ES2507465B2 - System of location of the section with earth fault in two-phase railway power lines with autotransformers - Google Patents

System of location of the section with earth fault in two-phase railway power lines with autotransformers Download PDF

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Publication number
ES2507465B2
ES2507465B2 ES201430495A ES201430495A ES2507465B2 ES 2507465 B2 ES2507465 B2 ES 2507465B2 ES 201430495 A ES201430495 A ES 201430495A ES 201430495 A ES201430495 A ES 201430495A ES 2507465 B2 ES2507465 B2 ES 2507465B2
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section
conductor
autotransformers
autotransformer
intensity
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ES201430495A
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ES2507465A1 (en
Inventor
Jesús SERRANO ÁLVAREZ
Máximo LÓPEZ TOLEDO
Carlos Antonio Platero Gaona
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Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
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Universidad Politecnica de Madrid
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Abstract

Track location system with earth fault in railway power lines. # Applicable to rail power systems with two-phase conductor structure (2) and (3) in alternating current with autotransformers (4), the invention comprises: # - A sensor assembly (5) for measuring the incoming intensity in the winding of the autotransformer connected to the supply conductor (2) or (3) and the voltage of the supply conductor (2) or (3) of the railway laying. # - An analyzer device (6) that compares the intensity and voltage measured by each sensor assembly (5), and that is connected to a power supply substation (7). # - A controller (8) in the substation (7) that receives the signals from each analyzer device and, determines in which sub-section between autotransformers (4) and in which conductor, (2) or (3), the ground fault (1) has occurred. # - A presentation team (9 ) that picks up the output signal and shows to the results to an operator.

Description

     LOCALIZATION SYSTEM OF THE LANDED LAND SECTION ON BIPASSIC RAILWAY ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY LINES WITH AUTOTRANSFORMERS 5 DESCRIPTION OBJECT OF THE INVENTION 10 The present invention patent aims to present a new system for locating the section with ground fault in lines of railway power supply, with two-phase structure of conductors in alternating current with autotransformers, with which it is possible to immediately identify the sub-section of the line connected to a substation in which a ground fault has occurred and the conductor in which it has happened, allowing to quickly isolate said sub-section and driver without affecting the rest. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 20 In high-speed rail lines it is routinely being used (to have, among others, the advantages of greater power transmission to trains and a lower voltage drop with distance to the power substation) a power supply system with two conductors, one positive, with alternating voltage with positive polarity with respect to 25 earth, and another negative, with alternating voltage with negative polarity also with respect to earth, although the train is fed between the positive conductor and The rail attached to the ground. In this system, at regular intervals within each section of the line, several connected autotransformers are installed, one end of them to the positive conductor, the central socket to the rail connected to the ground, and the other end of the autotransformer to the negative conductor. 30 If in a classic single-conductor power supply system and return to ground most of the faults are caused by a short circuit between the power and ground conductor, also in the two-phase system most of them are produced by short circuit between the    positive conductor and earth or the negative conductor and earth. However, the processes of detection, location and elimination of an electrical fault are much more complicated in the two-phase systems plus earth, since the three conductors are connected in each sub-section through autotransformers. The reason for this difficulty is that, the impedance of the fault line measured from the substation in a single conductor system, 5 is linear with the distance at which the fault occurred, and the position of said lack; while in the two-phase systems with autotransformers the variation of said impedance with the distance to the fault is not linear, but the diagram is curved in each sub-section between autotransformers, reaching just a lower value in them. According to this diagram, the distance to the fault cannot be determined by a certain value of the impedance, so it is very important to identify the sub-segment between autotransformers and the positive or negative conductor in which the ground fault has occurred . DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The system object of the present invention allows to quickly know the sub-section and the conductor in which a ground fault has occurred, and from a control center it can be isolated immediately by means of connection and disconnection devices, and thus proceed to 20 restore service to the unaffected sub-sections through their electrical reconnection. The location system of the section with earth faults in lines or railway feeding systems with two-phase structure of conductors in alternating current with autotransformers comprises: 25 - A sensor device for each of the intermediate autotransformers, which measures the incoming intensity in the winding of the autotransformer connected to the power conductor, and the voltage of the power conductor of the railway line at the point of connection with said autotransformer. In the event that the line fed by the railway substation only has two 30 sections (and therefore a single intermediate autotransformer), the system needs to install a sensor device in the final autotransformer in addition to that corresponding to the intermediate autotransformer. - One analyzer device for each intermediate autotransformer that compares the    Lag between the intensity and voltage measured by each sensor set, and processing these measurements sends the result to the power supply substation. Like the sensor assembly, an analyzer device is needed in the final autotransformer in case of only two sub-sections. - A controller in the substation that receives the signals from each analyzer device 5 and, through them, determines in which sub-segment between autotransformers and in which conductor, the ground fault has occurred. - A presentation device connected to the controller that collects the output signal from it and displays the results to an operator. 10 The sensor device assembly obtains signals proportional to the intensity that enters the winding of each autotransformer and to the voltage in the connection of the supply conductor. In case of failure, the analyzer sends an incident to the controller, which in turn indicates in the presentation team the type and the section where the fault occurred. 15 DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS To complement the description that is going to be carried out below and in order to help 20 to a better understanding of the characteristics of the invention, the present descriptive report is attached, forming an integral part thereof, a set of drawings in where, for illustrative and non-limiting purposes, the following has been represented: Figure 1 shows a scheme of the location system of the section with earth faults in 25 railway power lines fed with a two-phase conductor system with autotransformers, object of the present invention patent. Figure 2.- shows the linear relationship of the impedance seen from the substation as a function of the distance to the fault in the single-conductor rail feeding systems. Figure 3.- shows the non-linear relation of the impedance seen from the substation as a function of the distance to the fault in the two rail feeding systems    conductors with autotransformers, to which the present invention is applicable. Figure 4 shows a preferred embodiment of the location system of the section with earth faults in railway power lines fed with a two-phase conductor system with autotransformers, object of the present invention patent. 5 Figure 5.- shows a possible scheme to show the result obtained on the display of the presentation equipment when a fault occurs between the positive power conductor and ground in the sub-section between the second autotransformer and the final autotransformer of the section. 10 Figure 6.- shows a diagram of the railway section fed from a substation in case of normal operation with a train load. Figure 7.- shows the angle of about 180º that forms the incoming intensity to the autotransformer with the voltage in the positive conductor at the point of connection to the autotransformer, in the case of normal operation. Figure 8 shows the angle of about 90 ° that forms the incoming intensity to the autotransformer with the voltage in the positive conductor at the point of connection to the autotransformer in the case of a fault between the positive conductor and ground. Figure 9 shows the angle of about 270º that forms the incoming intensity to the autotransformer with the voltage in the positive conductor at the point of connection to the autotransformer, in the case of a fault between the negative conductor and ground. Figure 10 shows another preferred embodiment of the location system of the section with earth faults in railway power lines fed with a two-phase conductor system with autotransformers, in the case that there are only two sub-sections in the section fed from the substation. 30    PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION As can be seen in the aforementioned figures, the system of the invention applicable in the location of the grounded section of power lines in rail networks, includes the corresponding power line with the ground conductor (1 ), the positive conductor (2) and the negative conductor (3), including the autotransformers (4), and establishing among these those considered sub-sections A, B, C, so that each autotransformer (4) incorporates a sensor device (5) and an analyzer device (6), all related to the corresponding power substation (7) of the railway section to be controlled, and where a controller (8) is provided to obtain the result and a presentation team (9) that presents the results to the operator. According to Figure 4, where the preferred embodiment is shown, the sensor device (5), in each case, comprises an intensity transformer (10) and a voltage transformer (11), such that the transformer of intensity (10) is installed at the positive end of the autotransformer (4) to measure the current entering the autotransformer from the positive conductor, while the voltage transformer (11) is installed in such a way that it will measure the conductor voltage positive feed (2). As an analyzer device (6), a directional overcurrent relay will be used, which acts when a ground fault (1) occurs, with certain conditions being met. 25 The current transformer (10) and the voltage transformer (11) are connected to the directional overcurrent relay, that is to say to the analyzer device (6), so that from each relay two outputs are connected to the controller (8) located in the substation itself (7). The controller (8) is a PLC programmable logic controller that receives the signals from the 30 different relays or analyzer devices (6) and by means of them determines in which sub-section between autotransformers (4) and in which conductor the ground fault has occurred ( 1), with the particularity that the presentation equipment (9) is a computer that, connected to the controller (8), collects the output signal from it and presents results on the screen to a    operator. When a short circuit fault occurs between one of the conductors and ground, the current transformer (10), located in the autotransformer (4), which delimits the sub-section in which the fault has occurred, measures high intensity values that would act at 5 relay that constitutes the analyzer device (6), although this is parameterized to only act in a directional way, when the angle that forms the intensity measured with the voltage in the positive conductor, measured by the voltage transformer (11), forms An angle of approximately 90º or 270º, notably less than or greater than that measured in normal conditions without fail, which is around 180º. 10 By connecting the relay or analyzer device (6) so that it sends the activation signal to the controller (8) by two different outputs when the angle is approximately 90º or approximately 270º, the controller (8) will deduce if it is a fault of the positive or negative conductor, and depending on which analyzers (6) or relays themselves are the ones that receive the activation signal, it will deduce that the position of the missing sub-section is that between the activated analyzers or relays (6). If the sub-section is initial or final, the controller will only receive the activation signal of a single relay or analyzer (6), since it does not have these connected, either to the substation or to the final autotransformer. 20 The results obtained by the controller (8) are notified to the operator on the computer screen that forms the presentation equipment (9), as shown in Figure 5. The analyzer device compares the module and the module at all times. phase of the intensity and voltage supplied by the corresponding sensor device. In normal operation, with the load demanded by a train (12) fed between the positive conductor and ground (Figure 6), the angle that forms the incoming intensity to the autotransformer Ia with the voltage in the positive conductor at the point of connection to the Vc autotransformer is approximately 180º (Figure 7). 30 When a ground fault occurs in a certain sub-section, there is a very strong and sudden increase in the intensity module Ia that circulates through the winding of the autotransformers that delimit said sub-section, also varying the    phase that each forms with the positive supply voltage Vc of said autotransformers. In particular, if the fault occurs between the positive conductor and ground, a notable decrease occurs, approximately at 90º, in the angle that forms the winding intensity that enters from the positive conductor with the positive voltage, going from about 180º to about 90º (Figure 8). Reciprocally, if the fault occurs between the negative conductor and ground, there is an appreciable increase, of approximately 90 °, between the angle that forms the winding intensity that enters from the positive conductor Ia with the same positive voltage Vc, changing from the initials 180º to 270º (Figure 9). In the first case the analyzer will send a signal to the driver of incidence in the positive conductor, and in the second of incidence in the negative conductor. When the controller receives the incidents, depending on the analyzers in the autotransformers from which it has received such incidents, it will send a signal to the substation presentation equipment (and subsidiary to a control center), so that said equipment shows a operator the sub-section and driver in which the ground fault has occurred. Thanks to the system thus described, this information can be obtained immediately, and thus make the isolation decisions of only the area with a ground fault. 20 In the case of an installation with two sub-sections measured in a single winding of the autotransformer, as shown in Figure 10, there are only two sub-sections A and B powered by the electrical substation (7). In this case it is also installed, in the final autotransformer (4), that is, the furthest from substation 25 (7), the sensor device (5) and the analyzer device (6) connected to the controller (8) of the substation (7), in the same way that it is installed in the intermediate autotransformer (4). Likewise, the sensor device (5) is formed by an intensity transformer (10) and a voltage transformer (11), and a directional overcurrent relay will also be used as an analyzer device (6). 30 In this case, when a fault occurs in the first sub-section A, only the corresponding output of the intermediate autotransformer relay (4) will be activated, indicating fault, while if the fault is in the second section B, in addition to the output of the autotransformer relay    intermediate (4), the corresponding output of the final autotransformer relay (4) will be activated. 5  

Claims

         CLAIMS 1.- System for locating the section with a ground fault in railway power supply lines, where said lines or power supply lines have a two-phase structure of conductors (2 and 3) in alternating current with autotransformers (4), in addition 5 of the earth conductor (1), in which each autotransformer (4) incorporates a sensor device (5) and an analyzer device (6), to compare the incoming intensity in the winding of the autotransformer (4) connected to the power conductor and the voltage of the power conductor of the railway line at the point of connection with said autotransformer (4); further comprising a controller (8) in the substation 10 (7) itself, to receive the signals of each analyzer device (6) and determine in which sub-section established between the autotransformers (4), and in which conductor (2 or 3), ground fault has occurred, characterized in that it includes a presentation equipment (9) connected to the controller (8), to collect the output signal from it and show the results to the operator, having provided that the information of the corresponding section with defect, 15 provided by comparing the angle that forms the intensity and voltage measured in each autotransformer (4) and the module of the intensities in the autotransformers and where in addition the information of the sub-section that is missing from the ground, is provided by comparison of the angle that forms the intensity and the voltage measured in each autotransformer (4) and the value higher than the normal operation of the 20 intensity module d in the autotransformers that delimit said sub-section. 2. System for locating the section with earth fault in railway power supply lines, according to claim 1, characterized in that the information of which positive (2) or negative (3) conductor is in earth fault is provided when the angle between the measured voltage and current is approximately 90º or 270º respectively, while in normal operation, without defect, it is approximately 180º. 30    
ES201430495A 2014-04-03 2014-04-03 System of location of the section with earth fault in two-phase railway power lines with autotransformers Active ES2507465B2 (en)

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US8913518B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2014-12-16 Intel Corporation Enhanced node B, user equipment and methods for discontinuous reception in inter-ENB carrier aggregation
US9191828B2 (en) 2012-08-03 2015-11-17 Intel Corporation High efficiency distributed device-to-device (D2D) channel access
ES2611829A1 (en) * 2016-10-13 2017-05-10 Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Localization system for the position of ground faults on bipassical railway electric power supply lines with autotransformers
EP3364201A1 (en) * 2017-02-17 2018-08-22 General Electric Technology GmbH Method of identifying a fault in a railway electrification system

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