ES2401287T3 - Ionic arc coating apparatus - Google Patents

Ionic arc coating apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
ES2401287T3
ES2401287T3 ES06120947T ES06120947T ES2401287T3 ES 2401287 T3 ES2401287 T3 ES 2401287T3 ES 06120947 T ES06120947 T ES 06120947T ES 06120947 T ES06120947 T ES 06120947T ES 2401287 T3 ES2401287 T3 ES 2401287T3
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Spain
Prior art keywords
arc
bombardment
deposition
arc evaporation
evaporation source
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Active
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ES06120947T
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Spanish (es)
Inventor
Hiroshi Tamagaki
Hirofumi Fujii
Tadao Okimoto
Ryoji Miyamoto
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Kobe Steel Ltd
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Kobe Steel Ltd
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Priority to JP2005301433 priority
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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/22Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the process of coating
    • C23C14/24Vacuum evaporation
    • C23C14/32Vacuum evaporation by explosion; by evaporation and subsequent ionisation of the vapours, e.g. ion-plating
    • C23C14/325Electric arc evaporation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32009Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
    • H01J37/32055Arc discharge
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/3266Magnetic control means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32733Means for moving the material to be treated
    • H01J37/32752Means for moving the material to be treated for moving the material across the discharge
    • H01J37/32761Continuous moving
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2237/00Discharge tubes exposing object to beam, e.g. for analysis treatment, etching, imaging
    • H01J2237/02Details
    • H01J2237/0203Protection arrangements
    • H01J2237/0206Extinguishing, preventing or controlling unwanted discharges

Abstract

An ionic arc coating apparatus, comprising: a vacuum chamber (1); a mobile member (2) for moving a loaded substrate into said vacuum chamber (1), with mobile dichommember being (2) provided within said vacuum chamber (1); an arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) to irradiate evaporated metal ions by arc discharge with the surface of said substrate to clean the surface, said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) being provided within said vacuum chamber (1 ); a plurality of arc evaporation sources for deposition (7A) for depositing metal-evaporated ions by arc discharge on the surface of said substrate, said arc evaporation sources for deposition (7A) provided within said vacuum chamber (1), characterized in that said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) is formed such that the evaporation surface area thereof is greater than the evaporation surface area of a poor evaporation source for deposition (7A) having the larger evaporation surface area between a plurality of said arc evaporation sources for deposition (7A).

Description

Ionic arc coating apparatus

5 Background of the invention

(Field of the invention)

The present invention relates to an ionic arc coating apparatus with improved metal ion bombardment stability.

(Description of related technique)

In recent years, the deposition of hard film (TiN, TiAlN, CrN, etc.) by PVD (physical deposition in phase

Steam 15) has been made on a substrate (subject to film deposition) in order to improve the wear resistance of a cutting tool or improve the tribological characteristics of a sliding surface of a mechanical part. The industrial technique commonly used for such a hard film deposition is the ionic arc coating (hereinafter referred to as "AIP") that evaporates a film deposition material by vacuum arc discharge to form a film on the surface. surface of a substrate, and an apparatus for performing said film deposition is called an ionic arc coating apparatus (hereinafter referred to as "AIP apparatus").

The AIP apparatus comprises, as shown in Figure 10, a vacuum chamber 1 and a rotary table 2 arranged on the bottom of the vacuum chamber 1, so that the upper surface of the table is

25 horizontal. The rotary table 2 is rotated by a rotating shaft 3, and a plurality of planetary trees 4 protruding from the upper surface of the rotary table 2 also rotate around its own axis by means of a planetary gear mechanism provided in the rotary table 2 A substrate support 5 for supporting a substrate is mounted so that it can be detached on each planetary shaft 4. Therefore, each substrate support 5 rotates around its own axis while being moved horizontally by the rotation of the rotary table 2, and the substrate such as a tool, a die or a mechanical part held by this substrate support 5 rotates around its own axis by the rotation of the substrate support 5 while circling by the rotation of the rotary table 2. It apply a negative voltage to the rotary table 2 by means of a polarizing power source (not shown), and this negative voltage is applied, through the support of its deal 5, to the substrate loaded on it.

A group of arc evaporation sources for deposition 7 composed of three evaporation sources 7A arranged in line at substantially fixed intervals in the direction of the height of the vacuum chamber 1 is provided on the inner surface of the side wall of the vacuum chamber 1, and evaporation sources 7A are connected to negative electrodes of arc energy sources 8, respectively, with the positive electrodes thereof connected to vacuum chamber 1. In Figure 10 (B), indicated at 21 there is a pumping hole to evacuate the vacuum chamber, 22 is a gas supply pipe for supplying a process gas such as nitrogen or oxygen (omitted in Figure 10 (A)), and 23 is a door of opening and closing of the vacuum chamber.

A procedure for forming a functional film on the surface of a substrate using the AIP apparatus will be briefly described. The substrate is loaded into the substrate support 5 and placed on the rotary table 2, the

The vacuum chamber 1 is evacuated, the substrate is heated by a heater (not shown) provided inside the vacuum chamber 1 and then metal ion bombardment is carried out (hereinafter referred to simply as " bombardment ”) to improve the adhesion of the film to be formed. The bombardment is a process to irradiate the applied substrate with a negative voltage of not less than several hundred V (generally, 600 to 1000 V) with evaporated metal ions from the evaporation sources 7A to strip the surface layer of the substrate by irradiation High energy ionic or to form a mixed layer of irradiation ions and the substrate.

Once the bombing is finished, metal ion vapor is generated from evaporation sources 7A and is irradiated to the substrate, and the voltage to be applied to the substrate is adjusted to approximately 0 to -300 V, which starts

55 the deposition of the film. Since a film to be formed by the AIP generally consists of a compound of a metal such as TiN, TiCN, CrN, TiAlN, TiC or CrON with nitrogen, carbon, oxygen or the like, process gases such as nitrogen, oxygen and hydrocarbon they are introduced into the vacuum chamber 1 individually or in combination thereof during the deposition of the film. For example, the introduction of nitrogen with Ti evaporation results in the deposition of a TiN film (titanium nitride).

Since the substrate loaded on the substrate support 5 performs revolution and rotation by rotating the rotary table 2 in the bombardment and deposition of the film, a uniform ionic irradiation can be made to the entire substrate.

After the deposition of the film, cooling is performed, the vacuum chamber 1 is opened, and the substrate with a film formed on it is extracted with the substrate support 5 to recover the substrate with the film formed after deposition. of the movie.

Although the above-mentioned AIP apparatus performs the bombardment and deposition of the functional film by using the arc evaporation source group for deposition 7, the Japanese patent open to

Public inspection No. Hei 4-276062 describes an AIP apparatus comprising an arc evaporation source for deposition and an arc evaporation source for bombardment in the same way as this, which are provided within a vacuum chamber. According to this apparatus, since high melting point metal or large mass metal can be used as the evaporation material for the arc evaporation source for uniform bombardment, in use of low melting metal (for example, TiAl alloy) as the evaporation material for the arc evaporation source for deposition, the problem that the low melting metal disables the effective bombing treatment due to its reduced ionization ratio, and the deposition problem of drops on the surface of the substrate can be resolved.

It is known that there is a minimum arc current to stably operate the evaporation source by

15 arc for deposition and the source of arc evaporation for bombardment, regardless of the size of the evaporation surface. This minimum current varies depending on the evaporation material and the gas atmosphere. When a material such as Ti or TiAl alloy is used as the evaporation material for hard film deposition, generally, a current of at least about 80 A is needed in an environment in which the gas is barely introduced or in an environment to carry out bombardment, and a smaller current value than this makes unstable arc discharge. In the bombing process, metal ions are generated from an evaporation source in a state in which a negative voltage of not less than several hundred V (in general, approximately -600 to -1000 V) is applied to the substratum. However, since the lower limit of the arc current to the evaporation source is defined for stable operation as described above, the amount of irradiation of metal ions also inevitably reaches a certain amount.

25 Therefore, there is the following problem in the bombing.

Stable arc discharge requires a greater amount of energy input to the substrate even with a minimum current value and, particularly, in a substrate with small thermal capacity such as a drill with a small diameter, the substrate temperature rises rapidly. To prevent such excessive temperature rise, the process conditions must be controlled in a short-term unit, so that the bombardment time is adjusted to a short period to repeat the bombardment with cooling interval. Therefore, controllability is bad, and productivity is reduced accordingly.

In addition, as a source of arc evaporation, two or more evaporation sources of relatively small size with a diameter of approximately 50 to 180 mm, typically with a diameter of approximately 100 to 150 mm, are frequently used. However, since the simultaneous operation of a series of evaporation sources requires a large-capacity polarization energy source, and causes the loss of a large number of metal ions by irradiation, the problem of frequent incidence of abnormal discharge occurs. on the substrate, in addition to the increase in substrate overtemperature. Since the polarizing power source temporarily stops the output in the event of abnormal discharge, an accurate bombardment process cannot be executed if abnormal discharge frequently occurs during the course of short-term bombardment.

JP 04 276062 A describes a source of vaporization for coating connected to a source of

45 arc energy and a printed substrate with a bias voltage from a polarization energy source and applied with a negative potential that is provided in a vacuum vessel to constitute the arc deposition device.

Summary of the Invention

From the point of view of the aforementioned problems, the present invention has an object to provide an AIP apparatus that hardly causes an overheating or abnormal discharge to the substrate at the time of bombardment and, therefore, has a controllability of the satisfactory process.

In accordance with the present invention, an ionic arc coating apparatus is provided as defined in claim 1.

Additional aspects and features of the invention are described in the dependent claims.

The AIP apparatus according to the present invention comprises a vacuum chamber; a mobile member for moving a loaded substrate within said vacuum chamber, said mobile member being provided within said vacuum chamber; an arc evaporation source for bombardment to irradiate evaporated metal ions by arc discharge with the surface of said substrate to clean the surface, said arc evaporation source for bombardment provided within said vacuum chamber; a plurality of sources of arc evaporation for deposition to deposit evaporated metal ions by arc discharge on the surface of said substrate, said arc evaporation sources for deposition provided within

said vacuum chamber, characterized in that said arc evaporation source for bombardment is formed such that the evaporation surface area thereof is greater than the evaporation surface area of an arc evaporation source for deposition having the largest evaporation surface area between a plurality of said arc evaporation sources for deposition.

5 According to this AIP apparatus, since the length of the vacuum chamber in the vertical direction is longer than that of the arc evaporation source for deposition, the amount of irradiation of metal ions per unit length in the vertical direction of the arc evaporation source for bombardment, with respect to a minimum current value necessary for stabilization of the arc discharge, can be reduced, compared to the same amount of ionic irradiation of the arc evaporation source for deposition Accordingly, the amount of heat input to the substrate and, therefore, the increase in overtemperature or abnormal discharge on the substrate can be suppressed at the time of bombardment, which results in improved process controllability. .

The length in the direction of the vacuum chamber height of the arc evaporation source for bombardment is preferably three times greater than the length in the same direction of the arc evaporation source for deposition, or preferably 0, 5 to 2.0 m.

As a source of arc evaporation for deposition, one that typically has a circular evaporation surface, with a diameter of about 50 to 180 mm, typically about 100 to 150 mm, is often adapted. Therefore, using an evaporation source that is three times the length of the arc evaporation source for deposition or a length of not less than 0.5 m for bombardment, the amount of irradiation of metal ions in the minimum arc current value for stable operation can be reduced to approximately 1/3 per width of the area of irradiation in the direction

25 of the height of the vacuum chamber, compared to a case using the arc evaporation source for deposition for bombardment, and the amount of heat input can also be reduced to the same level. The evaporation material (target) becomes difficult to manufacture if the length of the evaporation source exceeds 2 m. Therefore, the length is preferably controlled to no more than 2 m.

The arc evaporation source for bombardment preferably includes a target formed of an evaporation material, with an electromagnetic coil formed along in the direction of the height of the vacuum chamber that is attached to the rear side of the target. Said electromagnetic coil allows the exploration of the arc point in a form of racing circuit along in the direction of the evaporation surface length, resulting in the uniform supply of metal ions to the substrate at the time of bombardment. Further,

35 allows uniform wear of the evaporation surface of the target from an economic point of view.

Like the substrate mentioned above, a drill with a small diameter is suitable. In accordance with the AIP apparatus of the present invention, the cutting failure that would be caused by the softening of the cutting edge can be prevented, and satisfactory cutting performance can be guaranteed.

According to the AIP apparatus of the present invention, the amount of irradiation of metal ions per unit length in the vertical direction of the arc evaporation source for bombardment, with respect to a minimum current value necessary for the stabilization of arc discharge can be reduced, compared to the same amount of ionic irradiation of the arc evaporation source for deposition. Therefore the quantity

45 of heat input to the substrate and, therefore, the increase in overtemperature or the abnormal discharge in the substrate can be suppressed at the time of bombardment, resulting in improved process controllability.

In addition, from a more essential point of view, a means of solving the problems according to the present invention is to adjust the evaporation source area of an arc evaporation source for bombardment larger than that of an evaporation source by bow for deposition. This structure is capable of reducing the amount of metal ion irradiation per unit area of the substrate by means of the arc evaporation source for bombardment, compared to that of the arc evaporation source for deposition. Accordingly, the amount of heat input to the substrate and, therefore, the increase in overtemperature or the abnormal discharge on the substrate can be suppressed at the time of the bombing at which the current value

The minimum required for stabilization of the arc discharge is relatively large.

Brief description of the drawings

Figures 1 (A) and (B) schematically illustrate an AIP apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention, in which (A) is a vertical sectional side view of a vacuum chamber, and (B ) is a plan view of it taken from the direction of arrow A of (A); Figures 2 (A) and (B) schematically illustrate an AIP apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention, in which (A) is a vertical sectional side view of a vacuum chamber, and (B ) is a plan view of it taken from the direction of arrow A of (A);

Figures 3 (A) and (B) schematically illustrate an AIP apparatus according to a third embodiment of the present invention, in which (A) is a vertical sectional side view of a vacuum chamber, and ( B) is

a plan view of it taken from the direction of arrow A of (A); Figures 4 (A) and (B) schematically illustrate an AIP apparatus according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention, in which (A) is a vertical sectional side view of a vacuum chamber, and (B) is a plan view of it taken from the direction of arrow A of (A);

5 Figure 5 schematically illustrates an AIP apparatus according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention, and is a vertical sectional side view of a vacuum chamber; Figure 6 is a perspective view of an arc evaporation source for bombardment having a rectangular shape in plan view; Figure 7 is a perspective view of a source of arc evaporation for bombardment having a racing circuit shape in plan view; Figures 8 (A) and (B) illustrate an arc evaporation source for bombardment provided with an electromagnetic coil, in which (A) is a front view of the arc evaporation source for bombardment and (B) is a section view thereof taken along line AA of (A); Figures 9 (A) and (B) illustrate an arc evaporation source for bombardment provided with a coil

15 electromagnetic and a cylindrical target, in which (A) is a frontal view of the arc evaporation source for bombardment and (B) is a sectional view of it taken along line AA of (A) ; and Figures 10 (A) and (B) schematically illustrate a conventional AIP apparatus, in which (A) is a vertical sectional side view of a vacuum chamber, and (B) is a plan view of the same taken from the direction of arrow A of (A).

Description of preferred embodiments

Embodiments of the AIP apparatus according to the present invention will now be described in reference to the drawings.

Figures 1 (A) and (B) illustrate an AIP apparatus according to a first embodiment, and the same reference numbers are assigned to the same members as in the conventional AIP apparatus shown in Figures 10 (A) and (B).

This AIP apparatus comprises a vacuum chamber 1, and a rotary table 2 (corresponding to the "movable member" of the present invention) is provided at the bottom of the vacuum chamber 1 so that the upper surface of the table is horizontal. The rotary table 2 is adapted so that it rotates a rotating shaft 3 whose central axis is arranged along the height direction (which can be called "longitudinal direction") of the vacuum chamber 1, and planetary trees 4 protruding from the upper surface of the rotary table 2 rotate around its own axis by means of a planetary gear mechanism provided inside the rotary table 2. A substrate support 5 for supporting a substrate is mounted so that it can be detached on each of the planetary trees 4. Therefore, each substrate support 5 moves horizontally in a vertical direction with respect to the longitudinal direction (which can be called "lateral direction") by rotating the rotary table 2, and also rotates around its own axis, and the substrate held by the substrate support 5 while spinning by rotating the rotary table 2. A voltage Negative is applied to the rotary table 2 by a polarizing energy source (not shown), and this negative voltage is then applied through the substrate support 5 to a substrate loaded on it. The rotary table 2 may not be provided with any planetary gear mechanism so as not to rotate the substrate supports,

or it can be adapted to directly place the substrate on the rotary table without using the substrate holder.

A plurality (three in the figure) of evaporation sources 7A are arranged, as a group of arc evaporation sources for deposition 7, on the inner surface of the side wall of the vacuum chamber 1 substantially at fixed intervals in the direction of the height of the vacuum chamber 1. On the other hand, an evaporation source 9A having a rectangular shape in plan view is arranged, as a group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment 9, on the inner surface of the wall side opposite the group of arc evaporation sources for deposition 7. Evaporation sources 7A and 9A are connected, respectively, to negative electrodes of arc voltages 8 and 10, the positive electrodes thereof being connected to the vacuum chamber 1. Otherwise, the anode electrode members may be provided in the

55 near the evaporation sources 7A and 9A to connect the positive electrodes of the arc energy sources to them.

As evaporation sources 7A of the arc evaporation source group for deposition 7, those that typically have a circular evaporation surface, with a diameter varying between about φ 50 and 180 mm, typically varying between φ 100 and 150 mm, They are used frequently. Considering that the metal ion vapor evaporated from the evaporation sources spreads slightly, the evaporation sources 7A are arranged at intervals of approximately 1.5 to 2.5 times the diameter of the evaporation surface area. A vacuum arc discharge is generated in evaporation sources 7A with an arc current generally from 50 to 300 A, more generally, from about 80 to 150 A and an arc voltage of about 15 to

65 40 V to evaporate targets (evaporation materials) attached to evaporation sources 7A, so that metal ions are irradiated and deposited on the substrates.

On the other hand, the evaporation source 9A used as a group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment 9 is rectangular in plan view with the long sides being arranged longitudinally and the short sides being arranged laterally, as shown in the figure 6, and the evaporation surface of a target T which is an evaporation material is also rectangular in plan view. The evaporation source 9A is adapted so that metal bombardment ions are supplied by an evaporation source 9A in a longitudinal area of metal ion irradiation that can be treated by a plurality of evaporation sources 7A of the evaporation source group by arc for deposition 7. The evaporation source 9A is arranged in opposition to the substrate within the vacuum chamber 1, and the upper and lower ends of its long side are located in positions corresponding to the upper end of the upper evaporation source 7A of the arc evaporation source for deposition 7 and the lower end of the lower evaporation source 7A, respectively. The lateral length (of the short side) of the evaporation source 9A is substantially the same as the diameter of the evaporation source 7A. An area of arc current to drive the arc evaporation source for bombardment 9A is set at an interval equal to that of each evaporation source 7A of the arc evaporation source group for deposition 7. Accordingly, the amount

15 metal ions per unit area to be irradiated to the substrate can be reduced to approximately 1/3, and the heat input per unit time and per unit area to the surface of the substrate in the bombardment can thus be suppressed to approximately 1 /3.

The arc discharge current in the bombardment is preferably adjusted so that an arc point is generated primarily on the target surface in order to ensure the uniformity of the bombardment, and preferably is generally maintained at no more than 150 A, more preferably at no more than 120 A. On the other hand, since the arc failure in the process of bombardment is not preferred from the point of stability of the arc discharge, the arc current is preferably adjusted to not less than 80 A, at which the arc discharge stabilizes.

The AIP apparatus of this embodiment is used in the same manner as in the past, except that the bombardment is carried out by using the arc evaporation source group for bombardment 9. Specifically, the substrate support 5 loaded with the substrate is placed on the rotary table 2, the vacuum chamber 1 is evacuated, the substrate is heated by a heater provided inside the vacuum chamber 1, the bombardment is carried out by using the group of arc evaporation sources to bombardment 9, and a functional film is formed on the surface of the substrate by using the group of arc evaporation sources for deposition 7.

Since the arc evaporation source for bombardment 9A formed so that its longitudinal length is greater than that of the arc evaporation source for deposition is used in the AIP apparatus of this embodiment, a sudden increase in substrate temperature at the time of the bombing it can be suppressed and the

Overheating or the like, particularly, in a substrate with small thermal capacity, which was problematic in the past, can be resolved. Since the bombardment treatment can be carried out by using an evaporation source 9A, the capacity of the polarization energy source can be minimized. In addition, the abnormal discharge frequency is reduced by reducing the ionic density in the vicinity of the substrate. And since the bombardment time required to obtain the same bombardment effect has been extended several times, the adjustment time of the conditions can be prolonged to improve controllability, and the influence of the interruption period of the bias voltage on abnormal discharge can be reduced relatively.

As in the aforementioned embodiment, it is effective for the prevention of substrate overheating

45 in the bombardment that the width of the irradiation area with longitudinal metal ions to be treated by an arc evaporation source for bombardment is adjusted to not less than 400 mm and, more preferably, not less than 500 mm. This is based on the experimental knowledge of the inventors of the present invention, and also coincided with the following description. Specifically, one of the reasons for adjusting the bias voltage for film deposition to a value of up to -300 V is the prevention of substrate overheating. The arc current value for the deposition of the film in an evaporation source with con 100 mm is 100 to 200 A, typically 150 A. Specifically, three evaporation sources are operated with a polarization voltage of 300 V and an arc current of 150 A to radiate metal ions in a width of the longitudinal irradiation area of 500 mm. In the bombing process, the evaporation sources are operated with an arc current of 80 to 120 A, typically 100 A, considering the lower limit of the arc current, to apply a voltage

55 polarization from -600 to -1000 V to the substrate. When the maximum voltage is assumed in the same way as in the deposition of the film, an arc current of 100 A and a polarization voltage of 1000 V are typical conditions in the metallic bombardment.

By the idea of (arc current) x (the number of evaporation sources) × (polarization voltage) ÷ (width of the longitudinal irradiation area) as an amount of instantaneous heat input, a width of the irradiation area for the bombardment where this value in the bombardment is equal to the maximum value in the deposition of the film (150 A × 3 × 300 V / 500 mm) can be determined as 370 mm by calculation. Specifically, the extension of the width of the treatment area in the bombardment at this width of the irradiation area or more leads to the reduction of the risk of overheating, and this agrees with the experimental knowledge

65 mentioned above although this is based on rude analysis.

Since an evaporation source 9A having a width of the longitudinally long irradiation area needs an evaporation surface longer than the width of the longitudinal irradiation area by approximately 100 mm, the longitudinal length (long side) of the evaporation source by arc for bombardment 9A is properly adjusted to not less than 500 mm, more preferably not less than 600 mm. On the other hand,

5 Since the length of the evaporation source must be within a fabricable range of the target, it is appropriate to adjust the maximum evaporation source length to approximately 2 m or less. Since a width of the excessively increased irradiation area leads to the prolongation of the bombing treatment time, the width of the irradiation area for the group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment is preferably set to approximately 1.2 m or less. If a width of the irradiation area greater than this is required, a plurality of arc evaporation sources for bombardment can be juxtaposed in the longitudinal direction and used as a group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment.

An AIP apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention will be briefly described in reference to Figure 2. In other embodiments that will be described below as well as the second embodiment, the

15 same reference numbers are assigned to the same members as in the AIP apparatus of the first embodiment.

In this AIP apparatus, in contrast to the AIP apparatus according to the first embodiment, two lines of evaporation source groups each composed of three vertically juxtaposed 7A evaporation sources are provided at a distance of 90 ° in the circumferential direction of the vacuum chamber. In this embodiment, since the deposition of the film is performed by using the two lines of evaporation source groups, a deposition rate of the double film can be performed, compared to the apparatus of the first embodiment. Since the bombardment is carried out by using a rectangular evaporation source 9A analogously to the first embodiment, no problems such as overheating occur in

25 the bombing process. Targets of different materials are joined to evaporation sources 7A of each line of the arc evaporation source group for deposition 7, whereby the deposition of a multilayer film composed of two types of films can be performed.

An AIP apparatus according to a third embodiment of the present invention will be briefly described in reference to Figure 3. Although the evaporation sources 7A of the arc evaporation source group for deposition 7 are longitudinally aligned in the AIP apparatus of According to the first and second embodiments, the evaporation sources 7A are not necessarily aligned, they can be arranged in the circumferential direction of the vacuum chamber 1, as in this AIP apparatus, while gradually moving the longitudinal positions. Even with said arrangement of the arc evaporation source group for

Deposition 7, also, the uniform coating of the substrate surface can be performed by rotating the rotary table 2 and rotating the substrate support 5 within the vacuum chamber 1.

An AIP apparatus according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention will be briefly described in reference to Figure 4. This AIP apparatus comprises two lines of evaporation source groups each consisting of three longitudinal platforms of evaporation sources 7A, which are provided in the circumferential direction of the chamber as an arc evaporation source for deposition analogously to the AIP apparatus of the third embodiment, but the evaporation sources 7A of each line are arranged while the longitudinal positions are moved in 1/2 of the mounting space for evaporation sources 7A. Accordingly, the coating can be obtained with additional high uniformity.

An AIP apparatus according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention will be briefly described in reference to Figure 5. This AIP apparatus is the same as the AIP apparatus of the first embodiment for the circumferential arrangement of the evaporation source group per arc for deposition 7 and the arc evaporation source group for bombardment 9. However, the arc evaporation source group for deposition 7 is composed of six evaporation sources 7A, and the arc evaporation source group for bombardment 9 it is composed of two evaporation sources 9A. According to this structure, a high volume treatment can be performed, and the thermal load to the substrate in the process of bombardment can be reduced to 1/3 of the conventional cases.

As the target material for the arc evaporation source for bombardment, metals that include various alloys can be used in the first to fifth embodiments and, for example, Ti can be suitably used.

or Cr as material.

In each of the embodiments, the rectangular evaporation source (the evaporation source of the first embodiment) shown in Figure 6 is used as the evaporation source 9A of the arc evaporation source group for bombardment 9. However, the arc evaporation source for bombardment in the present invention is not limited thereto and, for example, an evaporation source 9B having an external shape similar to a racing circuit in plan view and comprising a target T with an evaporation surface similar to a racing circuit in plan view as shown in figure 7. The evaporation source 9B 65 is also arranged so that its length (long axis) is arranged along the longitudinal direction . In addition, as shown in Figures 8 (A) and (B), a source of arc evaporation for bombardment 9C in which a

Electromagnetic coil in the form of racing circuit is arranged on the back side of the target T can be adapted. By generating a magnetic field by means of this coil C, an arc point generated on the evaporation surface can be guided in a racing circuit form on the evaporation surface of the target. Accordingly, the vapor to be irradiated from the arc evaporation source to bombard the substrate can

5 further standardize.

Furthermore, as another embodiment shown in Figures 9 (A) and (B), an arc evaporation source for bombardment 9D comprising a cylindrical shaped target T, both ends thereof being closed by arc closing members 12 , and an electromagnetic coil in the form of a racing circuit C arranged inside the cylindrical target T as shown in Figure 9 (B) can be adapted. In this evaporation source 9D, a magnetic field in the form of a racing circuit is generated by the electromagnetic coil C, whereby the arc point can be explored in a form of a racing circuit to uniformly radiate the vapor to the substrate. In addition, it is preferable to make the cylindrical target rotating in a state in which the scanning track of the arc point corresponding to the coil C arranged in the form of a racing circuit is

15 hold in a position opposite the substrate. Accordingly, the target can wear evenly.

In evaporation sources that use electromagnetic coil (for example, evaporation sources 9C and 9D), a permanent magnet that forms a magnetic field in a corresponding way can be disposed on the surface of the target instead of the electromagnetic coil.

In addition, as a source of arc evaporation for bombardment, a target similar to a solid round bar can be arranged in the longitudinal direction and used. In this case, it is preferable to connect negative electrodes of different arc energy sources to both upper and lower ends thereof to alternately supply the arc current to be supplied to the evaporation source from both ends. Since the

25 arc point for generating steam in the target tends to be explored towards the end of the supply side of the arc stream, the arc point can be further explored further over the entire surface of the evaporation surface of the cylindrical target by supplying alternatively the arc current to the evaporation source from both ends, and the metal ion vapor can be supplied uniformly to the substrate.

In each of the above-mentioned embodiments, the arc evaporation source for bombardment has a way in which the longitudinal length (in the direction of the vacuum chamber height) is greater than the lateral length. The reason for this is that, since the vacuum chamber has a round shape in top view from the view of the pressure resistant structure, the evaporation surface must be curved if the evaporation source is extended laterally, and this is not realistic. From this point, a prolonged form

Longitudinally it is practical for increasing the evaporation surface area of the arc evaporation source for bombardment.

The present invention is not limited to arc evaporation sources for bombardment or arc evaporation sources for deposition as described in each embodiment. An ionic arc coating apparatus comprising a movable member, an arc evaporation source for bombardment and an arc evaporation source for deposition arranged so that irradiation of metal ions to the substrate can be effected effectively, in which the source arc evaporation for bombardment is formed such that the evaporation surface area is greater than that of an arc evaporation source for deposition with the largest evaporation surface area of a plurality of arc evaporation sources for

Deposition is included in the scope of the present invention. In said apparatus, the number of arc evaporation sources for deposition is necessarily greater than the number of arc evaporation sources for bombardment. Since the destinations of irradiation of metal ions in the bombardment and deposition of the film are the same substrate, the number of evaporation sources must increase in the deposition of the film where the area of irradiation that can be shared by a evaporation source is small.

Specifically, the present invention is primarily intended to provide a structure capable of reducing the amount of irradiation of metal ions per unit area per source of arc evaporation for bombardment, with respect to the minimum current value necessary for stabilization of arc discharge, compared to the amount of metal ion irradiation per unit per arc evaporation source for deposition

55 by adjusting the evaporation source area of an arc evaporation source for bombardment greater than that of an arc evaporation source for deposition.

Examples of deposition of the film to a substrate using the AIP apparatus of the first embodiment will be specifically described. The present invention should not be interpreted definitively by these examples of film deposition.

[Examples]

Three evaporation sources 7A having an evaporation surface of 100 mm in diameter were arranged

65 longitudinally in line as a group of arc evaporation sources for deposition 7. An evaporation source 9A was used as a group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment 9. The source of

arc evaporation for bombardment 9A having a rectangular shape with a long side of 600 mm and a short side of 100 mm was arranged on the inner surface of the side wall of the vacuum chamber 1 so that the long side was arranged to along the longitudinal direction, whereby a width of the longitudinal area of irradiation of metal ions opposite the substrate support 5 is formed in 500 mm. As substrates, a test piece 5 made of high-speed steel (dimensions: 12 mm × 12 mm × 5 mm) and a drill made of high-speed steel 3 mm in diameter were loaded into the support mounted on each planetary tree 4 of the rotary table

2. A Ti target was attached to each evaporation source 7A, 9A. The number of revolutions of the rotary table 2 in bombardment and deposition of the film was set at 2 rpm.

As an example of deposition of the film by a conventional method (conventional example), treatment by bombardment and deposition of the TiN film was performed in a manner described below using only the group of arc evaporation sources for deposition without the source of arc evaporation for bombardment.

15 (1) The vacuum chamber was evacuated, and the substrate is heated to a substrate temperature of 400 ° C by means of a radiant heater equipped in the vacuum chamber.

(2)
Each evaporation source from the group of arc evaporation sources for deposition was operated at an arc current of 100 A, and the metal bombardment treatment was run for 5 minutes at a polarization voltage of -1000 V.

(3)
After the bombing treatment, each evaporation source from the group of arc evaporation sources for deposition was operated at an arc current of 150 A, a TiN film of approximately 3 μm formed at a polarization voltage of -50 V while nitrogen gas was introduced at a pressure of 3.9 Pa followed by cooling for 30 minutes, and the treated substrate was extracted.

In the conventional example described above, the time required for the deposition of the 3 μm TiN film was 90 minutes, and the total cycle time from the beginning of the vacuum to the extraction was 3 hours and 15 minutes.

As an example of deposition of the film by a comparative method (comparative example), the bombardment treatment and the deposition treatment of the film were carried out as follows using only the arc evaporation source for bombardment.

(1) The same as (1) of the comparative example.

(2) The arc evaporation source for bombardment was operated at an arc current of 100 A, and the metallic bombardment treatment was run at a polarization voltage of -1000 V for 15 minutes.

(3) After the bombing treatment, the arc evaporation source for bombardment was operated at an arc current of 150 A, a TiN film of approximately 3 μm formed at a polarization voltage of -50 V while being introduced nitrogen gas at a pressure of 3.9 Pa followed by cooling for 30 minutes, and the resulting substrate was extracted.

In the comparative example described above, the time required for deposition of the 3 μm TiN film was approximately 5 hours, and the total cycle time from the beginning of the vacuum to the extraction was 7 hours.

Next, as an example of deposition of the film by the original use of the AIP apparatus of the embodiments (example of the invention), the bombardment treatment using the arc evaporation source for bombardment and the deposition treatment of the film Using the group of arc evaporation sources for deposition were performed as follows.

(one)
The same as (1) of the conventional example.

(2)
 The arc evaporation source for bombardment was operated at an arc current of 100 A, and the metallic bombardment treatment was run at a polarization voltage of -1000 V for 15 minutes.

(3)
 After the bombing treatment, each evaporation source from the group of arc evaporation sources for deposition was operated at an arc current of 150 A, the TiN film of about 3

55 μm was formed at a polarization voltage of -50 V while gaseous nitrogen was introduced at a pressure of 3.9 Pa followed by cooling for 30 minutes, and the resulting substrate was extracted.

In the example of the invention described above, the time required for the deposition of the 3 μm TiN film was 90 minutes, and the total cycle time from the beginning of the vacuum to the extraction was 3 hours and 25 minutes.

Except for the comparative example that is apparently lower in productivity, film depositions in the conventional example and the example of the invention were evaluated with respect to each element of Table 1. The results are shown together in Table 1.

[Table 1]

Evaluation Element
Conventional example Example of the invention

Appearance of the TiN film in the test piece
Satisfactory Satisfactory

Adhesiveness (Rockwell printing method)
Satisfactory Satisfactory

Evaluation for the softening of the cutting edge in test cut using a mm 3 mm drill bit
Softening was observed in approximately 30% of the drill bits. No softening was observed.

Bias current in the bombing
13-18 A 5-6 A

Abnormal discharge
It occurred approximately 120 times in 3 min. after the beginning of the bombing It occurred approximately 54 times in 4 min. after the beginning of the bombing

Others
- The drops were reduced compared to the conventional film

As is evident from Table 1, no significant difference in the characteristics for the film was observed in the test piece between both depositions of the film. However, the cutting failure that could result from the softening of the cutting edge was partially observed in the conventional example, while said problem was not caused in the example of the invention.

The polarization current is obviously reduced in the example of the invention, and the bombardment treatment could therefore be carried out by using a smaller capacity polarization energy source. 10 The noticeable point is the abnormal discharge that is detected by the polarization energy source. In the conventional example, the abnormal discharge occurred for 3 minutes in the previous phase of the bombing treatment, and it was only during the final two minutes when the voltage application could be performed without abnormal discharge. Since the polarizing power source interrupts the output during abnormal discharge detection, and restarts the voltage applications after resting, a state where polarization voltage

15 normal does not apply is set during abnormal discharge generation. On the other hand, in the example of the invention, the application time of the normal voltage is relatively long since the duration of the bombardment was approximately three times in addition to the tendency to reduce the frequency of abnormal discharge, and the reproducibility of the deposition process of the film improved further.

In addition, as a result of the microscopic observation of the film on the test piece, the macroparticles mixed in the film were reduced in the example of the invention. This is attributable to the fact that since the thermal load per unit area is reduced by extending the area of the arc evaporation source for bombardment, the amount of microparticles generated in the course of the bombing was reduced.

An ionic arc coating apparatus is defined by the claims.

Claims (9)

  1.  CLAIMS
    1. An ionic arc coating apparatus, comprising:
    5 a vacuum chamber (1); a mobile member (2) for moving a loaded substrate into said vacuum chamber (1), said mobile member (2) being provided within said vacuum chamber (1); an arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) to irradiate evaporated metal ions by arc discharge with the surface of said substrate to clean the surface, said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) provided within said vacuum chamber (one); a plurality of arc evaporation sources for deposition (7A) to deposit evaporated metal ions by arc discharge on the surface of said substrate, said arc evaporation sources for deposition (7A) provided within said vacuum chamber (1 ),
    characterized by that
    15 said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) is formed such that the evaporation surface area thereof is greater than the evaporation surface area of an arc evaporation source for deposition (7A) having the larger evaporation surface area between a plurality of said arc evaporation sources for deposition (7A).
  2. 2. The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the length of said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) in the direction of the vacuum chamber height (1) is longer that the length of said arc evaporation source for deposition (7A) in the direction of the vacuum chamber height (1).
    The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 2, wherein the length of said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) in the height direction of said vacuum chamber (1) is three times greater than the length of said arc evaporation source for deposition (7A) in the direction of the height of said vacuum chamber (1).
  3. Four.
    The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the length of said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) in the height direction of said vacuum chamber (1) is 0 , 5 to 2.0 m.
  4. 5.
    The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the surface area of
    The evaporation of said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) is three times greater than the evaporation surface area of said arc evaporation source for deposition (7A) having the largest evaporation surface area between a plurality of said sources of arc evaporation for deposition (7A).
  5. 6. The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said movable member (2) moves to the substrate, which is loaded so that the direction of the substrate length corresponds to the direction of the height of said vacuum chamber (1), in a rectangular direction to the height direction of said vacuum chamber (1); said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) constitutes a group of arc evaporation sources
    45 for bombardment (9) composed of said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) arranged in opposition to said substrate without overlapping each other in the height direction of said vacuum channel (1), and said arc evaporation source for deposition (7A) constitutes a group of arc evaporation sources for deposition (7) composed of a plurality of said arc evaporation sources for deposition (7A) arranged in opposition to said substrate without overlapping each other in the height direction of said vacuum chamber (1).
  6. The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said arc evaporation sources for bombardment (9A) constituting said group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment (9) have substantially the same dimensions , and said arc evaporation sources for
    Deposition (7A) constituting said group of arc evaporation sources for deposition (7) have substantially the same dimensions.
  7. 8.
     The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said arc evaporation source for bombardment (9A) has a target formed by an evaporation material, and an electromagnetic coil formed along the direction of the height of said vacuum chamber (1) is attached to the back of said target.
  8. 9.
    The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment (9) is composed of a plurality of arc evaporation sources
    65 for bombardment (9A) arranged in opposition to said substrate without overlapping each other in the height direction of said chamber.
  9. 10. The ionic arc coating apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said group of arc evaporation sources for bombardment (9) is composed of an evaporation source opposite to said substrate.
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BR112015011074A2 (en) * 2012-11-14 2017-07-11 Kobe Steel Ltd film deposition device
JP6076112B2 (en) * 2013-02-07 2017-02-08 株式会社神戸製鋼所 Ion bombardment apparatus and substrate surface cleaning method using the apparatus
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JP2015063721A (en) * 2013-09-24 2015-04-09 日本アイ・ティ・エフ株式会社 Vacuum arc vapor deposition method, vacuum arc vapor deposition device, and thin film and article manufactured by using vacuum arc vapor deposition method
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US8261693B2 (en) 2012-09-11

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