ES2575929T3 - Fast image processing on dual-display visual display screens - Google Patents

Fast image processing on dual-display visual display screens Download PDF

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Publication number
ES2575929T3
ES2575929T3 ES05748546.8T ES05748546T ES2575929T3 ES 2575929 T3 ES2575929 T3 ES 2575929T3 ES 05748546 T ES05748546 T ES 05748546T ES 2575929 T3 ES2575929 T3 ES 2575929T3
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effective luminance
luminance pattern
values
spatial resolution
light source
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Lorne A. Whitehead
Helge Seetzen
Wolfgang Heidrich
Gregory John Ward
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Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corp
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Dolby Laboratories Licensing Corp
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Priority to PCT/CA2005/000807 priority patent/WO2006010244A1/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09FDISPLAYING; ADVERTISING; SIGNS; LABELS OR NAME-PLATES; SEALS
    • G09F9/00Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements
    • G09F9/30Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements in which the desired character or characters are formed by combining individual elements
    • G09F9/33Indicating arrangements for variable information in which the information is built-up on a support by selection or combination of individual elements in which the desired character or characters are formed by combining individual elements being semiconductor devices, e.g. diodes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/3406Control of illumination source
    • G09G3/342Control of illumination source using several illumination sources separately controlled corresponding to different display panel areas, e.g. along one dimension such as lines
    • G09G3/3426Control of illumination source using several illumination sources separately controlled corresponding to different display panel areas, e.g. along one dimension such as lines the different display panel areas being distributed in two dimensions, e.g. matrix
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G2320/00Control of display operating conditions
    • G09G2320/06Adjustment of display parameters
    • G09G2320/0626Adjustment of display parameters for control of overall brightness
    • G09G2320/0646Modulation of illumination source brightness and image signal correlated to each other
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/3406Control of illumination source
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09GARRANGEMENTS OR CIRCUITS FOR CONTROL OF INDICATING DEVICES USING STATIC MEANS TO PRESENT VARIABLE INFORMATION
    • G09G3/00Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes
    • G09G3/20Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters
    • G09G3/34Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source
    • G09G3/36Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, e.g. a page, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix no fixed position being assigned to or needed to be assigned to the individual characters or partial characters by control of light from an independent source using liquid crystals
    • G09G3/3611Control of matrices with row and column drivers

Abstract

A method for visually presenting an image on a screen (30) comprising a light source layer (32) and a visual presentation layer (34), which method comprises: determining (54) first excitation values for light sources (33) of the light source layer (32) from image data (48); determine (56) an effective luminance pattern of the light source layer corresponding to the first excitation values, the effective luminance pattern representing an estimated luminance in the visual presentation layer resulting from the application of the first excitation values to the light sources (33) of the light source layer (32); and determine second excitation values for pixels of the visual presentation layer (34) based on the effective luminance pattern and image data defining the image; characterized in that: the determination of the effective luminance pattern comprises: determining the effective luminance pattern in a first spatial resolution lower than a spatial resolution of the visual presentation layer; and increase (58) the spatial resolution of the effective luminance pattern from the first spatial resolution to a second spatial resolution corresponding to the spatial resolution of the visual presentation layer before determining the second excitation values, where the increase (58 ) of the spatial resolution of the effective luminance pattern comprises performing an interpolation on data defining the effective luminance pattern in the first spatial resolution.

Description

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DESCRIPTION

Fast image processing on double-display visual display screens CROSSED REFERENCE TO A RELATED PATENT APPLICATION

This patent application claims the priority of United States patent application No. 60 / 591,829 filed on July 27, 2004 and entitled QUICK PROCESSING OF FRAMEWORK FOR HIGH DYNAMIC MARGIN SCREENS. For the purposes of the United States of America, this application claims the benefit under U.S. 35. § 119 of United States Patent Application No. 60 / 591,829 filed on July 27, 2004 and entitled QUICK PROCESSING OF FRAMEWORK FOR HIGH DYNAMIC MARGIN SCREENS.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to systems and methods for displaying images on screens of the type that have two modulators. A first modulator produces a light pattern and a second modulator modulates the light pattern produced by the first modulator to obtain an image.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The international patent application WO 02/069030 published on September 6, 2002 and the international patent publication WO 03/077013 published on September 18, 2003, disclose visual presentations having a layer of modulated light sources and a modulated visual presentation layer. The modulated light source layer is activated to obtain a comparatively low resolution representation of an image. The low resolution representation is modulated by the visual presentation layer to provide a higher resolution image that can be seen by an observer. The light source layer may comprise an array of actively modulated light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs). The visual presentation layer, which is located and aligned in front of the light source layer may be a liquid crystal display (LCD).

If the two layers have different spatial resolutions (eg, the resolution of the light source layer may be approximately 0.1% than that of the visual presentation layer), then both methods of computer correction and psychological effects ( such as veil luminance) prevent the observer from realizing the mismatch of the resolutions.

US 2003/0090455 A1 discloses a method for increasing a dynamic range of a backlit screen and a corresponding backlit screen. A luminance of a light source that illuminates a displayed pixel vanishes in response to an intensity value of this pixel.

Electronic systems for activating light modulators such as matrix arrays of LEDs or LCD liquid crystal display panels are well known to those skilled in this art. As an example, computer LCD screens and television sets are commercially available. Such screens and televisions include circuits to control the amount of light transmitted by individual pixels on an LCD panel. The task of obtaining the excitation from image data signals to control the light source layer and the visual presentation layer can be of high computer cost. The derivation of said signals can be executed by a processor of a graphics card Computer network or by some other suitable processor integrated in a computer, for the screen itself or for a secondary device.

The task of deriving from the image data signals to control a layer of light sources and a layer of visual presentation can be of high cost from the computer point of view. The derivation of said signals can be executed by a processor of a graphics cardMdeo of a computer or by some other suitable processor that is an integral part of a computer for the screen itself or for a secondary device. Processor performance limitations may undesirably limit the speed at which frames of successive images can be displayed. As an example, if the processor is not powerful enough to process incoming video data at the frame rate of the video data, then an observer can detect small pauses between successive frames of a video image such as a cinematographic film. . The foregoing may distract the observer and negatively affect the observer's image vision experience.

There is a need for effective and cost-effective practical systems to display images on screens of the general type described above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings illustrate non-limiting embodiments of the invention.

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Figure 1 graphically illustrates the segmentation of a point dispersion function (PSF) into wide and narrow based Gaussian segments.

Figures 2A, 2B and 2C graphically illustrate the division of a 16-bit point dispersion (PSF) function into 8-bit segments (high and low byte).

Figure 3 graphically illustrates the transitional behavior of the 8-bit high and low byte point dispersion function values relative to a 16-bit range.

Figure 4 graphically illustrates high and low byte point dispersion functions corresponding to the point dispersion function illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 5 graphically illustrates the application of an iteratively derived interpolation function to obtain an effective luminance pattern (ELP) that closely approximates a real effective luminance pattern (ELP).

Figure 6 is a schematic diagram of a visual presentation screen.

Figure 7 is a flow chart illustrating a method of displaying an image on a screen that has a layer of controllable light sources and a controllable visual presentation layer.

Figure 8 is a flow chart illustrating a method for determining an effective luminance pattern.

Figure 9 is a flow chart illustrating a method for determining a pattern or a component of an effective luminance pattern.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Throughout the following description, specific details are established in order to provide a more thorough understanding of the invention. However, the invention can be put into practice without these particularities. In other operational instances, well-known elements have not been illustrated or described in detail to avoid unnecessary lack of clarity of the invention. Consequently, the specification of the specification and the drawings must be considered in an illustrative and non-restrictive sense.

The invention can be applied in a wide range of applications where an image is displayed by generating a light configuration that is determined at least in part by image data and modulating the light configuration to obtain an image. The light configuration can be obtained by any suitable device. Some examples include:

• A plurality of light sources excited by controller circuits that allow varying the brightness of the light sources.

• A fixed or variable light source combined with a modulator of the type of reflection or of the type of transmission that modulates the light from the light source.

The following description refers to non-limiting embodiments, by way of example, where the light configuration is obtained on one side of an LCD display panel by means of a matrix set of light emitting diodes and the LCD panel is controlled to modulate the light of the light configuration to obtain a visible image. In this example, the matrix array of LEDs can be considered to constitute a first modulator and the LCD panel constitutes a second modulator.

In general, the processing of image frames or a set of frames for display on a LED / LCD diode layer screen involves the following computer steps:

1. Obtaining image data (which can be full screen or partial screen image data).

2. Derive from the image data suitable excitation values for each LED of the first modulator, using appropriate techniques well known to those skilled in this art (eg, a closer interpolation that may be based on factors such as intensity and color).

3. The excitation values of LED derivative diodes and the functions of spot dispersion of LED diodes in the LED display as well as the characteristics of any layers located between the LED layer and the LCD layer are used to determine the luminance pattern effective that will result in the LCD layer when the LED excitation values are applied to the LED diode layer.

4. The image defined by the image data is then divided by the effective luminance pattern to obtain raw modulation data for the LCD layer.

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5. In some cases, raw modulation data is modified to solve technical problems such as linearity failures or the presence of other computer artifacts that arise in the LED or LCD diode layers. These anomalies can be managed using appropriate techniques well known to those skilled in this art (eg, scaling, gamma correction, value substitution operations, etc.). As an example, the creation of the modified modulation data may require the modification of the raw modulation data for the adaptation of a gamma correction curve or other specific features of the LCD layer.

6. Final modulation data for the LCD layer (which can be the raw modulation data or the modified modulation data) and the excitation data for the LEDs are applied to control the LCD and LED layers to obtain the image desired.

Several ways to reduce the cost of computing calculation (that is, to accelerate) of the generation of final modulation data for use in the visual presentation of images are described below. These operations include:

• Perform at least some parts of the calculation in a domain of lower precision (by way of example, performing calculations in the 8-bit domain instead of in the 16-bit domain); Y

• Implement one or more of the options to effectively establish an effective luminance pattern described in this case.

Although these techniques can be implemented individually, any suitable combinations of the techniques described herein can be used in this regard.

Determination of the effective luminance pattern

The point dispersion function of each LED diode in a layer of LED diodes is determined by the geometry of the LED. A simple technique for determining a pattern of total effective luminance of the LED diode layer is to initially multiply the point dispersion function of each LED diode (more specifically, the point dispersion function of the light emitted by the LED diode and which passes through all optical structures between the LED and LCD layers) by a selected LED diode excitation value or by an appropriate scaling parameter to obtain the effective luminance contribution of the LED diode for that excitation value , for each pixel in the LCD layer.

In this way, the luminance contributions of each LED diode in the LED layer can be determined and added to obtain the total effective luminance pattern, in an LCD layer, which will be obtained when the selected excitation values are applied to the layer of LEDs. However, these multiplication and addition operations are of very high computational cost (that is, time consuming), since the effective luminance pattern must be determined for the same spatial resolution as the LCD layer in order to facilitate the division operation of stage 4 above.

The computing costs are especially large if the LED scattering function has a very broad “support”. The term "support" of a LED diode scattering function is the number of LCD pixels that are illuminated in a magnitude not negligible by an LED. The support can be specified in terms of a radius, measured in pixels of the ldc layer, where the function of spot dispersion of LEDs becomes so small that it is significantly not significant for an observer. The support corresponds to several LCD pixels that illuminate in a significant magnitude for each LED.

By way of example, a hexagonal matrix set of LED diodes is considered where the center of each LED is spaced from the immediately adjacent LED diodes at a distance equal to 50 of the pixels of the LCD layer. If each LED has a point dispersion function that has a support of 150 LCD pixels, then each pixel in the central part of the LCD layer will be illuminated by light from approximately 35 of the LED diodes. The calculation of the effective luminance pattern, for this example embodiment, therefore requires 35 operations for each pixel of the LCD layer, in order to take into account the light contributed to each pixel for each relevant LED. Where the LCD layer has a high spatial resolution, this operation is of high cost from the computer point of view (eg, time consuming).

Resolution reduction

The time required to determine the effective luminance pattern produced on the LCD screen can be reduced by calculating the effective luminance pattern at a reduced spatial resolution that is less than the high resolution image to appear on the LCD layer. This is feasible since the functions of spot dispersion of individual light sources usually have a smooth variation. Therefore, the effective luminance pattern can vary relatively slowly in the resolution of the LCD layer. Consequently, it is possible to calculate the pattern

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of effective luminance at a lower resolution and then scaling the effective luminance pattern to a higher desired resolution, without the need to introduce significant computer artifacts.

Scaling can be done using linear, Gaussian or other interpolation techniques. Said target access network of the spatial resolution provides an approximately linear decrease in the computer cost of establishing the effective luminance pattern. Numerous interpolation methods available that can be used for the scaling of an effective luminance pattern calculated at a lower resolution are of low computational cost compared to the cost of the computational calculation of the effective luminance pattern at resolution of the LCD or other second light modulator.

Using the above example embodiment, a 10-fold resolution reduction, in the width and height directions, provides an approximate 100-fold reduction in the cost of computing calculation. This is so because the total number of pixels in the reduced resolution image is 100 times less than the total number of pixels in the high resolution image to appear on the LCD layer. Each pixel in the reduced resolution image still receives light from the 35 LEDs, which require 35 computer calculation operations per pixel - but these operations are applied at 100 times less pixel compared to a case in which the calculations are performed by separated for each pixel in the real high resolution image to appear on the LCD layer.

Decomposition of the point dispersion function

The cost of computer calculation of image processing can also be reduced by decomposing the point scattering function of each light source (eg, each LED) into several components (eg, performing a Gaussian decomposition) in such a way that the recombination of all components provide the original point dispersion function. An effective luminance pattern can then be determined separately for each component. Once an effective luminance pattern has been determined for each component, said effective luminance patterns can be combined to obtain a total effective luminance pattern. The combination can be done by sum, by way of example.

The computer calculation of the effective luminance patterns contributed by the components can be performed at the resolution of the LCD layer or at a reduced resolution, as described above.

An advantage in terms of speed is achieved even when the effective luminance pattern for each component is calculated at the resolution of the LCD layer since the hardware components specially adapted to perform rapid computer calculations based on standard point dispersion functions (eg, Gaussian point dispersion functions) are commercially available. Such hardware components are not usually commercially available for the non-standard point scattering function of real LEDs in the LED display layer - so it is necessary to resort to considerably slower computing techniques using use processors. general.

A greater speed advantage is achieved if the resolution reduction technique, described above, is used to determine an effective luminance pattern for each component. In addition, different spatial resolutions can be applied to different components of the point dispersion functions to provide even greater speed advantages. By way of example, Figure 1 illustrates (in continuous line) a point dispersion function of LED diodes, by way of example, having a deep central part 10 and a wide end part 12. In this situation, the dispersion function Actual point can be decomposed into a narrow-base Gaussian component 14A and a broad-based Gaussian component 14B, as illustrated in the figure.

The broad-based Gaussian component 14B (dot line) contributes relatively little to the intensity of the image, compared to the narrow-base Gaussian segment 14A (dashed line). In addition, the broad-based Gaussian component 14B is slower in variation than the narrow-based Gaussian component 14A. Consequently, an effective luminance pattern for the narrow-base Gaussian component 14A can be determined at a moderately high spatial resolution while an effective luminance pattern for the broad-based Gaussian component 14B can be calculated at a noticeably lower spatial resolution. The foregoing preserves an important part of the image intensity information contained in a narrow-base Gaussian component 14A and is still relatively fast since the effective support of the narrow-base Gaussian segment is small and therefore, few LCD pixels They are covered by that component. On the contrary, since the broad-based Gaussian component 14B contains relatively little image intensity information, said component can be processed relatively quickly at low resolution without degrading, in significant magnitude, the resolution of the total effective luminance pattern obtained by combining derived pattern settings for each component.

8-bit segmentation

Image data is usually provided in the form of 16-bit words. High-end graphics processors (that is, higher cost) usually perform calculations in the 16-bit domain. These processors may have

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dedicated floating-point or 16-bit arithmetic units that can quickly perform 16-bit operations. The need for a high-end processor capable of performing 16-bit operations can be quickly mitigated by calculating the effective luminance pattern in the 8-bit domain. These calculations can be carried out with reasonable speed by lower cost processors.

The point dispersion function of each LED is a two-dimensional function of intensity in relation to the distance from the center of the LED. Said point dispersion function can be characterized by a plurality of 16-bit data words. Where the point dispersion function is represented by a query table, numerous 16-bit values are required to define the point dispersion function; by way of example, a single value can be provided for each LCD pixel that resides operatively in or within a circle centered on the LED and that has a radius corresponding to the support of the point dispersion function.

Each of said 16-bit data words has an 8-bit high byte component and an 8-bit low byte component (any 16-bit value A can be divided into two 8-bit values B and C, so that we have the relation A = B * 28 + C, where B is the “high byte” and C is the “low byte.” The 8-bit values are preferably extracted only after all the necessary scaling and manipulation operations have been applied to the 16-bit input data: Figure 2A illustrates a 16-bit point dispersion function; Figures 2B and 2C illustrate, respectively, the 8-bit high and low-byte components of the point dispersion function 16-bit represented in Figure 2A.

A 16-bit data word is capable of representing integer values from 2 ° -1 to 216 -1 (this is from 0 to 65535). An 8-bit byte is capable of representing integer values from 2 -1 to 2 -1 (that is, from 0 to 255). The "support" (as defined above) of a point dispersion function characterized by an 8-bit high byte component is much smaller (narrower) than the support of the point dispersion function as a whole. This is so because the 8-bit high byte component reaches the lowest (zero) value of its 255 possible values, when the 16-bit data word that characterizes the point dispersion function as a set reaches 255 as of from its margin of 65535 possible values. The remaining 255 values are provided by the low byte component with the value of the high byte component equal to zero. The effective luminance pattern corresponding to the narrow-base 8-bit high-byte component can, consequently, be determined rapidly, without significant loss of image intensity information. The resolution reduction and / or other techniques described above can be used to further accelerate the determination of the effective luminance pattern for the 8-bit high byte component.

The support of a point dispersion function characterized by an 8-bit low byte component is comparatively broad. More specifically, although the 8-bit low byte component has only 255 possible values, these values decrease from 255 to 0 (from 65535 values for the point dispersion function as a set) and said 255 values correspond to 255 lower intensity levels (that is, levels at which the value of the high byte component is equal to zero). These 255 levels represent the value of the point dispersion function in its peripheral parts.

The low byte component can be separated into two zones. A central zone, which resides within the limit in which the point dispersion function, characterized by the high byte component, reaches zero. In the central area, the low byte component usually varies in an irregular sawtooth configuration (as illustrated in Figure 3) if the original 16-bit point dispersion function is reasonably smooth. This is so, because in the central zone, the part of the point dispersion function characterized by the low byte component increases the part of the point dispersion function characterized by the high byte component.

By way of example, a transition from the 16-bit value 10239 to the 16-bit value 9728 is considered. The 10239 16-bit value has a high byte component value of 39 and a low byte component value of 255 (that is, 39 * 256 + 255 = 10239). Consequently, the contribution of the low byte component to the point dispersion function is initially 255 and the contribution of the high byte component is initially 39. The contribution value of the high byte component remains at 39, while that the contribution value of the low byte component decreases smoothly from 255 to 0 - the point at which the original 16-bit point dispersion function has the value 9984 (that is, 39 * 256 + 0). The value of the contribution of the high byte component to the point dispersion function then changes smoothly from 39 to 38, but this change is accompanied by a sharp change (from 0 to 255) in the value of the contribution of the component of low byte to the point dispersion function.

As seen in Figure 4, within a radius R of the original point dispersion function (and where the value of the contribution of the high-byte components to the point dispersion function is non-zero), the configuration in Sawtooth resulting from the contribution of the low byte component to the point dispersion function is characteristic of the original point dispersion function. Outside the radius R, the value of the contribution of the high byte component to the point dispersion function is zero and the value of the contribution of the low byte component changes abruptly.

Contributions from the low byte component of the point dispersion function can be processed in

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differently in these two zones (that is, the zones inside and outside the radius R) to avoid the presence of unwanted computer artifacts. As an example, in order to preserve an important part of the image intensity information contained in the area within the radius R, the effective luminance pattern for that area is preferably determined using the same relatively high resolution used to determine the luminance pattern effective for the contribution of the high byte component to the point dispersion function, as described above. On the contrary, the effective luminance pattern for the area outside the radius R can be determined using a much lower resolution, without significant loss of image intensity information.

After the three segments of the point dispersion function (that is, the high byte component, the area of the low byte component within the radius R and the area of the low byte component outside the radius R) have been processed in the manner described above, the results are sampled individually for adaptation of the resolution of the LCD layer and then recombined with the appropriate scaling factors that are applied. Recombination usually involves the sum of the values for the two zones of low byte components and the value for the high byte components, after the value for the high byte component has been multiplied by 256.

Interpolation

If an effective luminance pattern value is determined using a resolution lower than the resolution of the LCD layer, it is necessary to sample that value for adaptation of the resolution of the LCD layer. Interpolation techniques for ascending sampling of low resolution images in high resolution images are well known, with techniques based on linear and Gaussian components being common. Although said prior techniques can be used in conjunction with the techniques described above, accuracy, or speed, or both features can be improved at the same time using an interpolation technique that is optimized for a particular visual presentation configuration. Optimization facilitates the highest resolution image compression, minimizes the introduction of unwanted interpolation artifacts and reduces image processing time. In extreme cases, an interpolation technique can be used to reduce the resolution of the effective luminance pattern to adapt to the resolution of the LED diode layer.

Interpolation techniques of the prior art are usually restricted for use with specific pre-interpolation data, or for use with specific interpolation functions. The interpolation techniques used to adapt the resolution of the effective luminance pattern to that of the LCD screen do not need to satisfy such restrictions, since the convolution of the pre-interpolation data with the selected interpolation function will provide an effective luminance pattern that It has an appropriate similarity to the effective luminance pattern.

The degree of similarity required depends on the application of the visual presentation. Different applications require different degrees of similarity - in some applications, relatively small deviations may unacceptably distract an observer, while larger deviations may be tolerable in other applications (such as applications that involve television images or computer games where relatively large deviations nevertheless provide acceptable quality images for the majority of observers). Consequently, it is not necessary to apply the interpolation technique directly to the actual LED diode excitation values or to the actual LED spot dispersion function.

By way of example, Figure 5 illustrates the result obtained using an iteratively derived interpolation technique to reduce the resolution of the effective luminance pattern to adapt the resolution of the LED diode layer. The pixel values in the LED diode layer resolution are not the LED diode excitation values - they are the luminance values of the effective luminance pattern before interpolation. The interpolation function can be determined using standard iteration methods and a random initiation condition. As seen in Figure 5, the convolution of the interpolation function iteratively derived with the values of the effective luminance pattern provide results that are reasonably close to the actual effective luminance pattern.

Numerous different interpolation techniques can be used in this regard. There is no need for any correlation between the interpolation function and the LED diode point dispersion function, the LED diode excitation values or any other characteristic of the visual presentation, on condition that the interpolation function selected and the parameters of Inputs selected for use with that function provide a result reasonably close to the actual effective luminance pattern.

Exemplary forms of execution

Figure 6 illustrates some exemplary embodiments of the invention. Figure 6 illustrates a screen 30 comprising a modulated light source layer 32 and a visual presentation layer 34. The light source layer 32 may comprise, by way of example:

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• a matrix set of controllable light sources such as LEDs;

• a fixed intensity light source and a light modulator arranged to spatially modulate the light intensity coming from the light source;

• some of their combinations.

In the illustrated embodiment, the light source layer 32 comprises a matrix array of LEDs 33.

The visual presentation layer 34 comprises a light modulator which, in addition, spatially modulates the intensity of the incident light on the visual presentation layer 34 from the light source layer 32. The visual presentation layer 34 may comprise a panel of LCD or other transmission type light modulator, by way of example. The visual presentation layer 34 usually has a higher resolution than a light source layer resolution 32. Optical structures 36 suitable for transmitting light from the light source layer 32 to the visual presentation layer 34 can be provided between the layer of light sources 32 and the visual presentation layer 34. The optical structures 36 may comprise elements such as an open space, light diffusers, collimators and similar elements.

In the illustrated embodiment, a controller 40 comprising a data processor 42 and electronic interface suitable 44A for controlling the light source layer 32 and 44B for controlling the visual presentation layer 34 receives image data 46 specifying images to be displayed on the screen 30. The controller 40 excites the light emitters (eg, LEDs 33) of the light source layer 34 and the pixels 35 of the visual presentation layer 34 to obtain the desired image to be seen by a person or people. A program memory 46 accessible to the processor 42 contains computer instructions which, when executed by the processor 42, cause the processor 42 to execute a method as described below.

The controller 40 may comprise a suitably programmed computer having suitable software / hardware interfaces to control the light source layer 32 and the visual presentation layer 34 to display an image specified by the image data 48.

Figure 7 illustrates a method 50 for displaying image data on a screen of the general type depicted in Figure 6. Method 50 is initiated upon receiving image data 48 in blocks 52. In block 54, first excitation signals for the Layer of light sources 32 are derived from the image data 48. Suitable known methods can be applied to obtain the first excitation signals in block 54.

In block 56, method 50 calculates an effective luminance pattern. The effective luminance pattern can be calculated from the first excitation signals and the known point dispersion functions for the light sources of the light source layer 32. Block 56 calculates the effective luminance pattern at a resolution that is lower than a resolution of the visual presentation layer 34. As an example, block 56 can calculate the effective luminance pattern at a resolution that is a factor of 4 or smaller in each dimension (in some embodiments, a factor in the range of 4 to 16 smaller in each dimension) than the resolution of the visual presentation layer 34.

In block 60, the effective luminance pattern calculated in block 58 is sampled ascending to the resolution of the visual presentation layer 34. This operation can be performed by using any suitable interpolation technique, by way of example. In block 62, the second excitation signals for the visual presentation layer are determined from the effective luminance pattern sampled upwards and the image data. The second excitation signals can also take into account known features of the visual presentation layer and any desired image corrections, color corrections or the like.

In block 64, the first excitation signal obtained in block 54 is applied to the light source layer and the second excitation signals of block 62 are applied to the visual presentation layer to display an image to be seen.

Figure 8 illustrates a method 70 for capturing an effective luminance pattern. Method 70 may be applied within block 56 of method 50 or may be used within other contexts. Method 70 is started by calculating an ELP value for each component of the point scattering function for the light sources of the light source layer 32 (blocks 72A, 72B and 72C - collectively, blocks 72). Blocks 72 can be performed in any sequence or can be performed in parallel with each other. Figure 8 illustrates three components of PSF 73A, 73B and 73c and three corresponding blocks 72. The method could be implemented with two or more components of PSF 73.

The components of the point dispersion function (PSF) would normally have been predetermined. A representation of each component is memorized in a position accessible to the processor 42. Each of the blocks 72 may comprise, for each light source of the light source layer 32, the multiplication of values

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that define a component of the point scattering function by a value that represents the intensity of the light source. In block 74, the effective luminance patterns determined in blocks 72 are combined, by way of example, by adding, to provide an overall estimate of the effective luminance pattern that will be obtained by applying the first excitation signals to the source layer of light 32.

Figure 9 illustrates a method 80 that can be applied for the calculation of effective luminance patterns. Method 80 can be applied to:

• calculate the effective luminance pattern in block 56 of method 50; or

• calculate effective luminance patterns for individual components of a point dispersion function in blocks 72 of method 70; or

• apply in other contexts.

Method 80 begins in block 82 with data characterizing a point scattering function (or a PSF component) for a light source layer light source 32 and data indicating how strongly the light source will operate under the control of the first signals of excitation. Method 80 combines these values (eg, multiplying them together) to obtain a set of values that characterize the contribution of the light source to the effective luminance pattern in various spatial positions.

Block 84 obtains higher order and lower order components of the resulting values. In some embodiments, the resulting values are 16-bit words, the higher order component is an 8-bit byte and the lower order component is an 8-bit byte.

Contributions to ELP are determined separately for higher order components and lower order components in blocks 86 and 88. For each light source, the support area for which values are included in the higher order contribution of 86 is usually noticeably smaller than the support zone for which values are included in the lower order contribution of block 88.

Block 88 normally calculates the lower order contribution for points located within the support area of the higher order contribution (block 90) separately for points located outside the support area of the higher order contribution (block 92 ). Blocks 86, 90 and 92 can be carried out in any order or simultaneously.

In block 94, the contributions of blocks 86, 90 and 92 are combined to provide a global ELP. The calculations in blocks 86, 90 and 92 can be carried out primarily or integrally in the 8-bit domain (that is, using 8-bit operations in 8-bit operands) in the event that the higher order components and lower order are bytes of 8 bits or smaller.

Some forms of implementation of the invention include computer processors that execute computer instructions that make other processors perform a method of the invention. By way of example, one or more processors in a computer or other visual display controller can implement the methods illustrated in Figures 7, 8 or 9 by executing computer instructions in a program memory accessible to the processors. The invention can also be disclosed in the form of a computer product. The computer product may comprise any medium containing a set of computer-readable computer signals that comprise instructions that, when executed by a data processor, cause the data processor to execute a method of the invention. Computer products in accordance with the invention can be in any of a wide variety of forms. The computer product may comprise, by way of example, physical media such as magnetic data storage media including floppy disks, hard disk drives, optical data storage media including CD-ROMs, DVDs, data storage media electronic devices including ROMs, instant RAM or transmission type or similar media such as digital or analog communications links. The computer readable signals in the computer product can be optionally compressed or encrypted.

In those cases in which a component (eg, a member, part, assembly, device, processor, controller, collimator, circuit, etc.) is the object of prior reference, unless otherwise indicated, the reference to that component (including a reference to a “medium”) should be construed as including the equivalents of that component that perform the function of the described component (that is, which is functionally equivalent), including components that are not structurally equivalent to the structure disclosed to perform the function in the embodiment illustrated by way of example of the invention.

As will be apparent to those skilled in this technique according to the description of the previous invention, numerous alterations and modifications are possible in the practice of this invention without thereby deviating from its scope of protection. As an example,

• the light source layer may comprise several different types of light sources that have different point dispersion functions between them;

5 • the screen can comprise a color screen and the calculations described above can be made by

separate for each of several colors.

Although several exemplary aspects and embodiments have been examined previously, those skilled in this art will recognize some modifications, permutations, additions and subcombinations. Therefore, it is envisaged that the following appended claims and subsequent claims will be interpreted to include all such modifications, permutations, additions and subcombinations that are within their scope of protection.

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Claims (37)

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    1. A method for visually presenting an image on a screen (30) comprising a light source layer (32) and a visual presentation layer (34), which method comprises:
    determining (54) first excitation values for light sources (33) of the light source layer (32) from image data (48);
    determine (56) an effective luminance pattern of the light source layer corresponding to the first excitation values, the effective luminance pattern representing an estimated luminance in the visual presentation layer resulting from the application of the first excitation values to the light sources (33) of the light source layer (32);
    and determine second excitation values for pixels of the visual presentation layer (34) based on the effective luminance pattern and image data defining the image;
    characterized in that:
    The determination of the effective luminance pattern comprises:
    determine the effective luminance pattern in a first spatial resolution lower than a spatial resolution of the visual presentation layer; Y
    increase (58) the spatial resolution of the effective luminance pattern from the first spatial resolution to a second spatial resolution corresponding to the spatial resolution of the visual presentation layer before determining the second excitation values,
    wherein the increase (58) of the spatial resolution of the effective luminance pattern comprises performing an interpolation on data defining the effective luminance pattern in the first spatial resolution.
  2. 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the resolution of the visual presentation layer (34) is at least 4 times greater than the first spatial resolution used in determining (56) the effective luminance pattern in at least one dimension .
  3. 3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the resolution of the visual presentation layer (34) is at least 8 times greater than the first spatial resolution used in determining the effective luminance pattern in each of two dimensions.
  4. 4. A method according to claim 1, 2 or 3, wherein the increase (58) of the spatial resolution of the effective luminance pattern comprises performing an interpolation on data defining the effective luminance pattern in the first spatial resolution.
  5. 5. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4 wherein the determination (56) of the effective luminance pattern of the light source layer comprises:
    determining a contribution to the effective luminance pattern for each of a plurality of components (73A, 73B, 73C) of a point scattering function for light sources of the light source layer; Y
    combine (74, 94) contributions to the pattern of effective luminance of the components (73A, 73B, 73C).
  6. 6. A method according to claim 5 wherein each of the components (73A, 73B, 73C) is a Gaussian component.
  7. 7. A method according to claim 5 or 6 wherein the point dispersion function is the sum of all components of the plurality of components.
  8. 8. A method according to one of claims 5 to 7, wherein each of the components is represented in the first spatial resolution.
  9. 9. A method according to one of claims 5 to 7, wherein two or more of the components are represented in spatial resolutions distinct from each other.
  10. 10. A method according to claim 8 or 9 comprising, before combining the contributions to the effective luminance pattern, increasing the spatial resolution of the contribution made by each of the components to the second spatial resolution.
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  11. 11. A method according to claim 5 or 6, wherein the combination of contributions to the effective luminance pattern comprises the application of a mathematical inverse of an operation applied to decompose the point dispersion function into the plurality of components.
  12. 12. A method according to any of claims 5 to 11, wherein the determination of a contribution to the effective luminance pattern for each of the plurality of components of a point dispersion function is performed on a different support zone for each of two of the components of the point dispersion function.
  13. 13. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein determining the effective luminance pattern of the light source layer comprises:
    for each of a plurality of light sources (33) of the light source layer (32):
    determine separately (84) contributions to the effective luminance pattern of higher order and lower order parts of a set of point dispersion function values; Y
    combine (94) the contributions to the pattern of effective luminance of the punctuation function values of higher order and lower order.
  14. 14. A method according to claim 13 wherein the values of the point dispersion function comprise 16-bit words and the upper and lower order parts of the set of values of the point dispersion function comprise 8-bit words.
  15. 15. A method according to claim 13 or claim 14, wherein the determination of the contributions to the effective luminance pattern of the upper and lower order parts of the set of values of the point dispersion function is performed over an area of larger support for the lower order parts of the set of values of the point dispersion function than for the higher order parts of the set of values of the point dispersion function.
  16. 16. A method according to claim 15, wherein the determination of the contributions to the effective luminance pattern of the lower order parts of the set of values of the point dispersion function comprises, separately, the determination of a contribution for each from:
    the intersection of the support zone of the upper and lower order parts of the values of the point dispersion function; Y
    the part of the support zone for the lower order parts of the point dispersion function values that is outside the support zone for the higher order parts of the point dispersion function values.
  17. 17. A method according to one of claims 13 to 16 which comprises identifying a support zone for the higher order parts of the values of the point dispersion function by determining a radius R beyond which the higher order part of the values of the point dispersion function is equal to zero.
  18. 18. A method according to any one of claims 13 to 17 comprising the determination (88) of the contribution to the effective luminance pattern of the lower order parts of the set of values of the point dispersion function in different resolutions inside and outside the support area of the higher order parts of the values of the point dispersion function.
  19. 19. A method according to claim 18 comprising the determination (90, 92) of the contribution to the effective luminance pattern of the lower order parts of the set of values of the point dispersion function at a higher resolution within the zone of support of the higher order parts of the values of the point dispersion function and at a lower resolution outside the support area of the higher order parts of the values of the point dispersion function.
  20. 20. A computer-readable medium containing computer instructions that, when executed by a processor, causes the processor to execute a method in accordance with any one of claims 1 to 19.
  21. 21. An apparatus (40) for controlling a screen (30) comprising a layer of light sources (32) and a visual presentation layer (34), said apparatus comprising (40):
    a controller (40) configured to:
    determine first excitation values for the light sources (33) of the light source layer (32) from image data (48);
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    determine (56) an effective luminance pattern of the light source layer (32) corresponding to the first excitation values, the effective luminance pattern representing an estimated luminance in the visual presentation layer resulting from the application of the first values of excitation to the light sources (33) of the light source layer (32); Y
    determine (62) second excitation values for pixels of the visual presentation layer (34) based on at least the image data (48) and the effective luminance pattern;
    a first interface (44A) connectable to the light source layer (32) to apply the first excitation values to the light source layer (32); Y
    a second interface (44B) connectable to the visual presentation layer (34) to apply the second excitation values to the visual presentation layer (34),
    characterized in that:
    the controller (40) is configured to: determine the effective luminance pattern in a first spatial resolution less than a spatial resolution of the visual presentation layer (34); and increase (58) the spatial resolution of the effective luminance pattern from the first spatial resolution to a second spatial resolution corresponding to the resolution of the visual presentation layer (34) before determining the second excitation values, wherein the Increase (58) of the spatial resolution comprises performing an interpolation on data defining the effective luminance pattern in the first spatial resolution.
  22. 22. The apparatus according to claim 21 comprising a layer of light sources (32) connected to the first interface (44A) and a visual presentation layer (34) connected to the second interface (44B).
  23. 23. The apparatus according to claim 22 wherein the layer of light sources (32) comprises a plurality of individually controllable light sources (33).
  24. 24. The apparatus according to claim 22 wherein the light source layer (32) comprises a matrix set of light emitting diodes (33).
  25. 25. The apparatus according to claim 22 wherein the light source layer (32) comprises a light source and a modulator arranged to modulate the light emitted by the light source.
  26. 26. The apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 25, wherein the visual presentation layer (34) comprises a transmission type modulator having a plurality of individually controllable pixels (35).
  27. 27. The apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 26 wherein the visual presentation layer (34) comprises a liquid crystal visual display panel, LCD.
  28. 28. The apparatus according to any of claims 21 to 25 wherein a resolution of the visual presentation layer (34) is at least 4 times greater than the first spatial resolution.
  29. 29. The apparatus according to claim 28 wherein the resolution of the visual presentation layer (34) is at least 8 times greater than the first spatial resolution in each of two dimensions.
  30. 30. The apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 29 comprising a means for increasing the spatial resolution of the effective luminance pattern by interpolating on data defining the effective luminance pattern.
  31. 31. The apparatus according to any of claims 21 to 30 comprising a data memory (46) accessible to the controller and containing information defining a plurality of components of a point dispersion function for the light sources (33) of the light source layer (32), wherein the controller (40) is configured to evaluate separately and combine the contributions to the effective luminance pattern corresponding to each of the components.
  32. 32. The apparatus according to claim 31, wherein each of the components is a Gaussian component.
  33. 33. The apparatus according to claim 32, comprising a hardware processor (42) that provides a function that operates directly on the Gaussian components.
  34. 34. The apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 33, comprising an ascending sampler to increase the spatial resolution of the contributions to the effective luminance pattern corresponding to each
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    one of the components for the second spatial resolution.
  35. 35. The apparatus according to any one of claims 21 to 34 comprising a means for determining a component of the effective luminance pattern corresponding to the higher order parts of data and a component of the effective luminance pattern corresponding to the lower order parts of the data.
  36. 36. The apparatus according to claim 35, wherein the means for determining an effective luminance pattern component corresponding to higher order parts of data comprises computer instructions that cause a controller processor to perform operations primarily in the 8-bit domain. .
  37. 37. The apparatus according to claim 35 or 36, wherein the means for determining a component of the effective luminance pattern corresponding to the lower order parts of data comprises computer instructions that cause a controller processor to perform operations primarily in the domain of 8 bits
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