ES2669005T3 - Cement clinker cooling rack - Google Patents

Cement clinker cooling rack Download PDF

Info

Publication number
ES2669005T3
ES2669005T3 ES15180131.3T ES15180131T ES2669005T3 ES 2669005 T3 ES2669005 T3 ES 2669005T3 ES 15180131 T ES15180131 T ES 15180131T ES 2669005 T3 ES2669005 T3 ES 2669005T3
Authority
ES
Spain
Prior art keywords
oscillating
transport means
grid
means
characterized
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
ES15180131.3T
Other languages
Spanish (es)
Inventor
Jörg Hammerich
Martin Deutgen
Peter Hennemann
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Alite GmbH
Original Assignee
Alite GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Alite GmbH filed Critical Alite GmbH
Priority to EP15180131.3A priority Critical patent/EP3128275B1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of ES2669005T3 publication Critical patent/ES2669005T3/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D15/00Handling or treating discharged material; Supports or receiving chambers therefor
    • F27D15/02Cooling
    • F27D15/0206Cooling with means to convey the charge
    • F27D15/0213Cooling with means to convey the charge comprising a cooling grate
    • F27D15/022Cooling with means to convey the charge comprising a cooling grate grate plates
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27BFURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • F27B7/00Rotary-drum furnaces, i.e. horizontal or slightly inclined
    • F27B7/20Details, accessories, or equipment peculiar to rotary-drum furnaces
    • F27B7/38Arrangements of cooling devices
    • F27B7/383Cooling devices for the charge
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27BFURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
    • F27B7/00Rotary-drum furnaces, i.e. horizontal or slightly inclined
    • F27B7/20Details, accessories, or equipment peculiar to rotary-drum furnaces
    • F27B7/42Arrangement of controlling, monitoring, alarm or like devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D19/00Arrangements of controlling devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D21/00Arrangements of monitoring devices; Arrangements of safety devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F27FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS
    • F27DDETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE
    • F27D15/00Handling or treating discharged material; Supports or receiving chambers therefor
    • F27D15/02Cooling
    • F27D15/0206Cooling with means to convey the charge
    • F27D15/0213Cooling with means to convey the charge comprising a cooling grate
    • F27D15/022Cooling with means to convey the charge comprising a cooling grate grate plates
    • F27D2015/0226Support, fixation of the grate

Abstract

Cement clinker cooling rack (1) for cooling and transporting the clinker in a forward direction comprising at least: - a grid surface (4) for supporting the clinker, - at least one oscillating transport means (35) , - an actuator that is operatively connected to the oscillating transport means (35) for driving the oscillating transport means (35), wherein the actuator comprises at least one electric motor (10) which is operatively connected to the oscillating transport means (35), to drive said transport means (35), characterized in that the actuator further comprises a controller (100) that is connected to the electric motor (10) to control the rotational speed of the motor (10) as a function of the position and / or the direction of movement of the oscillating transport means (35).

Description

5

10

fifteen

twenty

25

30

35

40

Four. Five

fifty

55

DESCRIPTION

Cement clinker cooling grid Field of the invention

The invention relates to a cement clinker cooling rack for cooling and transporting cement clinker in a forward direction comprising a grid surface to support the clinker, which can be discharged from an oven onto said grid surface. . The clinker is driven by some oscillating means of transport, for example an oscillating row of grid plates that are arranged side by side on an oscillating transverse beam. The oscillating transport means is driven by an actuator that can be operated connected to the oscillating transport means to drag the oscillating transport means. The invention also relates to a method for dragging the oscillating transport means of a cement clinker cooling rack.

Description of the related technique

In the manufacture of cement clinker the raw flour is burned and sintered in a rotary kiln so as to obtain the clinker of cement, briefly designated as "clinker" which is then subsequently treated to obtain cement. The clinker is discharged from said furnace by means of the so-called clinker inlet distribution system also designated as clinker distribution system on a grid bottom of the conveyor of a clinker cooler, briefly designated as "cooler." The clinker's entrance distribution system often resembles a ramp in fall. On the bottom of the grid, the clinker forms a layer, also designated as the clinker bed. The height of the clinker bed typically ranges between 0.5 m and 0.7 m. The clinker bed is cooled and transported (driven) in the forward direction towards an outlet of the cooler clinker for example by means of a grinder for further treatment, for example milling. The construction of the bottom of the grid is essential since, on the one hand, the cooling of the air has to be inserted into the bed of the clinker through the bottom of the grid and, on the other, the fall of the clinker through the bottom of the grid has to be avoided. Likewise, the clinker has to be transported and the bottom of the rack must withstand high temperatures of the clinker and the abrasion caused by the clinker displacement on the bottom of the rack.

These coolers have a grid surface with grill openings for injecting a cooling gas through the grill and into the clinker located above the top of the grid. Likewise, these coolers have transport means for transporting the clinker in said forward direction. There are multiple transport systems, most of the usual systems fall into one of the following categories:

- Oscillating means of transport, that is, a part of the grid and / or separate pushers move from front to back in an essentially linear oscillation, thus driving the clinker over the top of the grid. The oscillating movement is thus an oscillation of the oscillating transport means, in which the oscillation takes place at least essentially in parallel with the direction of transport and / or the surface of the grid. Such systems are disclosed, for example, in EP 2 843 342, DE 20 2006 012 333 U1, DE 10 2006 037 765 A1, US 8,397,654, EP 786637 A1 to name just one.

- Drag chain conveyors, this is a system based on means of transport that are moved forward above the surface of the grid and moved back to the side facing the oven of the grid below the grid. These systems, for the most part, comprise chains to which transport means are attached (cf. EP 07 185 78 A2, Fig. 3).

EP 0 260 432 A2 discloses a transmission for a conveyor grid to cool and transport, for example cement clinker. The transmission comprises an electric motor that incorporates a motor that is arranged in parallel with the input shafts of two reduction gears. Each reduction gear comprises an output shaft that is configured as a crankshaft each of which is coupled to the same oscillating frame of the conveyor grid.

Document DE 878 625 discloses a cement clinker cooler featuring a clinker cooler with a conveyor rack for transporting and cooling the clinker. The conveyor rack is tilted to a point where the clinker just does not slide down. The clinker transport is achieved by means of oscillating bars arranged in parallel with the grid surface. The bars are connected to a crank disk that is driven by an electric motor. The speed of the oscillating bars is controlled in response to the height of the clinker bed above the grid. A scanning arm detects a change in the height of the clinker bed and switches the resistors in series with the electric motor in order to slow down the engine or accelerate it, depending on the direction of the pivot movement.

Document FR 1 316 779 refers to the manufacture of cement clinker and responds to oven temperature control in response to the transport speed of the clinker raw flour mixture within

5

10

fifteen

twenty

25

30

35

40

Four. Five

fifty

55

from the oven. The sintered clinker is discharged onto a grid of a clinker cooler. The clinker cooler comprises a vibration conveyor and a secondary air is heated in the clinker cooler thereby cooling the clinker. The vibratory speed of the conveyor grid is controlled based on changes in secondary air pressure.

CN 202485465 U provides an example for a clinker cooler with a conveyor rack.

- Examples of belt conveyors and chain conveyors are proposed, for example, in documents DE 23 46 795 or DE 1 985 673.

Summary of the invention

The present report focuses solely on clinker coolers with oscillating means of transport. At present, these oscillating means of transport are driven by hydraulic cylinders. These make it possible to reliably and accurately drag the oscillating means of transport and provide the large drag forces required, which depend on the size of the grid, but can easily reach 500 kN or more.

The problem to be solved by the invention is to provide a clinker cooler with an oscillating means of transport that is easier to manufacture and easier to maintain and has lower operating costs.

Solutions to the problem are described in the independent claims. The dependent claims relate to further improvements of the invention.

The cement clinker cooling rack allows the clinker or other raw material to be transported in a transport direction. The transport direction or forward direction is directed from the clinker entrance, that is, the side facing the clinker cooler furnace until its clinker exit. The cooler further comprises a conveyor grid, briefly designated as "grid", with a surface facing up to support the clinker. For example, the grid can comprise plates that are arranged next to each other with their longitudinal direction parallel to the transport direction. At least one, preferably some of the plates can be removably supported to enable oscillating displacement in parallel with the direction of transport. In other words, at least some of the plates can be moved forward and retracted backwards. Transportation can occur for example according to the principle of the moving floor. In an alternative example, the grid is a step grid, comprising overlapping rows that provide a stepped grid surface. These rows are often formed by grid plates that are arranged transversely to the transport direction, for example, on cross beams, in which at least some of the grid plates are removably supported to make possible a oscillating movement of the grid plates. In the first example, the mobile plates are oscillating means of transport and in the second example the mobile grid elements are oscillating means of transport. Another example for an oscillating means of transport could be a transverse bar that is removably supported to move oscillatingly with respect to the direction of transport above the surface of the static grid. The oscillating movement can be, but is not necessarily, a linear movement. Some suspensions of oscillating means of transport are pendular suspensions that provide a small vertical amplitude. This movement is considered as "quasi linear", that is, almost linear. Briefly, the oscillating transport means are not lowered, that is, they are not moved down below the grid to make retraction possible as is the case for the circulating transport means of the chain conveyors, the chain conveyors Drag, belt conveyors.

The cooler comprises at least one actuator that is operably connected to at least one oscillating transport means to drive the oscillating transport means. Unlike the prior art grid coolers, the actuator comprises at least one electric motor with a rotor that is mechanically connected to the oscillating transport means to drive said transport means by means of a transmission. Here, "mechanically connected" means that the connection allows a rotation of the rotor to be transferred in an oscillating movement of at least one oscillating transport means, for example by a crank mechanism discussed below. In this context, hydraulic or pneumatic actuators are preferably not considered as mechanical connection.

The grid cooler further comprises at least one controller electrically controlled with the electric motor to control the rotational speed of its rotor depending on its position and / or direction of movement of the oscillating transport means. The controller, thus, preferably comprises at least one sensor for detecting the position of the at least one oscillating transport means and is controlled by the rotational speed of the motor, preferably in a closed loop as a function of said position.

The invention is based on the observation that hydraulic transmissions often resent leaks and the risk of oil contamination due to leaks. The solution of the invention is much simpler as long as hydraulic lines, aggregates, etc., are completely omitted. Likewise, hydraulic transmissions are very expensive not only to acquire but also in case of maintenance and in a specific operation due to

5

10

fifteen

twenty

25

30

35

40

Four. Five

fifty

55

its low efficiency and the fact that recent developments in power electronics allow to precisely control the speed of oscillating means of transport.

The so-called "mechanical connection", that is, said transmission can be supplied, for example, by at least one crank or an eccentric shaft (both generally designated as "crank") that is driven by the rotor, preferably, by means of At least one gear. A connecting rod may be connected by a first pivot with a first pivot point to said crank and by means of a second pivot with a second pivot point to at least one oscillating means of transport. This last connection is not necessarily a direct transport, for example, the oscillating transport means may be connected to the connecting rod by means of some force transmission means, for example a transmission frame that couples the connecting rod to said at least one means. of oscillating transport or a crossbar that supports the oscillating transport means.

Each of the first and second pivots has a pivot point or a geometric pivot axis briefly generally designated as the first or second pivot point, respectively.

For example, two or more motors may be connected to a drive shaft. For example, each motor can drive a reduction gear with an output shaft that is coupled to the drive shaft. Said drive shaft draws at least one, preferably, two or more cranks. Said cranks are each coupled by at least one connecting rod, to at least one oscillating means of transport. Briefly, two or more motors can generally drive a drive shaft that is connected to two or more crank drives. This design enhances longevity as soon as the load is shared between multiple redundant parts. Alternatively, the load, that is, the maximum power that can be coupled to the oscillating transport means can be enhanced.

In any of these examples, the mechanical connection is thus a transmission to convert the rotation supplied by the motor into a linear movement of the oscillating transport means. Preferably, the movement is periodic, that is, a (t) = a (t + T) in which a (t) is the angular position of the crank arm at time t and T is the length of the period, or Briefly the period. T can be modified to increase the transport speed of the clinker: the reduction of the T period will increase the clinker speed and the increase of T will slow down the clinker. For reasons of simplicity alone, it is presumed that T is constant, since the transport speed is adjusted in response to clinker production changes. This presumption is typically true for time scales that are much longer than the T period.

The sensor can, for example, be a sensor that measures the angular position a of the crank arm, that is, the direction of the vector pointing from the rotational geometric axis of the crank to the pivot point of the first pivot.

Preferably, the rotational direction of the motor is constant. This simplifies the electronics of the controller and enhances the longevity of the mechanical components of the transmission.

Preferably, the first pivot and / or at least a part of said connecting rod are located below a drop ramp of clinker input distribution. This allows the longitudinal geometric axis of the connecting rod to be arranged at least approximately parallel (± 30 °) with respect to the direction of movement of the oscillating transport means. Of course, the inclination of the connecting rod changes when the crank rotates, but here the average inclination will define the longitudinal geometric axis of the connecting rod. In other words, the inclination of the connecting rod must be measured when the longitudinal geometric axis of the crank arm is parallel to the moving direction of the oscillating transport means. This essentially parallel orientation of the connecting rod and of the transport direction makes it possible to keep the vertical components of the drag force low and, in this way, the additional load is compensated, for example, by a static frame that supports the grid. Likewise, the positioning of the connecting rod below the drop ramp allows the use of a comparatively long connecting rod, thus reducing the vertical components of the drag force to only a small percentage of the total force supplied to the transport means. oscillating The connecting rod can be even longer, if the crank and with it the pivot are located in the extension of the clinker inlet distribution system, for example between the clinker distribution system and base support bearings for the furnace.

Therefore, the distance dpp between the first pivot point and the second pivot point is at least 10 times greater than the distance dpa between the first pivot point and the rotation axis of the crank, that is, dpp> 10-dpa or even better dpp> 20 • dpa, preferably dpp> 30 • dpp or even dpp> 50 • dpa

The grid is typically supported on a base by a static frame located below said grid. Said frame can also support the electric motor and / or a gear that couples the frame with the crank or a connecting rod or, in other words, the electric motor and / or the gear can be fixed to said frame. This mounting point has the advantage that the opposite action of the drag force to drag the oscillating transport means is directly absorbed by the frame.

For example, the motor can drive the crank by means of a reduction gear with an output shaft. The motor can be fixed to and supported by the gear, for example its housing. The output shaft, preferably, is coupled by a releasable coupling to the crank, for example of a transmission shaft. So, the

5

10

fifteen

twenty

25

30

35

40

Four. Five

fifty

crank and / or the drive shaft, respectively, can support the gear (and thus also the engine) vertically, that is, its weight. The frame may comprise a torque support that supports the gear. For example, a frame beam may comprise a torque support that blocks a rotation of the gear housing in at least one direction. For example, at least one flange of a beam can supply said torque support. The decoupling of the torque and the weight support allows pushing a new gear on the drive shaft or the crank. In the simplest case, the output shaft is a hollow shaft that is received tightly by the corresponding end of the drive shaft (or vice versa) thus, the releasable coupling simply allows the gear to be pulled out of the drive shaft and connected one Again literally pushing it on the drive shaft. The frame can, of course, comprise a bearing that supports the crank and / or the drive shaft, and thus the weight of the gear (and the motor) by means of said bearing. But in any case, the weight and torque support are obtained differently making it possible to repair the rack in the short term.

In the simplest case, the rotor rotates at a constant rotational speed. In this case, the speed of the means of transport is sinusoidal. This sinusoidal speed of the transport means already provides advantages with respect to the longevity of the bearings, because the peaks of the force transmitted between the motor and the oscillating transport means are reduced compared to the hydraulically operated oscillating transport means.

Preferably, the controller is configured to monitor at least the direction of travel of the oscillating transport means and to modify the rotational speed of the motor as a function of the direction of movement of the oscillating transport means. For example, the controller can be configured to increase the engine speed, that is to increase the rotational speed of its rotor by retracting the means of transport to slow down the engine (that is, reducing the rotational speed) by pushing the means forward transport. This translates into means of transport that are retracted at a higher speed than if they were pushed forward when the clinker "owes" to the means of transport when it is pushed forward and slides on the means of transport when it is retracted. But unlike the prior art, it is not necessary to provide complete control of flow valves and no wear of said valves is necessary to control the movement of the plunger.

For example, the controller can be configured to vary the rotational speed of the motor depending on the angular position a of the crank arm between preferably at least two constant values a first value m, const defining a first absolute value of a first constant rotational speed of the motor during the forward movement of the oscillating transport means and a second value Mr, which defines a second absolute value of a constant rotational speed of the motor during the retraction of the oscillating transport means. At least one of said values m, const Mr, const is preferably maintained for a considerable period of forward or backward movement, respectively, of the oscillating transport means. Mathematically speaking:

d

gives

w (a) = 0 and

M (a) = Mlconst V a | af l <af2

I

d

gives

w (a) = 0 and

M (a) = wr const V a | arl <ar 2

in which a, i, a, 2, ar, 1, ar, 2 are each angular positions selected from the crank arm corresponding to a forward movement (indicated by index f) or retraction (indicated by index r ) of the oscillating means of transport between the two dead centers. In the immediate vicinity of the dead centers the corresponding upward ramp or the corresponding downward ramp of the rotational speed can take place.

The rotational speed of the motor m, const during the forward movement of the oscillating transport means is preferably less than the corresponding rotational speed during the retraction Mr, const, that is, m, const

<Mr, const most preferably: 1.5 • m, const <Mr, const, or

dpr

Surprisingly, the force Fr required to retract the means of transport is essentially constant (*

0) but the force Ff to drive the forward oscillating transport means increases with m. The increase in this way of the speed of the retraction does not increase (in a considerable way) the force that must be transmitted by the transmission and, in this way, the maintenance costs (strictly by cycle), but it allows to shorten the period T of a cycle.

Therefore, within reasonable limits, m, const can be minimized and Mr, const can be maximized for a required transport speed of the clinker in order to reduce the average transmission load. In others

5

10

fifteen

twenty

25

30

35

40

Four. Five

fifty

55

60

words, after the request to increase or decrease the transport speed of the clinker, preferably only <¿f, const increases or decreases respectively, as soon as <¿r, const must be kept at least almost constant near its maximum designed as long as it must always be kept in greater reasonable volume. Just to define the limits, the change in wr, const to change the transport speed Aw, const is preferably less than 50% of the corresponding change of Aw, const when changing the transport speed, that is, Aw, const < 0, 5 • Aw, const, preferably Awr, const <0, 25 • Aw, const, or even better Awr, const <0, 1 • Aw, const.

Likewise, the controller is preferably configured to restrict the torque M supplied by the motor to the crank arm when the crank arm passes its dead centers (at least one of the two dead centers) to a value Ms preselected This preselected value can be, for example, 150% of the torque value Mf max or Mr, max required to push the oscillating means of transport in the forward or backward direction, respectively, with the speed forward or backward (respectively) maximum during one cycle, that is, Ms <1.5 ■ Mf, max or Ms <1.5 ■ Mr, max, Ms à Mf, max, or Ms à Mr, max, preferably Ms à 0 , 8 ■ Mf, max or Ms <0.8 ■ Mr, max or even less. When the dead centers pass, the direction of movement of the oscillating means of transport is reversed. This inversion provides a large load or particular stress on the bearings, for example, said at least one pivot; The torque restriction reduces the speed of the rotor and thus the oscillating means of transport when passing the dead centers, but avoids load spikes and thus reduces maintenance costs.

Likewise, the controller may, preferably, be configured to control the rotational speed of the motor and thereby of the crank arm to ascend the forward speed vf of the oscillating transport means to a maximum value vf, max and to maintain this maximum value vf, max until the oscillating transport means is slowed down ("ramp down") before retracting the respective oscillating transport means. Thus, here the rotational speed of the engine is controlled to compensate for a non-linear transmission. In the previous example of the crank pulse, the control can thus compensate for the sinusoidal relationship between the speed of the transport means and the angular position of the crank arm.

The ramp ascent of the forward speed, preferably, is at least essentially linear or has at least one linear section. On the basis that the coupling between the means of transport and the clinker on the upper part of the grid is constant for the corresponding speed of the oscillating means of transport, this causes a constant load on the bearings such as such pivots during ascension. in ramp and with it the maintenance costs are reduced.

The ramp descent of the at least forward speed of the transport means is preferably more pronounced than the ramp ascent of the forward speed. Here "more pronounced" refers to the absolute value of the average slope. A very simple measure is the time for the ramp ascent and the time of the descent of the ramp: the time of the rise of the ramp of the forward speed is, preferably, greater than the time of the descent of the ramp. Speed ramp forward.

The retraction of the transport means can be controlled by the controller in a similar manner. However, the absolute value of the maximum retraction speed vr, max is, preferably, greater than the absolute value of the maximum forward speed vf, max, that is, 1.5 ■ vf, max á vr, max , even more preferably 2- vf, max á vr, max or even 3 ■ vf, max á vr, max. Likewise, the relative amount of time during retraction where vr, max is maintained is preferably less than the relative amount of time when vf, max is maintained, that is, tr, max / tr, total <tf, total, where tr, max is the absolute time when vf, max is maintained, and tf, total is the duration for retraction of the oscillating means of transport, tf, max is the absolute time when vf, max is maintained and tf, Total is the duration of the forward movement. Disregarding hypothetical waiting times in dead centers, the period T of a complete cycle is T = ttotal = tf, total + tr, total. In stepped grid coolers, the total time, preferably, is very small (zero or close to zero). In terms of moving soil, the waiting time involves a considerable portion of a complete period, that is, T = tr, total + tr, total + td, where td is the delay (waiting time).

This can be practiced very efficiently by controlling the angular speed of the crank according to its angular position. For example, a method for controlling the speed v (t) of at least one oscillating transport means of a cement clinker cooling rack can comprise the actuation of the oscillating transport means by starting an electric motor. As already stated, said electric motor can be a rotor that is coupled by means of at least one crank and a connecting rod at least one oscillating means of transport. Of course, there are many pivots that connect the crank and the connecting rod and the connecting rod and the means of transport as set forth above. The rotational speed of the engine can be controlled to linearize the movement of the means of transport. For example, the rotational speed can be controlled based on the spatial orientation of the crank, that is, its angular position. In a preferred embodiment, the engine is coupled by means of a reduction gear to a drive shaft. The drive shaft drives and, optionally, supports the crank.

In a particularly preferred example, a sinusoidal displacement of the crank in the direction of the oscillating movement is at least partially compensated. This displacement of the pivot point or the geometric axis of the pivot (to simply abbreviate "pivot point") in the direction of oscillation of the middle of

Oscillating transport is sinusoidal, that is, when the pivot point connecting the crank and the connecting rod is projected orthogonally on the plane parallel to the section of the oscillating movement, the displacement Ax (a) in the x-direction assumed to be the The direction of the oscillating movement of the oscillating means of transport is sinusoidal, that is, Ax (a) = | • cos (a), where a is the angle of the crank arm and l the length of the arm of the

5 crank Therefore, the speed of the oscillating means of transport can be set by defining á = =

At x (a), it is thus possible to maintain a constant velocity v (a (t)) (= A'x = dAx (a) of the movement of the medium of

ísin («) / dt

Oscillating transport by adjusting the angular velocity to (a). Of course this is only possible for those angles where 1 / without (a) do not diverge, which is in the dead centers. Thus, among dead centers, the speed of the oscillating means of transport can be adjusted to almost any reasonable value. A simple controller that controls the rotational speed of the motor rotor that drives the crank arm, preferably with fixed reduction radius due to some reduction gear, which makes it possible to oscillate the oscillating transport means with almost any profile of speed and in particular to compensate for the sinusoidal movement of the pivot point.

Preferably, the absolute value of the slope of the velocity v (t) (that is, ^ v (t)) of the oscillating transport means has at least a local minimum when the velocity v (t) changes its sign.

15 Likewise, as discussed above, it is advantageous if the maximum angular speed of the crank when retracting from the at least one oscillating transport means is greater than the maximum angular speed of the crank when pushing said at least one oscillating transport means. This is also obtained by adjusting the rotational speed of the motor accordingly.

Although not all have always been exposed, all the examples discussed above for the movement of the oscillating transport means and the rotational speed of the motor can be controlled by the controller. Also, the optional reduction of the engine rpm to the drive shaft rpm is assumed to be fixed, so w (a) = c • - a (t), in which c is a constant.

The control of the rotational speed of the motor is an equivalent to the control of the rotational speed of the crank and with it its angular position.

25 Description of the drawings

The invention will now be described by way of example, without limitation of the general inventive concept, in examples of embodiments with reference to the drawings.

Figure 1 is a schematic side view of a partially assembled cooling section of a cement clinker chain,

Figure 2 shows a cross section of a drive unit,

Figure 3 shows a cross section of another drive unit,

Figure 4 shows a velocity profile of an oscillating transport means, and

Figure 5 shows another speed profile of the oscillating transport means.

A preferred embodiment according to the invention is shown in Figure 1: the cement clinker 35 can be discharged from an oven 90 onto a clinker inlet distribution system 5. In this example, the clinker distribution system 5 is a falling ramp of superimposed grid plates 50 that are mounted together to each other on transverse beams 55. The cross beams can be supported by at least one beam 57. Other types of clinker distribution systems can also be used. Preferably, the grid plates 50 or at least some of them provide cooling grooves 59 for blowing a cooling gas from under the plates 50 of the grids into the clinker above them. From this clinker inlet distribution system, the clinker is fed to the cement clinker cooling rack 1, to abbreviate "grid"

This grid 1 comprises grid plates 30, 35 on transverse beams 31, 36. Typically, multiple grid plates 30, 35 are disposed side by side on the transverse beam 31, 36. A row of grid plates 30, 45 35 overlaps the next row (with reference to transport direction 2) thus providing a

stepped grid with a surface 4 of the grid. At least one of the grid plates 30, 35 is removably supported, making the oscillating movement possible as indicated by the double headed arrows 3. In this example, the corresponding transverse beams 36 are removably supported on rails. 37 of track or stringers 37 extending longitudinally, but other solutions 50 are also possible to removably support the oscillating transverse bars 36. Just to facilitate understanding, the mobile support is simplified as a sliding bearing, and other types of mobile elements that support the oscillating means of transport are also possible, for example the pendulum support as disclosed in DE

5

10

fifteen

twenty

25

30

35

40

Four. Five

fifty

55

60

101 18 440 or the ball bearing support suggested in DE 1841381 to designate only two. An actuator is arranged to push the moving grid plates 35 forward and to retract them backwards. By pushing forward the movable grid plates 35, the clinker is pushed in the forward direction 2. Next the grid plates 35 are retracted and the front plates of the respective (previous) superimposed fixed grid plates 30 are inhibited. Clinker bed so that it is also retracted. The mobile grid plates 35 thus slide below the clinker bed when they retract. The mobile grid plates 35 are thus oscillating means of transport.

The actuator comprises a motor 10 that drives a drive shaft 11, for example by means of a reduction gear. The stator of the electric motor 10 and the optional reduction gear are preferably mounted on the frame that supports the clinker cooler on its base 9. The frame may comprise vertical beams ("posts") 51, 52, about stringers 37, 57, transverse beams 55, 31 and the like.

The drive shaft 11 is mechanically coupled to a crank arm 15. The crank arm 15 is connected by a pivot 16 with at least one connecting rod 20. The at least one connecting rod 20 is also fixed to a swinging means 35. In this example, the oscillating transport means 35 is connected to the connecting rod 20 by means of the removable support transverse beam 36 and an additional pivot 19. An optional transmission bar 22 can also connect the oscillating transport means 35. A transmission bar 22 may, for example, be a longitudinal beam of a removably supported drive frame to which the oscillating transverse beams 36 are mounted and which is removably supported with respect to the base and thereby to the plates 30 static grid. As an alternative, each transport means 35 can be operated by a separate actuator. As a further alternative, the transport means 35 can be grouped by at least one transmission bar 32 (and / or a mobile drive frame) and each group can be driven by at least one separate actuator. In any case, when the motor 10 drives the crank arm 15, the connecting rod 20 converts the circular movement of the driving shaft 11 into a linear oscillatory movement corresponding to the oscillating transport means 35.

As can be seen, the actuator, that is, the motor 10, the optional reduction gear is included here in the motor 10 and the crank arm 15 are located below the clinker input distribution system 5. In this way, the actuator is easily accessible for maintenance purposes and the length of the connecting rod 20 can be increased. In this way, the vertical components of the force to drive the crank arm that has to be compensated for by the frame, is reduced. The motor could be displaced but the crank arm must be located as far as possible from the pivot 19, in order to obtain small pivot angles of the connecting rod 20.

The electric motor 10 is controlled by a controller. The controller 100 controls the rotational speed of the crank arm 15 based on its angular position, which can be measured by a corresponding sensor. The sensor is preferably integrated in the motor, in the motor housing, in a gear and / or a gear housing in order to protect the sensor. Alternatively, at least one sensor may be installed to determine the actual situation x (t) of the oscillating transport means and to supply it to the controller 100. Relevant for the control of rotational speed are two factors, the absolute force exerted on the pivots and other bearings and the speed v (t) of the oscillating transport means 35. The absolute force is critical in the dead centers of the crank arm 15, when there is an inversion of the direction of the oscillating grid elements.

Fig. 2 shows a preferred example for mounting an actuator. The actuator comprises a motor 10 with a rotor 101. The rotor 101 drives an input shaft 122 of a reduction gear 1. Here, but only by way of example, the rotor 101 is coupled by means of a spindle transmission to the input shaft 122. The input shaft 122 is connected by means of a planetary gear to a thrust shaft 11. The push shaft 11 is coupled to a crank 15, which is coupled by means of a first pivot 16 to a connecting rod 20 as indicated in Fig. 1. The push shaft 11 can be connected to at least one other crank 15 and / or at least a second motor 10 as indicated by the dashed line (cf. Fig. 3). The gear 12 has a gear housing 121. The gear housing 121 is supported by a vertical beam 51 (cf. Fig. 1) of the frame that supports the clinker inlet distribution. Alternatively, the gear could be mounted on a vertical beam 52 that supports the clinker cooling rack. In this example the vertical beam is an I beam also designated as H beam due to its H-shaped cross section, that is, a beam with two flanges that are connected by a band. Other beams could also be used. As shown, the thrust shaft 11 can extend through a hole made in the vertical beam 51 and / or can be supported by an optional bearing 14 that is connected to the beam 51 as well and that allows the rotation of the shaft 11 of push. In this example, the bearing 14 is a flat contact bearing with a bushing 141, but roller bearings can also be used. As shown here, the gear 12 and the bearing 14 of the drive shaft can be fixed on opposite sides of the beam 51. Alternatively, the gear can be vertically supported by the drive shaft 11. The beam 51 can only have a torque support for the gear. This makes it possible to easily replace a defective gear simply by removing the drive shaft gear and replacing it by "pushing" a new gear 12 on the drive shaft 11. In this case, the gear can have a separate output shaft that is coupled by a releasable coupling with the drive shaft 11 as discussed above. For example, drive shaft 11 is a hollow shaft that is received tightly by the end of output shaft 11

5

10

fifteen

twenty

25

30

35

40

Four. Five

fifty

55

60

(or vice versa). This allows easy removal of the gear in case of failure and literally pushing a new one on the drive shaft 11. The weight of the gear is supported by the drive shaft 11 which, in turn, is supported by the bearing 14 of the drive shaft 11. The drive shaft bearing 14 can, of course, be fixed to the same beam as the gear torque support 12.

Fig. 3 shows two coupled actuators. The actuators are similar to the actuator already analyzed with respect to Fig. 2. Therefore the same or similar parts incorporate the same numeric references. The embodiment of Fig. 3 presents two motors 10, each of which is coupled by a gear to a common drive shaft 11. The drive shaft 11 has two cranks 15, oriented in parallel. Each crank 15 is connected by means of a (first) pivot 16 to a connecting rod that is connected to at least one oscillating transport means, for example as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a diagram showing the rotational speed of the motor (rpm) on the right side of the ordinate axis and the absolute value of the speed v (t) of the oscillating transport means on the left side of the ordinate axis. The abscissa is the geometric axis of time and T indicates the period T. The diagram shows an exemplary relationship for a motor that drives a crank drive means by means of a reduction gear as shown, for example, in Fig. 1 to Fig. 3. At tü = 0 the engine rpm (broken line) is reduced to a first constant value wf const (in you). This constant value is maintained until t2. In t2 the crank reaches its dead center and the rotational speed is maximized until reaching a second constant value wr, const in t3 that is maintained until the oscillating means of transport is retracted, that is, until the end of the period T. The line continuous indicates the corresponding speed of the oscillating transport means. As can be seen, between t1 and t2 the same as between t3 and T, that is, when the rotational speed w (t) is constant, the speed w (t) is sinusoidal. Likewise, since wr, const> Wf, onst the retraction time T -12 is shorter than the time of the forward movement t2 - another example of a movement profile of the oscillating transport means 35 is shown in Fig. 5. The abscissa is the geometric axis of time and the ordinate shows the velocity v (t) of the oscillating transport means 35 along the direction indicated by the double headed arrow 3, in which a positive velocity points towards the distance from the oven 90. A cycle begins with a gentle increase in speed v (t) (t0 <t <tg) until the force to be transmitted by the pivots is slightly increased. Then the speed increases faster (tg <t <ta). For example, the acceleration may be constant in this section but, preferably, the force that must be transmitted by the pivots 19 remains constant. The speed of the oscillating transport means 35 can reach a maximum forward speed vf, max, which is reduced to reach the dead center point forward in tf. The slowdown can be achieved much faster, in that the force transmitted between the crank 15 and the transmission bar 20 simply needs to be reduced, for example to zero. In this case, the engine is in neutral with a decreasing rotational speed corresponding to the deceleration of the transport means 35 due to the clinker on the top of the grid due to friction and similar aspects in the event that the engine is decouple the respective oscillating means of transport. Accordingly, pivots 16, 19 are so to say unloaded during the deceleration for at least a period of time during the deceleration. The subsequent acceleration in the reverse direction follows the same principle as the forward acceleration, but the maximum retraction speed vr, max, preferably, is greater than the maximum forward speed vt, max. Preferably, the absolute value of the maximum acceleration in the backward direction, that is, when retracting the oscillating transport means 35 is greater than the absolute value of the maximum acceleration in the forward direction, that is, when pushing towards in front of the oscillating transport means 35. The effect is that the transition to sliding friction between the oscillating transport means 35 and the clinker that resides on its upper part takes place rapidly. When the oscillating transport means 35 reaches its most delayed dead center, it is slowed down to zero in v (T). At t = T the cycle can start again, that is, v (t) = v (t + T). In some embodiments, the cycle may be restarted after a td delay. As can be seen in the Figure, when approaching a dead center, the absolute value of the velocity is greatly reduced, that is, the absolute value of the deceleration when approaching a dead center is, preferably, greater than the absolute value of the acceleration away from said dead center.

The invention has been analyzed in the previous lines with respect to a stepped grid cooler, but the transmission of the rotation of a motor that drives the drive shaft and considerations regarding the speed profile of the oscillating transport means can also be transferred to grid gratings that are arranged side by side in parallel to the direction of transport, in which at least some of said plates are removably supported to enable the oscillating movement of said plates. These mobile plates can be driven by the same or similar transmission (electric motor, optional reduction gear, crank and connecting rod) as discussed above and, thus, becomes a means of oscillating transport. The sizing has to be supposedly adapted. The controller and the procedures for controlling the motor (s) can also be used.

List of numerical references

1 cement clncker cooling rack, briefly "rack"

2 transport direction / forward direction

3 double headed arrow indicative of oscillating displacement

4

5

6

9

10

eleven

12

14

fifteen

16

19

twenty

22

30

31

35

36

37

39

fifty

51

52

55

57

59

90

100

101

121

122

123

124

125

126

141

151

grid surface

clinker distribution system

side wall

base

electric motor (with optional reduction gear) drive shaft

gear / reduction gear

drive shaft bearing

crank / crank arm

pivot

pivot

connecting rod

transmission bar grid plates

crossbars (static)

removable support grid plates / oscillating transport means transverse bars (oscillating, removably supported) guide rails

cooling grooves

grid plates

vertical beam

vertical beam

cross beams

crossbar

furnace cooling slits

controller

rotor

gear housing input shaft gear wheel

gear wheel (for example, solar gear) gear wheel (for example, planetary gear) gear wheel (for example, gear ring) drive shaft bearing bushing pivot shaft

Claims (15)

  1. 5
    10
    fifteen
    twenty
    25
    30
    35
    40
    1. - Cement clinker cooling rack (1) for cooling and transporting the clinker in a forward direction comprising at least:
    - a grid surface (4) to support the clinker,
    - at least one means (35) of oscillating transport,
    - an actuator that is operatively connected to the oscillating transport means (35) to drive the oscillating transport means (35),
    in which
    the actuator comprises at least one electric motor (10) that is operatively connected to the oscillating transport means (35), to drive said transport means (35),
    characterized because
    The actuator further comprises a controller (100) that is connected to the electric motor (10) to control the rotational speed of the motor (10) depending on the position and / or the direction of movement of the oscillating transport means (35).
  2. 2. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of claim 1, characterized in that
    the motor drives at least one crank (15) to which a connecting rod (20) is fixed by at least a first pivot (16), said connecting rod (20) being connected to the oscillating transport means (35) or to a support thereof by at least a second pivot (19).
  3. 3. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of claim 2, characterized in that
    the pivot (16) of said connecting rod (20) is located below a clinker inlet distribution system (5) or in an extension of clinker inlet distribution system (5) and because said connecting rod (20) is extends between ± 30 ° at least approximately parallel to the transport direction (2).
  4. 4. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of claim 2 or 3, characterized in that
    the distance dpp between the pivot points of the first and second pivots (16, 19) is at least 10 times greater than the distance dpa between the pivot point of the first pivot (16) and the rotational axis of the crank (15), that is, dpp> 10 •
    dpa.
  5. 5. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of one of the preceding claims, characterized in that
    the grid (1) that provides the surface (4) of the grid is supported on a base (9) by a frame (37, 51, 52, 55) below said grid (1) and because the motor (10) electric is fixed to said frame (37, 51, 52, 55).
  6. 6. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of one of the preceding claims, characterized in that
    the rotational speed of the motor (10) is lower when the oscillating transport means (35) is moved in the direction (2) forward than by retracting it.
  7. 7. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of one of the preceding claims, characterized in that
    the cement clinker cooling rack (1) comprises at least two oscillating transport means (35), which are connected to each other by at least one transmission bar (22) that couples the at least two transport means (35) oscillating at a constant distance.
    5
    10
    fifteen
    twenty
    25
    30
    35
    40
  8. 8. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of claim 7, characterized in that
    the transmission bar (22) is integrated in a mobile drive frame.
  9. 9. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that
    The actuator comprises a drive shaft (11) with at least two cranks (15), each of which is connected by means of a connecting rod (20) to at least one oscillating transport means (35).
  10. 10. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that
    at least one electric motor (10) is coupled by means of at least one reduction gear (12) to the drive shaft (11).
  11. 11. - The cement clinker cooling grid (1) of one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that
    the motor (10) and / or the gear (12) and / or a bearing (14) of the crank (15) are supported by at least one vertical beam (51, 52) supporting a grille bottom of the clinker cooling and / or a clinker input distribution system.
  12. 12. - Procedure for controlling the speed v (t) of at least one oscillating transport means (35) of a cement clinker cooling rack (1), comprising at least the actuation of the means (35) of oscillating transport feeding an electric motor (10), in which the oscillating transport means (35) are coupled to said motor (10) at least by a crank arm (15) and a connecting rod (20) to transform the movement rotational motor (10) in linear motion
    characterized because
    It also includes the control of the rotational speed of the motor (10) as a function of the angular position of the crank arm (15).
  13. 13. - The method of claim 12, characterized in that
    the sinusoidal movement of the crank (15) in the direction of the oscillating movement (3) is compensated by said controller (100) to obtain a velocity profile of the oscillating transport means (35) having at least one section in which a non-zero speed is constant and / or the rotational speed of the motor is modified depending on the angular position a of the crank arm between at least two constant values (Mr, max, Mf, max)
  14. 14. - The method of claim 12 or 13, characterized in that
    the absolute value of the velocity slope v (t) has at least a local minimum when the velocity v (t) changes its sign.
  15. 15. - The method of one of claims 12 to 14, characterized in that
    the maximum angular speed of the crank (15) when the retraction of the at least one oscillating transport means (35) is greater than the maximum angular speed of the crank (15) when the forward thrust of said at least occurs a means (35) of oscillating transport.
ES15180131.3T 2015-08-07 2015-08-07 Cement clinker cooling rack Active ES2669005T3 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP15180131.3A EP3128275B1 (en) 2015-08-07 2015-08-07 Cement clinker cooler grate

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
ES2669005T3 true ES2669005T3 (en) 2018-05-23

Family

ID=53794084

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
ES15180131.3T Active ES2669005T3 (en) 2015-08-07 2015-08-07 Cement clinker cooling rack

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP3128275B1 (en)
DK (1) DK3128275T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2669005T3 (en)

Family Cites Families (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE878625C (en) * 1938-10-03 1953-06-05 Mikael Dipl-In Vogel-Jorgensen Apparatus for treating bulk material with a gas, in particular for cooling of cement clinker
DE1841381U (en) 1961-08-22 1961-11-09 Peters Ag Claudius Step grate storage for coolers, especially klinkerkuehler.
FR1316779A (en) * 1962-02-22 1963-02-01 California Portland Cement Co Method and furnace control apparatus
DE1985673U (en) 1967-12-18 1968-05-22 Polysius Gmbh Apparatus for cooling calcined or sintered well.
DE2346795A1 (en) 1973-09-17 1975-03-20 Polysius Ag Grate cooler for cement clinker etc. - has surface divided into partial regions drivable at different speeds
DE3631974A1 (en) * 1986-09-19 1988-03-31 Krupp Polysius Ag Device for driving a piston grill
DK154692D0 (en) 1992-12-23 1992-12-23 Smidth & Co As F L Procedure and cooler for cooling particulated material
DE19602621A1 (en) 1996-01-25 1997-07-31 Krupp Polysius Ag Sliding grate for the treatment of bulk goods
DE10118440C2 (en) 2001-04-12 2003-04-10 Wedel Karl Von Bearing arrangement for the oscillating suspension of the swing frame of a conveyor grate
DE202006012333U1 (en) 2006-08-10 2007-12-13 Claudius Peters Technologies Gmbh Cooler for bulk material with a sealing device between adjacent conveyor planks
DE102006037765A1 (en) 2006-08-11 2008-02-14 Polysius Ag Cooler
DE102009009285B4 (en) 2009-02-17 2013-11-28 Ikn Gmbh A grate plate arrangement
CN202485465U (en) * 2012-03-10 2012-10-10 泰安中意粉体热工研究院 L-type upright cooling device
EP2843342B2 (en) 2013-08-27 2019-07-03 Alite GmbH Clinker cooler

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP3128275A1 (en) 2017-02-08
DK3128275T3 (en) 2018-05-28
EP3128275B1 (en) 2018-02-21

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
BE1014950A3 (en) Apparatus for driving and guiding a gripper of a weaving machine.
CA2521959C (en) Method and apparatus for conveying a layer of bulk material on a grid
JP4049394B2 (en) Differential impulse type conveyor and method
JP5133565B2 (en) Bulk material cooler for cooling high temperature material to be cooled
ES2532979T3 (en) Vehicle lift
CN1160543C (en) Cooler for particulate material
US6598708B2 (en) Tapered roller screw apparatus and its driven device
KR100548606B1 (en) Sheet thickness reduction rolling method, Plate thickness reduction rolling apparatus and method
US20190120553A1 (en) Mobile veneer dryer
CN103979459B (en) Lowering or hoisting gear
CN1020697C (en) Transfer method and device and driving system therefor for transfer prosses
ES2333135T3 (en) Bulk material refrigerator to refrigerate hot material.
CN102851459B (en) Stepping automatic feeding device of heat-treatment furnace
US7059229B2 (en) Counterbalanced advancing metal cutting saw
RU2475304C2 (en) Crusher and method of crushing
CN1324755A (en) Lifter sing balancing-block as plunger of fluid dynamic pushing device of generating and controlling its motion
US20080102152A1 (en) Moving head dough press
US4512149A (en) Oil well pumping unit
CN105178616B (en) Automatic wall-building machine
CN2782704Y (en) Fully automatic rotary conveying type annealing furnace
US9730456B2 (en) Oven chain measurement system
CN1173786C (en) Rolling stand having three or more adjustable arms
WO1999026737A1 (en) Apparatus and method for changing metal molds for plate thickness reducing presses, and press metal die
CN101473199B (en) Member for a calibration weight in an electronic balance
CN102328811B (en) Sliding friction automatic transfer apparatus