Koerber Solar collector with wind-operated setting device - also used to generate energy by wind rotation of solar panel, dependant on wind strength
GB2060926A (en) * 1979-07-11 1981-05-07 Bratland E A A device for utilising solar energy
US4311011A (en) * 1979-09-26 1982-01-19 Lewis Arlin C Solar-wind energy conversion system
FR2478281A1 (en) * 1980-03-14 1981-09-18 Opthra Ste Civile Solar oven with selective radiation absorption - has internal shield preventing escape of internally reflected radiation

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
NL8702137A (en) * 1987-09-09 1989-04-03 Henricus Johannus Van Duin Device for generating energy.
BE1017434A3 (en) * 2007-01-08 2008-09-02 Adriaenssens Jozef Wind motor for generating electricity, includes drive mechanism for tilting pivotally mounted wind guide up or down
US20130181456A1 (en) * 2012-01-17 2013-07-18 Robert Sun Tri-energy power generating device
US8613194B2 (en) * 2012-01-17 2013-12-24 Robert Sun Tri-energy power generating device

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