FR2473913A1 - - Google Patents

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FR2473913A1
FR2473913A1 FR8026588A FR8026588A FR2473913A1 FR 2473913 A1 FR2473913 A1 FR 2473913A1 FR 8026588 A FR8026588 A FR 8026588A FR 8026588 A FR8026588 A FR 8026588A FR 2473913 A1 FR2473913 A1 FR 2473913A1
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Prior art keywords
biomass
gas
characterized
reactor
products
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FR8026588A
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French (fr)
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Energy Resources Co Inc
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Energy Resources Co Inc
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Application filed by Energy Resources Co Inc filed Critical Energy Resources Co Inc
Publication of FR2473913A1 publication Critical patent/FR2473913A1/fr
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/07Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of solid raw materials consisting of synthetic polymeric materials, e.g. tyres
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B49/00Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated
    • C10B49/02Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge
    • C10B49/04Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge while moving the solid material to be treated
    • C10B49/08Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge while moving the solid material to be treated in dispersed form
    • C10B49/10Destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials by direct heating with heat-carrying agents including the partial combustion of the solid material to be treated with hot gases or vapours, e.g. hot gases obtained by partial combustion of the charge while moving the solid material to be treated in dispersed form according to the "fluidised bed" technique
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/02Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of cellulose-containing material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/02Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by distillation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/54Gasification of granular or pulverulent fuels by the Winkler technique, i.e. by fluidisation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/54Gasification of granular or pulverulent fuels by the Winkler technique, i.e. by fluidisation
    • C10J3/56Apparatus; Plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/72Other features
    • C10J3/74Construction of shells or jackets
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1003Waste materials
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1011Biomass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0903Feed preparation
    • C10J2300/0906Physical processes, e.g. shredding, comminuting, chopping, sorting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0903Feed preparation
    • C10J2300/0909Drying
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0913Carbonaceous raw material
    • C10J2300/0916Biomass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0953Gasifying agents
    • C10J2300/0956Air or oxygen enriched air
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0953Gasifying agents
    • C10J2300/0959Oxygen
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0953Gasifying agents
    • C10J2300/0969Carbon dioxide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0953Gasifying agents
    • C10J2300/0973Water
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J2300/00Details of gasification processes
    • C10J2300/09Details of the feed, e.g. feeding of spent catalyst, inert gas or halogens
    • C10J2300/0983Additives
    • C10J2300/0993Inert particles, e.g. as heat exchange medium in a fluidized or moving bed, heat carriers, sand
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels
    • Y02E50/14Bio-pyrolysis
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10General improvement of production processes causing greenhouse gases [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P20/14Reagents; Educts; Products
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/143Feedstock the feedstock being recycled plastics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10General improvement of production processes causing greenhouse gases [GHG] emissions
    • Y02P20/14Reagents; Educts; Products
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/145Feedstock the feedstock being materials of biological origin
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P30/00Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry
    • Y02P30/20Bio-feedstock

Abstract

PROCESS FOR CONVERTING A BIOMASS MATERIAL TO PURE ENERGY PRODUCTS, CHARACTERIZED BY THE FOLLOWING STEPS: BIOMASS FEEDING WITH PREDETERMINED PARTICLE DIMENSIONS AND A MOISTURE RATE LESS THAN A PREDETERMINED LIMIT </ P> <P> -FLUIDIZING THE BIOMASS WITH A GAS CONTAINING A CONTROLLED PROPORTION OF OXYGEN; </ P> <P> -GAZEIFICATION OF THE BIOMASS AT A TEMPERATURE OF THE ORDER OF 400 TO 1100C, PRODUCING A COMBINATION OF OIL, GAS AND WOOD CHARCOAL; AND </ P> <P> -SEPARATION OF PRODUCTS OBTAINED. </ P>

Description

1.- 2473913

  The invention relates to a method for converting

  shooting solid waste into energy.

  The global population increase is resulting in the cultivation of larger territories, increased demand for energy and increasing pollution of the environment. These trends have increased the volume of agricultural waste and other biomass materials, and developed the need to find non-polluting ways to release energy.

that these materials contain.

  An example is the sound of the grain of rice, the indigestible portion 8tée when grinding. Its nutritional value is so low that it is not suitable for

  feed. P.H. Mehta and N. Pitt estimate in 2 Resource Recove-

  ry and Conservation 23-38 (1976) that the annual world production of 300 million tons of rice

  60 million tons of sound. Try to lower this

  This led to weak plants and a diminished yield. Burning the sound in the air is polluting the air unacceptably. Burning in conventional boilers causes the inner parts to be coated with molten ash, air pollution and the absence of secondary products, except ashes for the manufacture of cement or as a filler in rubber. The inventor has discovered that pyrolysis, or thermal decomposition without total oxidation, of biomass materials in a fluidized bed reactor will produce low calorific gases, pyrolytic oil, and solid ash. carbon with a high silica content, without significant air pollution. A lower working temperature than traditional boilers prevents ash melting and slag formation, however, efficiency and heat transfer rates are higher, and the response time to changes in demand for heat is higher. steam is shortened. Higher capacity increases the

flexibility of work.

  The process does not only break down rice bran, but also wood waste, coal, shells, cotton waste, straw, peat, petroleum, coke, paper, nut shells, coffee grounds, municipal solid waste and

2.- 2473913

rubber like tires.

  According to the process according to the invention, the biomass material is fragmented, or treated so as to reduce its dimensions to acceptable proportions. At the same time, the material can be dried to reduce its moisture content. The material is then fed into a pyrolysis apparatus in the form of a fluidized bed reactor. The gas

  for fluidization can be provided by a blower to move

  Positive cement or similar machine, and relief valves can regulate the pressure in the bed. Interesting products such as gases, oils and charcoal that leave the reactor are separated in a cyclone or other type of separator, and the gas and oil can then be used as a source of energy for anyone. what use. For example, they can be used to produce steam, or to meet the electrical needs of the system. The charcoal can be stored at will and it can be recycled. The volume of charcoal is a small fraction of the volume

original biomass.

  The invention will be better understood by means of

  the description below and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in

  which figures represent: - Figure 1: a diagram showing the different steps of the biomass conversion process according to the invention, - Figure 2: schematic view of a device

  conversion according to the method of Figure 1.

  According to the invention, the biomass materials are gasified in a fluidized bed reactor to yield pure energy products, in the form of gas, oil or charcoal. The proportions of these products obtained at the end of the process depend on the working temperature, the fluidization rate and the starting material.

  Clean energy products are

  The following are: (a) oil: a heavy, black oil, similar to residual oil n06, having a calorific value in the range of 5555 to 6666 kilo-calories per kilogram, and a consistency varying from that of paint and that of light bitumen to

3.- 2473913

  ambient temperature. This product can be mixed with lthuili

  residue in most cases, or it can be burned separately

  in combustion plants for fuel or coal.

  (b) charcoal: a fine powdery substance resembling charcoal, which may be burned in a burner

  fluidized bed, or it can be mixed with recirculating oil

  pyrolytic, or used as such, as

charcoal or carbon black.

  c) gas: this gas has a calorific value of 712 to 2670 kilocalories per m * The gas contains high proportions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, but it also contains between 10 and 50% of water. The gaseous product can easily be burned in an external combustion plant,

  like a steam boiler or a gas turbine.

  The process diagram shown on the

  Figure 1 suggests the different steps of the process according to the

  vention. According to Figure 1, the biomass to be treated is fed into a fractionator, so as to convert the mass to appropriate dimensions. Then, the fractionated material is dried in order to reduce its moisture content to the limit value,

  imposed by the gas converter, the material that feeds it.

  After the pre-treatment of the material so as to obtain a suitable size and moisture content, the material is introduced into a fluidized bed reactor having an inert bed of a material such as refractory sand, alumidum bile, glass, etc. The material is then gasified to give pure energy products such as oil,

charcoal and gas.

  The gasified products are then sent to a separator where the charcoal can be separated from the oil and gas, or the three products can be separated from each other. According to a preferred embodiment

  of the invention, the charcoal is returned to the gasification

  to burn in the fluidized bed. Other products, such as fuel and gas, can be burned to give rise to electrical energy or energy in the form of

  steam, which can be used in turn in the installation.

  For example, the electrical energy can be used to operate the apparatus to be fractionated, the dryer, or the blower feeding the fluidizing gas, and the steam can be used

4.- 2473913

  as a heat source for the dryer.

  FIG. 2 represents a characteristic installation for the implementation of the method. In this figure, it is indicated a storage area where the biomass arrives. This material can have dimensions of the order of 2.5 x 7.5 cm. When the material needs to be treated, it is

  conveyed by a conveyor belt 2 to the fractional

  3, to reduce its dimensions to 6 mm or less. The apparatus to be split may be of the hammer mill type, with a

capacity of 1.5 tons per hour.

  The biomass material falls from the apparatus to be fractionated in the dryer 4, which may include a transport screw, to reduce its moisture content to the limit value imposed by the installation. Normally, this content should be reduced to 50% by weight or less. Heat can be supplied to the dryer by passing steam through the screws, and this steam can be generated using the oil and gas produced by the plant, as suggested above. The dried material can be fed by a belt 5 and an elevator 6, to the feed hopper 10 of the

fluidized bed.

  The hopper 10 is connected, by means of a stop valve 12 and a feed screw 14, with the inlet 16 of the gasification chamber 18 of the reactor 20. The walls

  inside the reactor may be coated with a refractory material

  before starting, place on the distribution plate -

  bution 22 horizontal, perforated, an inert material such as the

  sand, alumdun balls, glass and ... The distribution plate

  trice 22 is below entry 16 and separates the room

  upper fluidization stage 18 of the lower feed chamber 24

air supply of the reactor 20.

  A fluidizing gas such as air or mixtures of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water is fed into the chamber 24 during the treatment, through an inlet 26, by means of a displacement air blower 28 positive. The fluidizing gas for most applications contains oxygen concentrations in the range of 0 to 21% by volume, but can be further enriched with oxygen when the production of a higher calorific gas is desired. Values up to 4450 kcal / m3 can be achieved. of the

5. 2473913

  fluidization rates of the order of 0.25 to 10 meters / second and pressures in the range of 1-8 psi are recommended. During startup, the air is supplied through another inlet 30 from a gas burner 32, which will bring the chamber 18 to the working temperature of 4000 C - 11000 C, in about two hours. As the biomass is fed through the inlet 16, the forced air through dozens of small holes 23 of the distributor plate 22, from the chamber 24, fluidizes the biomass particles and mixes them with the refractory sand or other inert material used in the

  bed. The treated material has the appearance of an ebullated liquid

  lition, and the surrounding airflow submits all

  particulate surfaces with the same supply of air and heat.

  The particles split rapidly into oil, gas and charcoal / ash, which, having a higher ratio between the friction surface and the weight than the biomass particles, are directly blown upwardly through the exit 34 into the the upper chamber 18, and through a tube 36, to a conventional cyclone separator 38. The fuel / gas ratio can be adjusted by varying the working temperature, for example, in the case of a biomass material such as sound of rice, more oil is produced at 5000 C, while the proportion

  of gas increases and that of oil decreases

  The product gas has a caloric

  of 2225 Kcal / m3. A certain quantity of charcoal, comprising about 90% carbon, is produced at the same time as the ash, and it is seen that it is recycled from the cyclone 38, through an ash feed auger

  40, through the inlet 42, into the chamber 18 of the reactor 20.

  It is burned to help maintain the reaction temperature.

tion.

  Some of the ash is continuously

  8, still hot, of the cyclone, by means of a rotary valve 44, and sent by a feed screw 46, under a stream 48 of cooling water, to a bucket conveyor for the ash. The carrier pours the ash into a chute 52 through which it arrives in a storage silo.

  54. The silo may be equipped with its own feed screw

  56 to discharge and evacuate the ash. This ash is

6.-. 2473913

  high potency silica, and is only a fraction

  the volume of the original biomass, perhaps 20%.

  According to the figure, the fuel and the cyclone gas 39 are withdrawn together at the top of the cyclone through the conduit 59; Although the fuel can be condensed, it is simpler to leave it in gaseous form to be combusted with the gas. As indicated above, the gas and / or oil can be used to produce kiln steam, or electrical energy, to operate any appliance in the installation. This is shown in Figure 2 as a conventional gas burner 58 used with a fan 60 and a boiler 62 to produce steam. The boiler 62 may be a standard tube boiler designed for the production of saturated steam at 10.35 bar pressure. The light gases are vented into the atmosphere through a stack 64, and there is no need for emission control because of the low dust content of the gases. Auxiliary facilities

  Classic boiler type can be used if necessary.

Claims (1)

    1. A method for converting a biomass material into pure energy products, characterized by the following steps 2 - feeding the biomass with predetermined particle sizes and a moisture content below a predetermined limit, - biomass fluidization with a gas containing a controlled proportion of oxygen, - gasification of the biomass at a temperature of the order of 400 to 11000 C, producing a combination of oil, gas and charcoal, and - separation of products obtained. 2. A process according to claim 1, characterized in that one evaluates the products obtained to generate energy, and that one uses this energy according to the needs of the process. 3. Process according to claim 1, characterized in that the products obtained are valorised to create heat intended for drying the biomass before its fluidization. 4. Process according to claim 1, characterized in that that a biomass material with particle sizes of the order of 6 mm or less is provided, and with a moisture content of 50% by weight, or less. 5. A process for converting a biomass material into pure energy products, characterized by the following steps: - to provide a biomass to be converted, - to fractionate the material to reduce its size to less than 6 mm in diameter, - to dry the fractionated matter of in order to reduce its moisture content to less than 50% by weight, - transporting the material on a fluidized bed and simultaneously supplying a fluidizing gas with an oxygen concentration in the range of 0 to 21% by volume, gasifying the biomass at a temperature of the order of 400 to 11000 C, and to extract at the top the products to be valorized which are the gas, the oil and the charcoal. 8. A process according to claim 5, characterized in that the charcoal is separated from the gas and oil. 7. A process according to claim 6, characterized in that the gas and / or oil is used to create energy, and that this energy is used to satisfy at least a portion of the energy. the energy requirements of the process. 8.- Installation for converting biomass into energy, characterized in that it comprises a reactor, a perforated distribution plate in the reactor, an introduction pipe connected to the reactor to supply biomass above the plate , means comprising a pump connected to the reactor for introducing an oxygen-containing gas into the reactor above the plate for fluidizing the biomass in the reactor, a start burner connected to the reactor to bring the reactor to the temperature of the reactor; work - necessary for the conversion - of biomass into a combination of gas, oil and charcoal, a discharge line from the top of the reactor to evacuate the products to be upgraded, and a separator connected to this conduit to separate the products to value. 9.- Installation according to claim 8, characterized by means connected to the separator for recycling the charcoal in the reactor above the plate. 10.- Installation according to claim 8, characterized by means connected to the parator to generate energy from the gas and / or oil. 11. A process for converting a biomass material into pure energy products, comprising high calorific gases, characterized by the steps of: - providing the biomass to be converted, - fractioning the material to reduce its size to less than 6 mm, - drying the fractionated biomass to reduce its moisture content to less than 50% by weight, - then transferring the material to an xfluidized bed and simultaneously supplying a fluidizing gas with an oxygen concentration greater than 20 e% 0 in volume, 9. 2473913 gasify the biomass at a temperature of the order of 40O to 1100 c, and extract at the top of the apparatus the products to be valorized which are gas, oil and charcoal.
  1.   A method of converting tires into pure energy products, characterized by feeding the tires with predetermined particle sizes, and a moisture content below a predetermined limit; the fluidisation of the tires by means of gases containing a proportion
      controlled oxygen; gasification of tires at a temperature
      the order of 400 to 11000 C, to produce a combination of
      its gas, oil and charcoal, and the separation of these products.
FR8026588A 1979-12-14 1980-12-15 Withdrawn FR2473913A1 (en)

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FR (1) FR2473913A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2075543A (en)
NL (1) NL8020492A (en)
SE (1) SE8104818L (en)
WO (1) WO1981001713A1 (en)
ZA (1) ZA8007805B (en)

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GB2075543A (en) 1981-11-18
NL8020492A (en) 1981-11-02
WO1981001713A1 (en) 1981-06-25
SE8104818L (en) 1981-08-13
JPS56501764A (en) 1981-12-03
CA1160104A1 (en)
ZA8007805B (en) 1982-01-27
CA1160104A (en) 1984-01-10
BR8008928A (en) 1981-10-20

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