FR2533158A1 - Mechanism for driving a tool in rotation step by step, in particular for nut spanners - Google Patents

Mechanism for driving a tool in rotation step by step, in particular for nut spanners Download PDF

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Publication number
FR2533158A1
FR2533158A1 FR8215967A FR8215967A FR2533158A1 FR 2533158 A1 FR2533158 A1 FR 2533158A1 FR 8215967 A FR8215967 A FR 8215967A FR 8215967 A FR8215967 A FR 8215967A FR 2533158 A1 FR2533158 A1 FR 2533158A1
Authority
FR
France
Prior art keywords
characterized
driven member
envelope
mechanism according
handle
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
FR8215967A
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
FR2533158B1 (en
Inventor
Yves Caroff
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Facom SA
Original Assignee
Facom SA
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Facom SA filed Critical Facom SA
Priority to FR8215967A priority Critical patent/FR2533158B1/en
Publication of FR2533158A1 publication Critical patent/FR2533158A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of FR2533158B1 publication Critical patent/FR2533158B1/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B15/00Screwdrivers
    • B25B15/02Screwdrivers operated by rotating the handle
    • B25B15/04Screwdrivers operated by rotating the handle with ratchet action
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25BTOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
    • B25B13/00Spanners; Wrenches
    • B25B13/46Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle
    • B25B13/461Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle with concentric driving and driven member
    • B25B13/466Spanners; Wrenches of the ratchet type, for providing a free return stroke of the handle with concentric driving and driven member the ratchet parts engaging in an axial direction

Abstract

<P> IN THIS STEP-BY-STEP ROTATION TOOL DRIVE MECHANISM, OF THE TYPE INCLUDING A SOLIDARITY DRIVE OF A HANDLE AND SUITABLE FOR INCREASELY DRIVING A DRIVED ORGAN ASSOCIATED SUITABLE FOR COOPERATING WITH SAID SQUARE, THE DRIVING ORGAN 30 IS A SOCKET AND THE ORGAN LEADS 34 A SOLID OF REVOLUTION. THE LEADING AND LEADING BODIES MAY CONTAIN COMPLEMENTARY SPLINES 35. </P>

Description

 The present invention relates generally to the keys used to rotate rotating threaded parts to be screwed or unscrewed, for example ratchet type keys comprising a device which allows to drive in small increments a driven member provided with '' a male square adaptable in a series of interchangeable sockets of different dimensions and all comprising a complementary square hole.

 All of the known tools used for example for screwing nuts onto threaded rods or head bolts are not always usable in practice, partly because of the difficulty of access, in particular in automobile mechanics, and on the other hand because of the angular movement of the handle which is necessary.

 For example with an hexagon eye wrench, the minimum space required must allow an angular travel of 600, plus the width of the handle.

 In the case of a 12-point eye wrench, the angular clearance is only 300 (plus the thickness of the handle).

 When the space required is less, the only conventional tools that can be used are ratchet wrenches whose travel is much lower, which can go down to around 100, this travel including that necessary to move from one tooth to the other increased by play specific to the ratchet plus the width of the handle.

 Classic ratchet wrenches have an inherent defect in their mechanism. We know that this mechanism includes the inside of an eye with internal teeth, a first organ or organ driven in a partially circular shape and a pawl constituted by a second partially circular organ much smaller in contact with its non-toothed back. with the back of the organ being driven.

 Consequently, the force exerted on the handle secured to the eye is applied to the toothed sector of the pawl with an interruption at the junction between the driven member and the pawl, at one or the other end of that - Here, in the direction of 11 training, resulting in a risk of rupture located at a specific point on the periphery of the eye which leads to give the head sufficient dimensions to present the desired resistance.

We also know drive handles
for square drive tools which are simply
constituted by a handle having an articulated head por
both a training square for example for a game of
sockets of different sizes with a square
additional female Of course, these handles require
have a significant travel of 900.

If we replace the conductive square with an appendix
of polygonal section having a number of upper sides,
we fall back in the previous case of the eye keys and the
travel required when using these handles
has the same disadvantages.

The object of the invention is to remedy these drawbacks
by realizing a drive mechanism from where
tils in stepwise rotation allowing angu movement
minimal space and allowing step-by-step training
of the driven organ, allowing the application of a torque
important while presenting dimensions well infé
than those of known ratchet wrenches.

The invention also aims to achieve a
key to drive a rotating organ by small
increments, simple and inexpensive to manufacture.

The object of the invention for this purpose is a rnecanis-
tool drive me in step-by-step rotation of the type comprising a driving member integral with a handle and adapted to drive in increments an associated driven member adapted to cooperate with the tool, characterized in that one of the the driving member or of the driven member is a bushing, the wall of which delimits an envelope of revolution having at least one opening in a plane perpendicular to its axis, the other of said members being a solid of complementary revolution disposed in said envelope to be able to move freely angularly and axially with respect thereto.

 According to another characteristic of the invention, the driving member is constituted by said bushing and the driven member consists of the complementary solid of revolution.

 The invention also relates to a key for driving a member in rotation step by step, characterized in that it comprises a frustoconical socket internally fluted, said member driven in rotation being constituted by a complementary cone fluted externally.

-Other characteristics and advantages of the invention will emerge during the description which follows, made with reference to the appended drawings given solely by way of example and in which
- Fig. 1 is a side elevational view in partial section of a stepping drive handle for square drive tools, according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is a view similar to that of Fig.l of a second embodiment of the invention;
- Fig. 3 is a partial sectional view of a second variant;
- Fig. 4 is a partial sectional view of a third variant;
- Figs. 5 and 6 are schematic views making it possible to compare the mechanism according to the invention with a conventional ratchet wrench ;;
- Fig.7 is a view of an embodiment of a tool adapted to drive a rotating member.

 - Fig.8 is a view of a variant of the driven member.

 Referring to Fig.1, there is shown a drive handle for tools with a square drive comprising a mechanism according to the invention and generally designated by the reference 1. The handle comprises a driving member 2 consisting of a socket hollow delimiting an envelope of revolution which according to the example represented is a truncated cone with concave generator. A handle 3 is integral with the driving member 2.

Inside the envelope delimited by the casing
the 2 is arranged a driven organ 4 constituted by a solid
of revolution of complementary frustoconical shape.

The surface 5 of the large base of the solid of revolution 4
is slightly rounded and its small base has a square
6 drive of the type provided for example on the keys
ratchet or on tool drive handles
conductive square. Advantageously, the square 6 comprises
a conventional device 7. for labeling consisting of
example by a ball spring loaded in order to
ability to cooperate for example with a series of sockets
forming a key and comprising a female conducting square
complementary.

An axis 8 is fixed, for example screwed by its end
mite 9, in one;: axial hole provided in the driven member 4
and this axis 8 has a knurled head 9 at its end
external.

The knurled head 9 is spaced from the surface 5 and
in the meantime extend on either side of axis 8
the branches 10 of a fork-shaped end of a
lever 11 which is articulated by means of an axis 12 on the
handle ~ 3, the assembly having the general shape of a clamp
classic.

A spring 13 is placed between the lever 11 and the handle 3 and urges them away from one another,
The mechanism has been shown in FIG. 1 in the closed position, that is to say in which the driven member 4 is completely inserted into the driving member 2 with its surface in contact with the internal surface of the driving member 2. It is understood, however, that under the action of the spring 13 the lever 11 tends to move away from the handle 3, the arms 10 bearing on the underside of the head 9 of the axis 8 to move the driven member 4 away from the driving member 2, the travel being however limited in a conventional manner as in pliers so that the driven member 4 cannot completely exit the driving member 2.

 It is understood that in service, the user can adjust a socket for example a hollow socket with hexagon for screwing a nut, comprising a housing of conductive square complementary to square 6 and that thanks to the drive handle according to the invention , we can first of all freely rotate the driven member 4 by means of the knurled head 9 as long as the screwing of the nut meets no resistance. This movement is allowed by the fact that the driven member 4 is spaced from the driving member 2 and that there is no friction between their two surfaces. When the nut meets resistance, the user tightens in his hand the lever 11 and the handle 3 bringing them closer to each other against the action of the spring 13, thus strongly applying the frustoconical driven member 4 in the driving member 2 of complementary interior shape and the friction on the whole of the two surfaces is such that the rotational drive can be carried out even when exerting a high torque.

 As soon as the space available stops the angular debate of the handle 3 and of the lever 11, the user releases the lever 11, the driven member 4 moves away from the driving member 2 and the user can return to any distance necessary to continue to tighten or loosen the tool with the square drive.

 Following the example shown in FIG. 2, the sleeve 20 is closed at one end which corresponds to the small base of the frustoconical envelope of revolution which it delimits internally by wall 21 pierced with a hole through which extends the axis 28 having a head 20 and fixed inside a bore 22 of the leading member 24.

 A helical spring 23 is arranged: around the axis 28 and rests on the bottom of the bore 22 on the one hand and on the other hand on the internal surface of the wall 21 closing the driving member 20, around of the hole through which the axis 28 passes. The spring 23 thus urges the driven member 24 by tending to cause it to come out of the envelope delimited by the driving member 20.

 As in the previous example, the driven member 24 comprises a conducting square 6a which is this time attached to its large base.

 The branches 10a of the lever 11a extend on either side of the axis 28, between the wall 21 and the knurled head 9aide the axis.

 It is understood that in this embodiment, to obtain the drive of the member driven 24 by the driving member 20, the user must tighten in his hand the lever 11a and the handle 3a in order to bring them one of the other, thus forcing the driven member 24 to remain in contact firmly inside the envelope delimited by the driving member 20, As soon as the user releases the lever via the spring 23 brings out the member led 24 of the casing of the sleeve thus allowing the utÌlisatour to carry out the angular movement necessary to continue its operation.

 Of course, the surfaces in contact with the driving member and the driven member should preferably have a certain friction coefficient in order to allow the application of the tightening torque or tightenings desired.

 The Applicant has found that with a sufficient angle of conicity and a sufficient surface of the two driving and driven members associated with the tightening provided by the action of the lever hou lia allow to apply without sliding a considerable tightening torque. It is also understood that the choice of minimum travel is entirely free at the discretion of the user.

 There is shown in FIG. 3 a third mode of realizing station in which the driving member 30-also delimits an envelope of revolution and is integral with the poi-.

 gnee 3. The driven member 34 is a cone-shaped trunk comprising a conducting square 6a -solidated from the large base of the member 34, a pin 38 and a spring 33 being arranged in a bore of the driven member 34 as in the previous example to urge the member 34 out of the window of the driving member 30.

 However, the internal surface of the revolution envelope and the external surface of the driven member 34 each have grooves which, in the example shown, extend over generatrices of the driven member and of the driving member. . These grooves 35 are parallel and complementary and have a fair height. It is understood that these grooves, when they engage, make it possible to apply by means of the drive handle according to the invention an even higher torque.

 In this variant, to apply a tightening torque, the user exerts a force, indicated by an arrow in Fig 3 to screw or unscrew the tool secured to the conducting square 6a. At the start of a screwing operation, for example of a nut by means of a socket (not shown), the user can, as in the previous example, screw the nut by rotating the knurled head 39 between his fingers. axis 38. As soon as the screw meets resistance, the user exerts pressure on the member to ensure its drive by means of the grooves.

 It is understood that the angle of conicity must be chosen appropriately and the Applicant has carried out tests which have demonstrated that a conicity angle giving excellent results was an angle at the top of 300, that is to say of 150 with respect to the axis: of the driving member or of the driven member. If the angle of conicity is too high, there is a risk of producing a component tending to slide the grooves one on the other at the treks and to eject the driving member 30 from the driven member 34.

 Of course, the invention is not limited by the example of taper angle given above.

 The embodiment shown in FIG. 4 is very similar to the previous one, the only difference being that the axis 48 = is force-fitted into the wall 41 of the bottom of the driving member 40, the end of this axis 48 extending with play in a central bore of the driven member 44 which can slide freely axially on the axis 48.

 In this embodiment, the user must exert a force on the screen 41 to apply the drive member in = presence1with-the grooves and on the other hand the handle 3 is articulated on the driven member 40 by means of a axis 42, thus allowing greater flexibility of use.

 In this embodiment, the user must, to go back, slightly disengage the driven member 44 from the driving member 40 and then come back into engagement to effect tightening or loosening.

 It was found that with a number of grooves 36 provided on the entire internal surface of the driving member and the external surface of the driven member, there was obtained a movement of the handle with an angle of 100 which is approximately equal to 11 minimum angle of travel of known ratchet wrenches.

 On the other hand, a definite advantage is obtained compared to these known keys which appears immediately on comparing FIGS. 5 and 6.

 Fig. 5 shows a conventional ratchet wrench which comprises an annular head 50 having an internal toothing 51 and in which is disposed a first member 52 partially circular and having a flat surface on its cord 53. A ratchet 54 having a shape roughly similar to that of the member 52 has on its curved part a toothing complementary to the toothing 51. Its rear surface 55 is slightly convex and when the user acts on the handle M the driven member 52 acts on the surface 55 of the pawl 54 forcing the toothing-of the latter in engagement with the internal toothing 51. This arrangement is conventional. and the force applied to the handle M acts mainly at the junction between the teeth of the pawl and the driven member 52 as indicated in 56, or at the other end of the pawl 54 in the direction of drive. In these two zones, the concentration of the forces is such that, at the limit, it is possible to break the head 50.

 Consequently, in all ratchet wrenches the te te 50 must have a sufficient thickness to withstand the sometimes considerable efforts which are imposed on it. It can also be seen that the only part of the teeth of the force-transmitting pawl is limited to an angle A, B, C, the apex of which is located in the center of the head 50 and the torque which can be exerted by means of the wrench. pawl acts only on the area of the angle AK B, C, through the teeth of the pawl.

Consequently, the teeth 51 and that of the pawl 54 must be strong enough to withstand the forces.

 On the other hand, in the example shown in FIG. 6 which is a plan view of the driving member of a key according to the invention, it can be seen that the driving member 30, comprising a toothing 35 on the whole of its internal peripheral surface, all of the torque exerted on the handle 3 is distributed over all of the teeth of the toothing 35. The distribution of this force over the entire internal circumference of the driving member makes it possible to reduce the dimension of this member given the distribution of the effort, the angle A, B, C, of FIG. 5 disappearing since the effort is exerted on 3600.

 Thus, thanks to the invention, there is provided a step-by-step rotation drive device which makes it possible to obtain the advantages of a ratchet wrench by a very simple and very easy operation while presenting a much higher resistance. to that of ratchet wrenches for a much smaller footprint.

 There is shown in FIG. 7 another example of application of the invention. The device shown in FIG. 7 comprises a driving member 60 which, as in the previous examples, consists of a bush delimiting an envelope of revolution having grooves 65 in its internal frustoconical surface, the member 60 being connected by an axial appendage 61 to a handle 3 on the end of which it is articulated by means of a pin 62 and on which it can be immobilized by means of a wing nut 63.

 The handle 3 of the device comprises a handle of enlarged diameter allowing a solid grip and this device is suitable for driving a nut of frustoconical shape 64 which constitutes the equivalent of the driven member of the previous examples which itself comprises grooves complementary 65 on its external surface.

 We understand that we can use this device like a screwdriver or even a key by orienting its handle 3 angularly relative to the axis of the driven member 60 to drive organs tightening elements constituted by nuts having a frustoconical shape and having grooves on their external surfaces.

 LaFBg.8 shows a variant of the driven member 34a which, in this embodiment, does not include a drive square but a peripheral skirt delimiting a hexagonal cavity forming a socket wrench 67. In this variant , the assembly formed by the driven member and the bushing is less bulky than that formed by the member 34 assembled with a bushing.

Of course, the invention is not limited to the use
reading straight grooves but we understand that
the internal surface of the leading organ and the ex surface
dull of the led organ can include any sort of
additional training or even simply. surfaces
presenting a certain "grain" giving them a coëffi-
cient of high friction.

Similarly, the invention is not limited to an angle
of any particular nature

Claims (12)

 1 tool drive mechanism in step-by-step rotation, of the type comprising a driving member secured to a handle and adapted to drive in increments an associated driven member adapted to cooperate with a tool, characterized in that one of the driving member or the driven member (2,4, 20,24, 30,34,40,44,60,64) is a socket, the wall of which delimits an envelope of revolution having at least one opening in a plane perpendicular to its axis, the other of said members being a solid of complementary revolution placed in said envelope so as to be able to move freely angularly and axially with respect thereto.
 2. Drive mechanism according to claim 1, characterized in that the driving member is a socket (2,20,30,40,60) and the driven member is constituted by a solid of complementary revolution (4,24 , 34,44,64).
 3. mechanism according to claim 2, characterized in that said envelope of revolution is a truncated cone.
 4. Mechanism according to claim 2, characterized in that the internal surface of said solid comprises means (35,45,65) with high coefficient of friction.
 5. Mechanism according to claim 2, characterized in that the internal surface of said envelope and the external surface of said solid comprise complementary relief formations (35,45,65).
 6. Mechanism according to claim 5, characterized in that said formations are rectilinear grooves or not, continuous or interrupted.
 7. A mechanism according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the driven member (4, 24) is connected to a lever (ll, lla) articulated on said handle (3.3a) and which controls the axial position of said driven member (4, 24) in said envelope while leaving it the freedom to rotate therein.
 8. Mechanism according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the driven member (24, 34) is rotatably mounted on an axis (28, 38) coincident with that of said envelope and is stressed axially in that -this by a spring (23, 33).
 9 Mechanism according to claim 8, when combined with claim 7, characterized in that said spring (13, 23) is disposed between the handle (3, 3a) and the lever (Il, llar
 10. Next mechanism. claim 8, characterized in that said axis (8, 28, 38) extends outside of said envelope, its external end constituting a push button (9, 29, 39).
 11. Mechanism according to claim 2, characterized in that said handle (43, 63) is articulated on said socket.
 12. Key of the type comprising a driving member and a driven member, adapted to drive a tool in stepwise rotation, characterized in that it comprises a mechanism as defined according to any one of claims 1 to 11.
FR8215967A 1982-09-22 1982-09-22 Step-by-step rotation tool drive mechanism, particularly for nut wrenches Expired FR2533158B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8215967A FR2533158B1 (en) 1982-09-22 1982-09-22 Step-by-step rotation tool drive mechanism, particularly for nut wrenches

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR8215967A FR2533158B1 (en) 1982-09-22 1982-09-22 Step-by-step rotation tool drive mechanism, particularly for nut wrenches

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
FR2533158A1 true FR2533158A1 (en) 1984-03-23
FR2533158B1 FR2533158B1 (en) 1985-12-06

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Family Applications (1)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0208097A1 (en) * 1985-05-23 1987-01-14 Gerald Shirley Open-end ratchet-like wrench with releasable locking head
WO1997026115A2 (en) * 1996-01-19 1997-07-24 Engelbert Gmeilbauer Ratchet spanner

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1521331A (en) * 1921-02-26 1924-12-30 Reginald F Sedgley Clutch wrench
US2300479A (en) * 1941-07-29 1942-11-03 Lester O Wilson Interchangeable head, ratchet type socket wrench
US2352917A (en) * 1943-02-15 1944-07-04 Gilbert W Scott Screw driver
CH248896A (en) * 1945-09-01 1947-05-31 Huber Franz Hand tools with turning part.
DE810619C (en) * 1948-10-02 1951-08-13 Johann Pfeffekoever one-handed screwdriver
CH294797A (en) * 1951-05-10 1953-11-30 Buchwalder Freres S A R L Ets A device for tightening and loosening the screws.
DE2229997A1 (en) * 1972-06-20 1974-01-10 Karl Pflumm As a gag grabbed designed Schraubenschluessel
US3827470A (en) * 1973-03-01 1974-08-06 H Douglas Ratchet screw driver
US4170909A (en) * 1977-09-23 1979-10-16 Wagner Theodore R Tool holder
FR2464799A3 (en) * 1979-09-14 1981-03-20 Giacchero Giovanni Wrench for nuts and bolts

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1521331A (en) * 1921-02-26 1924-12-30 Reginald F Sedgley Clutch wrench
US2300479A (en) * 1941-07-29 1942-11-03 Lester O Wilson Interchangeable head, ratchet type socket wrench
US2352917A (en) * 1943-02-15 1944-07-04 Gilbert W Scott Screw driver
CH248896A (en) * 1945-09-01 1947-05-31 Huber Franz Hand tools with turning part.
DE810619C (en) * 1948-10-02 1951-08-13 Johann Pfeffekoever one-handed screwdriver
CH294797A (en) * 1951-05-10 1953-11-30 Buchwalder Freres S A R L Ets A device for tightening and loosening the screws.
DE2229997A1 (en) * 1972-06-20 1974-01-10 Karl Pflumm As a gag grabbed designed Schraubenschluessel
US3827470A (en) * 1973-03-01 1974-08-06 H Douglas Ratchet screw driver
US4170909A (en) * 1977-09-23 1979-10-16 Wagner Theodore R Tool holder
FR2464799A3 (en) * 1979-09-14 1981-03-20 Giacchero Giovanni Wrench for nuts and bolts

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0208097A1 (en) * 1985-05-23 1987-01-14 Gerald Shirley Open-end ratchet-like wrench with releasable locking head
WO1997026115A2 (en) * 1996-01-19 1997-07-24 Engelbert Gmeilbauer Ratchet spanner
WO1997026115A3 (en) * 1996-01-19 1997-09-04 Engelbert Gmeilbauer Ratchet spanner

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