ES2341253T3 - Balanced charging procedure of a lithium ion battery or lithium polymer. - Google Patents

Balanced charging procedure of a lithium ion battery or lithium polymer. Download PDF

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Publication number
ES2341253T3
ES2341253T3 ES04805482T ES04805482T ES2341253T3 ES 2341253 T3 ES2341253 T3 ES 2341253T3 ES 04805482 T ES04805482 T ES 04805482T ES 04805482 T ES04805482 T ES 04805482T ES 2341253 T3 ES2341253 T3 ES 2341253T3
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cell
voltage
cells
battery
characterized
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ES2341253T7 (en
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Roger Pellenc
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Pellenc SAS
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Pellenc SAS
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Priority to FR0313570 priority Critical
Priority to FR0313570A priority patent/FR2862813B1/en
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Priority to PCT/FR2004/002945 priority patent/WO2005055358A2/en
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/425Structural combination with electronic components, e.g. electronic circuits integrated to the outside of the casing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • H01M10/441Methods for charging or discharging for several batteries or cells simultaneously or sequentially
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/48Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating condition, e.g. level or density of the electrolyte
    • H01M10/482Accumulators combined with arrangements for measuring, testing or indicating condition, e.g. level or density of the electrolyte for several batteries or cells simultaneously or sequentially
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0014Circuits for equalisation of charge between batteries
    • H02J7/0016Circuits for equalisation of charge between batteries using shunting, discharge or bypass circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0013Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries acting upon several batteries simultaneously or sequentially
    • H02J7/0021Monitoring or indicating circuits

Abstract

Balanced charging procedure of n cells, with n> = q 2 constituting a lithium-ion or lithium polymer battery and associated in series, each cell being composed of one element or several elements mounted in parallel, a procedure characterized in that it consists of performing permanently, preferably from the beginning of the battery charging operation (2) and throughout the development of this operation, a monitoring of the charge levels of the different cells (1), and to perform, depending on the previous evaluation of the said load levels, be a uniform feeding of all the cells (1), be a balance of the said load levels of the said cells (1) that feed the latter in a differentiated way according to their levels charging current and because it consists of connecting for each cell (1) of the battery, one after the other, sequentially, for a fractional duration of the total charging time d and the battery (2), of the sequences comprising a renewed evaluation of the charge level of the cell (1) considered, followed, depending on its charge level and with respect to the set of charge levels of the other cells (1) of the battery, of a uniform or differentiated feeding, following this one a repetitive cycle throughout the operation of load.

Description

Balanced loading procedure of a Lithium ion battery or lithium polymer.

The present invention relates to the mastery of the charged or rechargeable battery charge, and has per object a load or balanced load procedure of cells of a lithium ion or lithium polymer battery.

The optimized electric battery charging that comprise several constitutive cells exposes difficult problems to solve, particularly when the number of elements or of cells placed in series is elevated.

In the case of a battery Lithium-ion or lithium polymer are added to these load optimization problems the different elements or cells, the irremediable risks of deterioration of said elements or of said cells in case of overload, particularly due to overheating or overvoltage.

It is known, on the one hand, that in batteries using lithium-ion or lithium polymer elements serial behaviors in capacity of each element or cell after loading they are not identical and that their differences are increase from cycle to cycle of loading and unloading until the end of battery life concerned.

It is known, on the other hand, that ion batteries lithium and lithium polymer do not accept overload on the occasion of load, or low load on the occasion of use (download). He maximum voltage value retained, by way of example and not limiting, for the overload for each of the elements of a Lithium-ion battery and lithium polymer in series is 4.20 volts and the tension retained to stop the discharge, and thus avoid Battery degradation is 2.70 volts.

It is also known that, for each one of the elements or cells of lithium ion or lithium polymer, the tension in the terminals of the element or the cell is the image of the capacity stored in the element or cell considered. This indication voltage does not give the precise value of the capacity in ampere / hour or in watt / hour, but gives a percentage of the element's capacity considered at the time of measurement of this tension.

Figure 1 of the attached drawings represents a curve showing the evolution of the voltage at the terminals of a lithium ion element with respect to its capacity (in the case of a discharge curve with constant current, time is proportional to the percentage of the capacity stored in the element Lithium ion considered with: 0 sec \ Rightarrow 95% (4,129 volts), 6 150 seconds \ Rightarrow 50% (3,760 volts) and 12300 seconds 0% (3,600 volts). It is emphasized that on a important part of this curve, the capacity is almost linear before of degrading rapidly. To control loading operations and discharge of an element or a lithium ion cell, is operated in the almost linear part which allows to affirm that the tension is the image  Of capacity.

Taking these indications into account developed in the three preceding points, you can verify that, in a battery consisting of more than three to four elements Lithium ion or lithium polymer in series, the battery charge will be suspended when the most loaded element has reached 4.20 volts and, conversely, that during the download, it will stop this when the lower capacity element has reached the tension  2.70 volts: therefore it is the element who has the weaker capacity who determines the overall capacity of the drums. This allows us to understand that when the battery has a significant number of elements in series, the risk of not taking advantage the total battery capacity is real, since it is this is the least trained element that determines Limit the total battery capacity. In addition, this phenomenon It worsens with the accumulation of loading / unloading cycles.

This phenomenon of load imbalance is essentially caused by differences in capacity and internal resistance between the constituent elements of the battery, these differences resulting from the variation in the manufacturing quality of the elements lithium ion or lithium polymer. In order to optimize the capacity of the battery over time, which is very important for the operating costs, the problem noted above must be remedied by making, before stopping the charge, a compensation of all the elements or all bat cells
estuary. This compensation must allow a 100% load of all the elements whatever their capacity.

In current state of the art practice, this compensation is made at the end of the load, deriving the Charge current of the 100% charged element, that is when this reaches a voltage of 4.20 volts. Thus, the elements are stopped as it reaches 4.20 volts and thus obtains a 100% charge of all items at the end of the operation of load.

But this known compensation technique at The end of the load has notable drawbacks. So these compensation systems need power resistors important to dissipate the consequent currents, and this more so when the compensation system goes into action when the charge currents are even important, it is what is produced when the battery elements are very decompensated.

In addition, this strong power dissipation it implies a consequent rise in temperature, which can be annoying in the case of compact batteries that integrate the shunt resistors.

In addition, it may happen that, despite the injection of important load currents towards the end of the charging operation, the battery is not balanced when the End of charge condition is reached.

Moreover, in strong applications power, battery recharge times, particularly of Full reload, they are long, certainly very long. Happens then frequently that the effective charging time between two download phases are too short to finish the operation of load, and the load is then interrupted while the imbalances between elements or cells are not then compensated  (in case of presence of a compensation system at the end of the load or at the end of the load according to the state of the art). The repetition of this phenomenon causes a rapid degradation of battery behaviors involved.

The present invention aims to propose an optimized charging solution, presenting the advantages cited and overcoming the aforementioned inconveniences previously in view of the state of the art.

For this purpose, the invention aims at a balanced loading procedure of n cells, with n ≥ 2, constituting a lithium ion or lithium polymer battery and associated in series, each cell being composed of an element or of several elements mounted in parallel, this being procedure characterized in that it consists of performing in permanence, from the beginning of the load loading operation to the battery and throughout the development of this operation, a monitoring of the load levels of the different cells, and for carry out, depending on the previous evaluation of these levels load, either a uniform supply of all cells, or be a rebalanced of the said load levels of the said cells feeding the latter differently depending on of your current load levels.

The procedural steps noted above they can be used in two different ways, resting on two different technological implementations.

Thus, using an essentially based solution about an analog technology, monitoring levels charging is carried out continuously and the feeding differentiated it is done from, and also during, the differences in levels of load, between more loaded cells and less loaded cells, than exceed a predetermined threshold value.

In a variation, using a solution a numerical treatment of the signs is preferred and a procedure management by a treatment unit numerically, the monitoring of load levels is carried out by repeated measures and differential feeding applied during a predefined duration, in case of verification of the imbalance conditions of the required load levels.

This second solution simplifies the once the necessary material and logistics implementation for the Application of the procedure.

In relation to this second solution, the procedure preferably consists of connecting for each cell  of the battery, one after the other, sequentially for a fractional duration of the total charging time of the battery, sequences that include a retouched level evaluation of the load of the cell considered, followed, depending on its load level and in relation to the whole load levels of the other cells of the battery, of a uniform feeding or differentiated, following this a repetitive cycle along the loading operation According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, said method comprises at least the execution of the following operations under the management of a unit of numerical treatment, and this from the beginning of the load:

-
evaluation, preferably regular intervals of the amount of energy stored in each cell by the measure of a parameter indicative of said quantity;

-
comparative analysis of the different amounts of energy evaluated or of the different values of measured parameter;

-
determination of the cell that takes the longest to load and, if appropriate, the one or more cells they advance in loading;

-
power of the different cells series mounted uniformly or with current limitation load for cells other than those that take longer to load or for the cell (s) the most advanced in loading, by derivation of all or part of said current at the level of this or of the latter;

-
sequential repetition of the different operations mentioned until obtaining a state of end of charging the battery or detecting a defect, of a malfunction or a surplus of admissible value of threshold.

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The experiences and work of the applicant have shown that this sequential compensation procedure distributed throughout the load allows to have all elements or cells that constitute the battery charged to it percentage at a given moment of the load, and with greater reason for reach a capacity of 100% for all the elements that they constitute the battery in order to charge and this regardless of Your own ability.

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The invention will be better understood, thanks to the description below, which is reported with a mode of preferred embodiment, given by way of non-limiting example, and explained with reference to the attached schematic drawings, in the which:

Figure 2 of the attached drawings is a schematic synoptic of a device for the application of the procedure according to the invention;

Figure 3 is a more detailed scheme of the device shown on figure 2, according to a variant of embodiment of the invention;

Figure 4 is an ordinogram showing schematically the different stages of the procedure according to a embodiment of the invention (in this ordinogram, it is necessary to understand by the term "element", an element or a cell with several elements in parallel) and,

Figure 5 represents schedules that illustrate by way of non-limiting example, for a twelve-cell battery, the operations executed during a load cycle with procedure compensation according to the invention.

The latter aims at a procedure of load or balanced load of n cells 1, with n \ geq 2, constituting a lithium-ion or polymer battery lithium 2 and associated in series, each cell 1 being composed of a element of several elements mounted in parallel.

According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, this method comprises at least the execution of the following operations under the management of a unit of numerical treatment, and this from the beginning of the load:

-
evaluation, preferably regular intervals of the amount of energy stored in each cell 1 by the measure of a parameter indicative of said quantity;

-
comparative analysis of the different amounts of energy evaluated on the different values of measured parameter;

-
cell 1 determination the most delayed in loading and, where appropriate, on the side of cells 1 the most advanced one or more to load;

-
power of the different cells 1 series mounted uniformly with current limitation load for cells 1 other than the most delayed in load for the most advanced cell (s) to be loaded, by derivation of all or part of said current to level of the latter or of the latter;

-
sequential repetition of the different operations mentioned until obtaining a state of end of charging of battery 2 or detecting a defect, of a malfunction or a surplus of the threshold value admissible.

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Preferably, the parameter measured at the level of each cell 1 and used for the evaluation of the amount of energy stored in it, it is considered voltage at the terminals of the cell 1

As indicated above, the limitations charging current may eventually affect all cells advanced load with respect to the least loaded cell, in the given case with different degrees of power limitation.

However, to further expose the phases active balancing, the invention advantageously provides that only the cell (s) where the load level (s) are (are) the more advanced over those in the cell the least loaded (during a fractional duration n given), will be (will be submitted) to a limitation of his or her charges (for the fractional duration n + 1). Thus, cells whose load level is no more than slightly higher than the one of the least loaded cell, they will continue their charge normally.

Discrimination between cells subjected to a temporary limitation of the load and those that are not (during a fractional duration of the total duration of the load), may for example detach from the situation (in terms of values), load levels of these cells relative to a threshold value given for [less charged cell load value + delta (\Delta)].

On the other hand, adopting the strategy of limit the load current of the most loaded cells to all along the battery charge, instead of reaching the end of said load, the invention allows to avoid any risk of battery 2 overload of the fact of late compensation and guaranteeing balanced voltages at the level of cells 1 to end of charge

In addition, starting the compensation from the beginning of the load continuing its action throughout the charging operation, it is possible to guarantee a battery noticeably balanced throughout the loading operation, that is even in case of load interruption before termination normal.

According to an advantageous feature of the invention, the derivation of the current at the level of the or cells 1 the most advanced in loading is done by means of branch circuits 4 associated each, by a mounting in parallel 4 with one of said cells 1 (a circuit 4 for each cell 1), and integrating said circuits 4 each an organ of switching 5 and, where appropriate, at least one compound of electric power dissipation 6, possibly adjustable, such such as an electrical resistor (figures 2 and 3).

The switching body 5 may, for example, be chosen from the group formed by the electromechanical networks or electronic, bipolar or field-effect transistors or analogues

In addition, the derivation of energy being united to the load balancing of the different cells spread over all the duration of the load, can be optimized, the component of switching 5, as well as the associated dissipation component 6.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the load with sequential compensation consists more precisely in doing it repeating all along the load of Battery 2, with the following operations:

to)
scrutinize a pair or all cells 1 of battery 2 measuring the voltages at its terminals, this without the 6 resistance of the shunt or compensation be connected;

b)
detect cell 1 the most delayed in loading;

C)
detect cells 1 which, with respect to cell 1 the least charged or the most delayed in loading, has an overload greater than a predetermined threshold value of capacity deviation, for example corresponding to a voltage difference (dVs) of 10 mV;

d)
individually connect each cell 1 detected with an overload greater than the threshold value of a compensation resistor 6 corresponding, so that it leads to a decrease in load current for each of the cells 1 concerned, by example about 10%, for a sequential duration default, for example two seconds;

and)
for disconnect compensation resistors 6 from all cells 1 after deviation from sequential duration default;

F)
for carry out steps a) to e) again after the flow of a delay of voltage stabilization of cells 1.

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The battery charge is normally stopped when the overall load current intensity of the set of the latter's cells drops below a threshold value predefined, for example at 50 mA.

As an example of practical application of the invention, the powers of the different circuits of the derivation 4 are chosen close to the values provided by the following formula:

one

in the which:

Psd max =
maximum optimized power to be dissipated expressed in watts;

V max cell =
the maximum voltage measured during charging in the terminals of a cell expressed in volts;

% =
ratio expressed as a percentage, which corresponds to the maximum deviation between two cells that you want to recover over a load;

AH =
nominal battery capacity expressed in Ah (Amp-hour);

Tc =
Battery charging times expressed in hours.

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In addition, to reach a precise regulation and progressive load of each cell 1, the voltage at the terminals of each cell 1 is accurately measured by a set 7 of modules measuring 7 'corresponding, where the exit signs are transmit, advantageously after numbering, with the unit of numerical treatment 3, this last commander, in the cycle next, the switching bodies 5 of the different circuits of derivation 4 based on the comparative evolution of said exit signs and provided by the 7 'modules.

According to a very advantageous embodiment of the invention, figures 4 and 5 stand out by way of example, operations are repeated, during the entire loading operation while the cyclic loops formed from the two half cycles operational, executed successively in each cycle loop, a first half cycle comprising the consecutive execution of the following operations: successive reading of the voltages of the different cells 1 and delayed over time, of the resistance of compensation 6 for each cell 1 where the voltage difference (dV) with cell 1 the most delayed in loading the cycle preceding is greater than a threshold value (dVs), and the second semi-cycle comprising the following operations: disconnections successive balancing resistors 6 of the different 1 cells and extent of stabilization of the tensions of the different cells 1 before reading during the first half cycle of the following cycle, the two semi-cycles that present preferably substantially similar durations, for example of approximately 2s. Thanks to the cyclic repetitions of the operations of the two half cycles (with a cycle time of example 4s), throughout the loading procedure of the battery 2, that is until the circumstance of an end of event load or security information, all cells 1 (and the element or elements that make up each of the latter) that present at any time a weak dispersion of capacity  (from the fact of constant load connections between cells) and optimally recover the maximum of their behaviors.

In addition, the process according to the invention allows to accept the beginning of the loading of the level differences of important load between cells 1, and being "the recovery "or compensation distributed over the duration Total battery charging procedure 2.

According to a first variant, it can be provided that the voltage difference threshold value dVs consists of a first default set value V1, for example 10 mV, if the voltage difference dV between the voltage of cell 1 which it has the highest voltage and the tension in cell 1 that the weakest voltage is lower than a second fixed value default V2, higher than the first default threshold value V1, for example 100 mV.

In addition, it can also be provided that, if the voltage difference dV between the voltage in cell 1 that it has the highest voltage and the tension in cell 1 that the weakest voltage is higher than a second value fixed default V2, for example 100 mV, the threshold value of voltage difference dVs consists of a third set value default V3 lower than said second value V2, for example 30  mV.

Preferably, the third set value default V3 is higher than said first fixed value default V1.

According to a second variant, it can, so alternatively, be provided that the difference threshold value of voltage dVs corresponds to a given fraction of the difference of voltage dV, measured during the preceding cycle between the voltage of cell 1 presenting the highest voltage and the voltage of the cell 1 presenting the weakest voltage, if during the cycle in course the said voltage difference dV is even greater than a Fourteenth default fixed value V4, for example 10 mV.

Advantageously in each of the two variants cited, and as already mentioned above, the measures of voltage at the levels of the different cells 1 are not effected more than after the flow of a given delay, for example two seconds, it is followed to the deletion of the derivations of current, so that a stabilization of the voltages at the terminals of said cells 1.

In order to preserve cells 1 of the battery 2 of possible exposures to surges, the program of load management, whose flowchart may for example correspond to the one represented in figure 4, you can understand the execution of a certain number of tests before the start of the load and in the course and end of charge.

Thus, the loading procedure may consist, when starting, before the start of the execution of the operations, in measuring the vacuum voltage Vo of the charger 8 branched on the battery 2 in view of its charge, and in stopping the said procedure load, with the eventual disconnection of a corresponding alarm and / or the visual representation of a message, if said tension in Vo void is greater than [n x maximum permissible voltage Vmax for each cell1].

Even said procedure can also consist before the execution of a loop or a cycle next, to verify if one or at least one of cells 1 of battery 2 has a voltage higher than its terminals maximum permissible voltage Vmax (for example and not limited to 4.23 V) and, if so, interrupt the loading procedure, possibly with disconnection of a corresponding alarm and / or the visual representation of a message. The present invention has also by object a device for the use of procedure described above, where the main constitutive elements are represented schematically in the Figures 2 and 3.

This device is essentially constituted, on the one hand, for a set 7 of modules 7 'of measurements of the voltage associated each to one of cells 1 in series forming battery 2 and measuring the voltages at the terminals of these, of on the other hand, due to a plurality of circumstances of derivation 4 each mounted in parallel on the terminals of a cell 1 corresponding and that can each be open and closed selectively, and finally for a treatment unit 3 numerical and procedural management, commanding said unit 3 which receives the measurement signs of said assembly 7 of modules of voltage measurement 7 ', the [closed / open] state of each branch circuit 4.

The 7 'modules that will consist, for example, of differential voltage measurement circuits for an amplifier operational, with a measurement accuracy of at least 50 mV.

Advantageously, each branch circuit 4 it comprises a switching element 5 forming a switch and whose state is commanded by the numerical processing unit 3 and, in the given case, at least one component 6 of energy dissipation electrical, such as one or several resistors.

As Figure 3 of the drawings shows annexes, and according to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the assembly 7 of the voltage measurement modules 7 'comprises, one part, n 7 'analog voltage measurement modules, each one directly associated with a cell 1 of battery 2, of another part, a multiplexer circuit 9 whose inputs are connected to the outputs of said modules 7 'and, finally, a analog / numerical converter circuit 10 that connected to the input and output of multiplexer circuit 9 and output with the numerical processing and management unit 3.

In relation to a preferred application, but not limiting to the invention. The device represented in the Figures 2 and 3 can be advantageously integrated into a set of autonomous power tool.

For this purpose, it should be noted that branch circuits 4 individually associated with cells 1 of battery 2, they can also be used to eventually adjust the loads of said cells 1 with a compatible level with long-term storage, without use, of said battery 2.

Of course, the invention is not limited to the embodiment modules described and represented in the drawings annexes Modifications that remain possible, particularly from the point of view of the constitution of the various elements or by replacement of technical equivalents, without leaving by therefore of the protection domain of the invention.

Claims (19)

1. Balanced charging procedure of n cells, with n ≥ 2 constituting a lithium-ion or lithium polymer battery and associated in series, each cell being composed of one element or several elements mounted in parallel, a procedure characterized in that it consists carry out a permanent monitoring, preferably from the beginning of the battery charging operation (2) and throughout the development of this operation, a monitoring of the charge levels of the different cells (1), and to perform, depending on of the previous evaluation of the said load levels, be a uniform feeding of all the cells (1), be a balance of the said load levels of the said cells (1) that feed the latter in a differentiated way according to their current charge levels and because it consists of connecting for each cell (1) of the battery, one after the other, sequentially, for a fractional duration of the total charge time a of the battery (2), of the sequences comprising a renewed evaluation of the charge level of the cell (1) considered, followed, depending on its charge level and with respect to the set of charge levels of the other cells (1) of the battery, of a uniform or differentiated feeding, following this one a repetitive cycle throughout the operation of charge.
2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that it comprises at least the execution of the following operations under the management of a numerical processing unit 3, and this from the beginning of the loading:
-
evaluation, preferably in regular intervals, of the amount of energy stored in each cell (1) by the measure of a parameter indicative of said quantity;
-
comparative analysis of the different amounts of energy evaluated or of the different values of the parameter measured on each cell (1);
-
cell determination (1) the most delayed in loading and, in the given case of the or of the cells the or the most advanced in loading;
-
power of the different cells (1) mounted in series uniformly or with limitation of charging current for cells (1) different than most delayed in loading or for the most advanced cell (s) in be charged, by derivation of all or part of said current at the level of the latter or of the latter;
-
sequential repetition of the different operations mentioned until obtaining a state of end of charging the battery (2) or detecting a defect, of a malfunction or a surplus of the threshold value admissible.
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3. Method according to claim 2, characterized in that the parameter measured at the level of each cell (1) and used for the evaluation of the amount of energy stored in it is the voltage at the terminals of the cell (1) considered.
Method according to claim 2 or claim 3, characterized in that the current shunt at the level of the cell (1) most advanced in loading is carried out by means of associated bypass circuits (4) each, by a parallel assembly to one of said cells (1) integrating said circuits (4) each a switching element (5) and, where appropriate, at least one energy dissipation compound (6), possibly adjustable , such as an electrical resistor.
5. Method according to claims 3 and 4, characterized in that charging with sequential compensation consists more precisely in performing, repeating them all along the battery charge (2) the following operations:
to)
scan all cells one by one (1) of the battery (2) measuring the voltages at its terminals, this without the shunt resistor (6) being connected compensation;
b)
detect the cell (1) the most delayed in loading;
C)
detect the cells (1) that, with respect to cell (1) the least charged or the most delayed in charging have an overload greater than a default tolerance threshold value of capacity, for example corresponding to a voltage difference (dVs) of 10 mV;
d)
individually connect each cell (1) detected with an overload higher than the threshold value in a compensation resistor (6) corresponding, so that a decrease in the load current for each of the cells (1) concerned, for example about 10%, for a sequential duration default, for example two seconds;
and)
in disconnect compensation resistors (6) from all cells (1) after the sequential duration flow default;
F)
 for carry out steps a) to e) again after the flow of a delay of stabilization of cell tensions (1).
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Method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the charge of the battery (2) is normally stopped when the intensity of the overall charge current of all the cells (1) of the latter falls below a predefined threshold value, for example at 50 mA.
Method according to any one of claims 4 and 5, characterized in that the voltage at the terminals of each cell (1) is precisely measured by a set (7) of corresponding measurement modules (7 '), whose signs of Output are transmitted, advantageously after the numerization, with the numerical processing unit (3), the latter commanding, in the following cycle, the switching organs (5) of the different branch circuits (4) depending on the evolution comparison of the said output signs provided by the modules (7).
Method according to any one of claims 2 and 5, characterized in that the operations are repeated, during the entire loading operation, as long as the loop loop formed of two operational half cycles, executed successively in each cycle buffer, a first cycle comprising the consecutive execution of the following operations: successive reading of the voltages of the different cells (1) and the disconnection delayed over time, of the compensation resistance (6) for each cell (1) where the voltage difference (dV) with cell (1) the most delayed in loading from the preceding cycle is greater than a threshold value (dVs), and the second half cycle comprising the following operations: successive disconnections of the compensation resistors (6) of the different cells (1) and scope of stabilization of the tensions of the different cells (1) before reading during the first half cycle of the next cycle, the two half cycles s preferentially presenting substantially similar durations, for example of about 2s.
Method according to claim 8, characterized in that the voltage difference threshold value (dVs) consists of a first predetermined fixed value (V1), for example 10 mV, if the voltage difference (dV) between the voltage of the voltage cell (1) presenting the highest voltage and the voltage of the cell (1) presenting the weakest voltage is lower than a second predetermined fixed value (V2), greater than the first predetermined threshold value (V1), for example 100 mV.
Method according to claim 9, characterized in that, if the voltage difference (dV) between the voltage of the cell (1) presenting the highest voltage and the voltage of the cell (1) presenting the voltage the most weak is greater than a second predetermined fixed value (V2), for example 100 mV, the voltage difference threshold value (dVs) consists of a third predetermined fixed value (V3) lower than said second value (V2), for example 30 mV
Method according to claims 9 and 10, characterized in that the third predetermined fixed value (V3) is greater than said first predetermined fixed value (V1).
12. Method according to claim 8, characterized in that the voltage difference threshold value (dVs) corresponds to a given fraction of the voltage difference (dV), measured during the preceding cycle between the voltage of the cell (1) presenting the voltage higher than the voltage of the cell (1) presenting the weakest voltage, if during the current cycle the said voltage difference (dV) is even greater than a fourth predetermined fixed value (V4), for example 10 mV .
Method according to any one of claims 8 to 12, characterized in that the voltage measurements at the level of the different cells (1) are not carried out more than after the course of a given delay, for example two seconds, followed by the suppression of the current leads, so as to authorize a stabilization of the voltages at the terminals of said cells (1).
14. Method according to claim 4 or any one of claims 5 to 13 taken in combination with claim 4, characterized in that the powers of the different branch circuits (4) are chosen close to the values provided by the formula:
2
in the which:
Psd max =
maximum power optimized to dissipate expressed in watts;
V max cell =
the maximum voltage measured during charging at terminals of a cell expressed in volts;
% =
ratio expressed as a percentage, corresponding to the maximum deviation between two cells that you want to recover over a load;
AH =
nominal battery capacity expressed in Ah (Amp hour);
Tc =
Battery charging times expressed in hours.
\ vskip1.000000 \ baselineskip
15. Method according to any one of claims 2 to 14, characterized in that it consists, at the beginning, before the start of the execution of operations, to measure the vacuum voltage (Vo) of a branched charger (8) on the battery (2 ) in view of its load as and to stop the said loading process, with the eventual disconnection of a corresponding alarm and / or the visual representation of a message, if said empty voltage (Vo) is greater than [nx maximum voltage permissible (Vmax) for each cell (1)].
16. A method according to one of claims 8 to 15, characterized in that it consists before verifying the execution of a next loop, in verifying whether at least one of the cells (1) of the battery (2) has in its terminals a voltage greater than the maximum permissible voltage (Vmax) and, in the affirmative case, in interrupting the charging procedure, possibly with disconnection of a corresponding alarm and / or the visual representation of a message.
17. Device for the application of the method according to any one of claims 1 to 16, characterized in that it is essentially constituted, on the one hand, by a set (7) of voltage measuring modules (7 ') associated each with a of the cells (1) in series that form the battery (2) and that measure the voltages at the terminals of the latter, on the other hand, by a plurality of branch circuits (4) each mounted in parallel on the terminals of a cell (1) that corresponds and that each can be opened or closed selectively, and finally by a unit (3) of numerical treatment and procedure management, said unit (3) receiving the measurement signs of said set ( 7) of the voltage measurement modules (7 ') and which controls the [closed / open] state of each branch circuit (4), each branch circuit (4) comprising a switching element (5), forming a switch and whose state is commanded by the numerical treatment unit (3) and, if necessary, at least one component (6) of electric power dissipation, such as for example one or several resistors.
18. Device according to claim 17, characterized in that the set (7) of the voltage measurement modules (7 ') comprises, on the one hand, n analog voltage measurement modules (7'), each directly associated to a cell (1) of the battery (2) of a part, to a multiplexer circuit (9) whose inputs are connected to the outputs of said modules (7 ') and, finally, an analog / numerical converter circuit (10 ) connected to the input and output of the multiplexer circuit (9) and in output to the numerical processing and management unit (3).
19. Device according to any one of claims 17 and 18, characterized in that it is integrated into a set of autonomous power tools.
ES04805482.9T 2003-11-20 2004-11-18 Balanced charging procedure of a lithium ion or lithium polymer battery Active ES2341253T7 (en)

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FR0313570A FR2862813B1 (en) 2003-11-20 2003-11-20 Method for balanced loading of lithium-ion or polymer lithium battery
PCT/FR2004/002945 WO2005055358A2 (en) 2003-11-20 2004-11-18 Equilibrated charging method for a lithium-ion or lithium-polymer battery

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