ES2211795T3 - Aircraft of canceled wing. - Google Patents

Aircraft of canceled wing.

Info

Publication number
ES2211795T3
ES2211795T3 ES01921639T ES01921639T ES2211795T3 ES 2211795 T3 ES2211795 T3 ES 2211795T3 ES 01921639 T ES01921639 T ES 01921639T ES 01921639 T ES01921639 T ES 01921639T ES 2211795 T3 ES2211795 T3 ES 2211795T3
Authority
ES
Spain
Prior art keywords
ring
wing
shaped wing
aircraft
plane
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
ES01921639T
Other languages
Spanish (es)
Inventor
James Henderson
Gary School Of Engineering Lock
Clyde Warsop
Mike Woods
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BAE Systems PLC
Original Assignee
BAE Systems PLC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB0014064 priority Critical
Priority to GB0014064A priority patent/GB0014064D0/en
Application filed by BAE Systems PLC filed Critical BAE Systems PLC
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of ES2211795T3 publication Critical patent/ES2211795T3/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C39/00Aircraft not otherwise provided for
    • B64C39/06Aircraft not otherwise provided for having disc- or ring-shaped wings
    • B64C39/062Aircraft not otherwise provided for having disc- or ring-shaped wings having annular wings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C2201/00Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor
    • B64C2201/02Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterized by type of aircraft
    • B64C2201/028Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterized by type of aircraft of all-wing types
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C2201/00Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor
    • B64C2201/04Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterised by type of power plant
    • B64C2201/042Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterised by type of power plant by electric motors; Electric power sources therefor, e.g. fuel cells, solar panels or batteries
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C2201/00Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor
    • B64C2201/16Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterised by type of propulsion unit
    • B64C2201/162Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor characterised by type of propulsion unit using ducted fans or propellers

Abstract

An aircraft (10) comprising a ring-shaped wing fuselage (11) with substantially circular cross-section defining a duct (16) with a longitudinally extending geometric axis (17), propulsion means (15) located in the conduit and mobile ailerons (13, 18) for controlling the aircraft in flight, the ring-shaped wing being obliquely truncated at one end, characterized in that when observed in horizontal flight, the rear end (11b) is truncated obliquely to form a ring-shaped wing with opposite sides of unequal lengths, so that the lower rear side extends beyond the upper rear side.

Description

Ring wing aircraft.

This invention relates to aircraft with wing in ring shape and is particularly suitable, although not in shape exclusive, for use in micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) which incorporate ring-shaped wings. However, it will be appreciated that the invention is also suitable for use in airplanes of any size with ring-shaped wing, manned or not.

Unmanned aerial vehicles have found various applications, having been used to transport a Wide variety of loads. In the absence of a pilot, the plane can be carried out on a small scale, typically with a size of 150 mm or less. The reduction in size and the absence of additional load in pilot form adapts well to the constant effort to produce lighter airplanes because of the advantages inherent in its effectiveness.

In terms of flexibility it is advantageous that UAVs are able to stay stationary in the air and fly horizontally at high speed. This criterion has given rise to development of airplanes with ring-shaped wing, that is, an airplane with a propeller or other propulsion system mounted in a duct defined by a ring-shaped wing with cross section substantially circular.

In US Patent No. 5,295,643, of Hughes Missile Systems Company, a wing plane is described in ring shape, although the scale of the plane is not described. The plane Hughes has a "toroidal" ring-shaped wing that defines a duct (although the ring-shaped wing has, in general, flat cross section, so that it can be considered, essentially, like an annular cylinder). In the duct they are located A propeller, stators and fins. In the Hughes plane, the stators they serve to straighten the turbulent air produced by the propeller in rotation and therefore to help balance the applied torque to the plane by the rotating propeller. The fins are used as control surfaces, to control the pitch and yaw of the airplane when in flight.

Another plane with a ring-shaped wing is described in English Patent No. 865,524 of Labat. The plane with wing shaped of ring described therein has a circular cross section, but unlike Hughes's plane, its ends are truncated obliquely. The angle and direction of truncation in each extreme is the same, thus forming a wing in the form of ring whose length does not vary throughout its periphery.

The use of a ring-shaped wing has advantages, which include reducing the sound signature of the propeller and provide a protective housing for the propeller, which prevents that could damage both the propeller and the people or things that, of otherwise, they could contact the propeller. Nevertheless, The main advantage of the ring-shaped wing design is that Can be used for both hovering, orienting the propeller horizontally, as for horizontal flight, orienting the propeller vertically On the Hughes plane, the transition between flight Vertical and horizontal is done by using the fins.

However, neither Hughes's patent nor that of Labat describe any aspect of balancing related to its plane, nor contain any detailed description of the appearance of the yaw or nod. These are clearly important aspects of UAV design with ring-shaped wing, since these aircraft must be controlled autonomously or by remote control, and, by therefore, control and stability must be improved, let's say, in relation to a manned vehicle, in which the pilot will have a direct reaction from his sense of balance in Regarding the orientation of the plane. When pilots are used automatic, the natural stability of the UAV is very important, since which reduces complexity, size and, critically, the mass of autopilot system to be installed on the plane.

Natural stability in pitching planes and yaw is achieved by placing the center of mass of the plane in front of the neutral aerodynamic points of the pitch and yaw planes. The configuration of the ring-shaped wing means that the aerodynamic pressures acting on all parts of the wing in ring shape have a passing action line so inherent, by the center of the ring. The symmetry of the wing in the form of continuous ring ensures that these pressures do not contribute to swinging moment It will be appreciated that it is not necessary for the wing to be in the form of a continuous ring: the ring can be divided into two or more sections, and aerodynamic pressures will continue without contributing to swinging moment

However, the neutral symmetry inherent in Airplane with ring-shaped wing can be considered problematic. This is because any disturbance around the balancing axis leave the plane with an orientation without any swinging moment gradual aerodynamics to restore it to its undisturbed condition - there is no tendency of the plane to correct any type of swing induced. This tendency to free balancing can lead to need for a flight control system that provides means of controlling the vehicle, adding to the plane, that way, complexity, and very often, weight.

An object of the invention is to overcome Disadvantages of previous UAV designs with ring-shaped wing described above.

From a first point of view, the present invention consists of an airplane comprising a wing in the form of ring that defines a conduit with a geometric axis that extends longitudinally, propulsion means located in the duct and mobile ailerons to control the plane in flight, the wing being in ring shape truncated obliquely at one end, being that end the rear when in horizontal flight, to form a ring-shaped wing with opposite sides of length unequal.

It should be noted that the "ring-shaped wing" expression includes rings with section substantially circular transverse, both continuous and interrupted, that is, in which parts of the ring. This is done in the best way by making the wing symmetric around its geometric axis.

It will be appreciated that by obliquely truncating the wing in the form of a ring in its rear part an airplane with a center of mass displaced from the geometric axis of the wing in the form of ring. The pendulum effect will ensure that the center of mass will be always at the lowest possible height when the plane is in flight. Therefore, if the plane sways, the moment of swing due at the increased height of the center of mass will produce a movement of plane roll so that the center of mass returns to the lowest height possible. It will be appreciated that the more displaced you are the center of mass of the geometric axis of the ring-shaped wing, the greater the tendency of the plane to roll to correct any disturbance around its swing axis. Thus, the airplane has a preferred orientation, and the surfaces of control can be oriented with respect to this preferred orientation. In that way, the stability to the balance is achieved with the moments restorers provided by the displacement of the center of gravity and not with aerodynamic restorative moments.

On the other hand, truncate the ring-shaped wing in the back and not in the front is advantageous since makes the center of mass stand in front of the aerodynamic points neutrals of the pitch and yaw planes when the plane apply in flight forward at high speed. It should be noted that the applicant has warned that a simple modification of the basic shape of the ring-shaped wing is very beneficial because in addition to displacing the center of mass with respect to the axis Geometric ring-shaped wing to provide control of balancing with self-correction capability, it also causes the center of mass to move towards the part front of the plane, that is, such simple modification provides a much improved stability with respect to the three axes of reference.

Optionally, the ring-shaped wing is truncated by a flat cut through it. It is preferred that the cut flat form an angle between 25 and 65º with the geometric axis longitudinal. It is further preferred that the angle be between 25 and 45 ° and it is still more preferred that the angle be substantially equal to 45º. Optionally, the ring-shaped wing is truncated by a curved cut, the slope of the angle formed with the wing being relatively small ring shape on the longest side of the wing ring-shaped and relatively large on the shortest side of the ring-shaped wing. Conveniently, this provision produces a greater displacement of the center of mass towards the end With small slope.

The cargo and other components of the plane that do not need to be located on the geometric axis of the wing in the form of ring (for example, remote control receiver, batteries or reservoir fuel, engine speed controller, etc.) they constitute the substantial majority of the global mass of the plane, and, in consequently, they should be displaced with respect to the axis Geometric ring-shaped wing. In order to maximize the pendulum effect, it is advantageous to house the components and / or any type of load in a compartment outside the most side ring-shaped wing length. Alternatively, or in addition to this can accommodate components and / or any type of payload in a compartment provided on the longest side of the shaped wing ring Advantageously, the compartment may be provided in one end of the ring-shaped wing, that end being the part frontal in horizontal flight, since this configuration contributes to the stability with respect to the three reference axes.

The aircraft may be provided with a component of pitch control wing offset from the geometric axis of the ring-shaped wing. Optionally, it can be positioned from so that it is located substantially level with the longest side of the ring-shaped wing when not deployed. Advantageously, it can be provided as an element of the more side ring-shaped wing length.

Conveniently, the plane can comprise, in addition, two orthogonal fins, providing one of them aerodynamic lift in the same direction as the spoiler of pitch control These fins can control mainly the roll and yaw orientation of the plane, and can work together with the pitch control wing on certain maneuvers, for example, to make a turn.

Optionally, any aircraft defined in The above may be unmanned. The diameter of the wing in the form of ring may be less than 50 cm, although it is currently prefers a diameter of less than 25 cm.

The invention will be described below, by way of for example only, with reference to the attached drawings, in the what:

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a aircraft according to a first embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 2 is a plan view of the plane of figure 1;

Figure 3 is a front view of the plane of the Figure 1;

Figure 4 is a section along the line IV-IV of Figure 2;

Figure 5 is a perspective view of a aircraft according to a second embodiment of the present invention; Y,

Figure 6 is a section along the line VI-VI of Figure 5.

As can be seen from figures 1 to 3, an aircraft 10 according to a first embodiment of the invention comprises a ring-shaped wing 11, with a compartment 12 and a rudder 13 Rear depth The compartment 12 is located below a front section 11a of the ring-shaped wing 11, in such a way extending beyond the front of the wing 11 in shape ring The size of the plane can be estimated from the data of that the ring-shaped wing 11 has a diameter of 12 cm. The wing 11 in the form of a ring is obliquely truncated at an angle á of 45º with respect to the longitudinal geometric axis 31, to define the front section 11a and a tail section 11b comprising part of the ring. The ring-shaped wing 11 is truncated in a flat manner so that the tail section 11b narrows evenly until meet the rudder 13 deep at the rear of the plane. The geometric axis of the tail section 11b coincides with the axis Geometric rudder 13 deep.

Returning now to the front of the plane, therein stands a fairing 14th front from the center of a gap 16 defined by the ring-shaped wing 11. The fairing 14a front is located directly in front of a four propeller blades that are located right in the hole 16 and rotates around the axis 17 longitudinal wing 11 ring-shaped. Behind the propeller 15 extends a rear fairing 14b along the axis longitudinal to end above section 11b of wing tail 11 in the form of a ring. There are four fins 18 located in the gap 16, at the rear of the front section 11a, and are arranged symmetrical mode around the longitudinal axis 17 of the wing 11 in shape ring, such as a pair of vertical fins 18a and a pair of fins 18b horizontal. The fins 18 protrude slightly beyond the area of the upper part of the front section 11a of the wing 11 in ring shape, that is, they slightly overlap with section 11b of tail.

There is a compartment 12 located under the wing 11 ring-shaped so that it extends through the length of front section 11a and protrudes in front of end 11c anterior wing 11 ring-shaped. Compartment 12 is profiled to present an aerodynamic shape, that is, its outer surfaces constitute an additional fairing.

A pair of elongated supports 19 extend to through the gap 16 at the rear of the front section 11a of the ring-shaped wing 11, one horizontal and one vertical, and support fairings 14a, 14b and fins 18.

Figure 4 is a vertical section of the plane 10 and show the plane in more detail. As you can see, the compartment 12 is hollow and houses several components of plane 10. Specifically, said components are a pair of batteries 20 of high performance to operate the plane, a receiver 21 of radio to receive the flight control instructions issued by a portable transmitter used by an operator and a controller 22 Electronic engine speed. In addition, it also shows a 23 load. To ensure an optimal aerodynamic profile of the compartment 12, components 20, 21, 22 and load 23 are arranged in a row, making sure that the compartment 12 be shallow and narrow. The aerodynamic profile of compartment 12 is clearly shown in figure 4.

On the other hand, Figure 4 also shows that the ring-shaped wing 11 has a section profile characteristic transverse of ailerons, thereby maximizing the lift generated by the ring-shaped wing 11. Profile Aerodynamic ring-shaped wing 11 is uniform around its circumference. This typical spoiler profile is also used for Rudder 13 deep and for fins 18.

The propeller 15 is operated by an engine 24 housed in a cavity provided in the rear fairing 14b located behind the propeller 15, the propeller 15 being mounted in a central motor shaft 24. The motor body 24 is part of the sides of the rear fairing 14b. When the engine 24 is embedded in the rear fairing 14b ensures optimal aerodynamics of the aircraft 10. The supports 19 pass through the rear fairing 14b, located behind engine 24, through through holes sized for ensure a tight fitting and end tightly in holes provided in the ring-shaped wing 11. The supports 19 are apply safely in the holes provided in wing 11 in ring shape

The fins 18 are provided with holes interns that extend across its front end, the through holes being sized to provide a sliding mounting on brackets 19 that pass through the holes interns Consequently, fins 18 pivot around the brackets 19 to provide control surfaces during flight. Each fin 18 is moved by a servo motor 25a connected to its fin 18 by an articulated bar and 26a coupling. Servomotors 25a are housed in recesses 27a of the ring-shaped wing 11, and are provided with covers 28 aerodynamics Similarly, the rudder 13 deep is also deployed by means of a servo motor 25b connected by an articulated bar and coupling 26a, the servo motor 25b in a recess 27b covered in the tail section 11b. All servomotors 25a, 25b get their power from the batteries 20, like the motor 24 of the propeller. Cables (no shown) distribute electricity and are directed through rebates or gaps.

The front fairing 14a is hollow, which is advantageous since the interior space provides space for others loads, or, when not used as a warehouse, reduces the overall mass of the plane 10.

This crucial aspect of the global mass of the plane 10 conditions the choice of the various materials aircraft components 10. In general, low materials are preferred density. For ring-shaped wing 11, compartment 12, fins 18, rudder 13 deep and fairings 14a, 14b specifically, expanded polystyrene is used. Tubes are used Carbon fiber composite material for brackets 19 and, also, for articulated bars and couplings 26a, 26b in combination with spring steel cables. The 25th servomotors, 25b and engine 24 employees are compact and of reduced weight.

The careful choice of materials, the component configuration and positioning described in above results in a mass center 29 of the plane 10 which is below the geometric axis 17 of the ring-shaped wing 11 and near the leading edge 11c of the ring-shaped wing 11. For the therefore, the plane 10 has considerable stability in the planes of nodding and yawning, and, in addition to the stability around its axis balancing, has the ability to self-correct in around its swing axis.

Aspects will be described below. related to the flight of plane 10. Plane 10 is launched using a conventional technique of small-scale gliders, namely a long piece of elastic material that launches plane 10 in flight horizontal, with propeller 15 already rotating.

In horizontal flight at constant height, the fins 18 are not positioned exactly horizontally and vertical, but are slightly offset to compensate for the torque produced by the propeller 15 in rotation which, otherwise, It would produce a tendency to roll the plane. Airplane control 10 in flight is achieved using the rudder 13 deep for the pitch control and fins 18 for balancing control. I know has determined that yaw control is not necessary - Spins are achieved using a combination of pitch control and swinging in a conventional way.

In hover, propeller 15 is oriented horizontally, the rudder 13 being deep in the lower part. In this mode, the rudder 13 deep controls the pitch and fins 18 control the sway and yaw. Instead of being oriented exactly vertically, plane 10 is tilted slightly, to keep the center 29 mass aligned with the thrust shaft. For precise control of the axis of thrust, the propeller 15 can have a collective passage mechanism conventional helicopter so that the angle of the vanes 15 of the propeller change as they rotate from the sector of Approach to the withdrawal sector. Alternatively, this control precision could be achieved by mounting the engine 24 in cardan, thereby allowing the axis of rotation of the propeller to be tilt. The plane 10 can be moved in a circle down speed in stationary mode by slight modification of the inclination of the plane 10.

The transition between horizontal flight and Stationary is achieved using a conventional maneuver of rearing up, which starts using the rudder 13 deep or the fins 18 in combination with engine throttling 24. The transition between hover and horizontal flight is achieved so inverse

When plane 10 swings for some reason, for example if it is disturbed by a gust of wind or if it balances during a turning maneuver, the moment of balancing due to the increase in height reached by the center 29 of masses will produce a tendency to roll in the opposite direction, so that the center 29 of mass can return to its lowest height. By therefore, when it is disturbed by a gust of wind, the plane 10 will promptly correct the induced balancing, without the need to use fins 18 or rudder 13 deep. In the case of a turning maneuver, plane 10 will automatically recover its stable flight orientation as fins 18 and rudder 13 deep cease to be deployed.

In figures 5 and 6 a second is shown embodiment of the invention. This embodiment corresponds in a way general to the first embodiment, and thus numbers of Similar reference for similar parts.

This alternative embodiment differs, first instead, in the design of section 11b of tail of wing 11 in the form of ring and rudder 13 deep. The ring-shaped wing 11 it is truncated obliquely according to a curve, so that it cuts the upper part of the ring-shaped wing 11 with an angle of relatively large slope and then it is done progressively smaller to meet a stretch 11b by way wedge in V. On each side of the V there is a rudder 13 deep Recessed mobile, articulated at its front end. These rudders 13 deep work in tandem to control the pitch of the plane 10, or in combination, to control the plane's roll 10.

This alternative embodiment also differs in that several of the components of plane 10 are housed in a compartment located in the lower front of wing 11 in ring shape Although the compartment is not displayed so explicitly, its position is shown, in general, by the number of reference 30 of figure 5.

The person skilled in the art will appreciate that modifications may be made to the embodiments described in which precedes without leaving the scope of the invention.

For example, instead of using fins 18 to offset the torque produced by the propeller 15 in rotation, could a counter-rotation propeller should be used. It has, also, the advantages of increasing the thrust produced, provided that the correct optimization of the blades of the propellers

As an alternative to the use of polystyrene expanded, the components of the plane 10 could be made from porous silica gels that, advantageously, have very high densities low but retain a high structural strength. Could also used composite structures that include light alveolar loads, contained in a thin envelope. When the invention is carried out in the form of a large plane, they could Conventional aircraft materials used, for example, the wing 11 in the form of a ring could have a conventional structure of stringers, struts and ribs. While in the previous embodiment a profile is used around the ring-shaped wing 11 which is kept uniform, the profile could vary around wing 11 in ring shape For example, to gain more support, an exaggerated curvature can be used in the upper sections and bottom of the ring-shaped wing 11, the curvature of the Two parts in the same direction. Clearly, the profile of wing 11 in ring shape between the upper and lower sections must be modified so that the curvature is in the same direction.

Also, instead of operating the plane 10 by remote control, the plane can be autonomous, using a autopilot, for example.

Claims (10)

1. An aircraft (10) comprising a ring-shaped wing fuselage (11) with a substantially circular cross-section defining a duct (16) with a longitudinally extending geometric axis (17), propulsion means (15) located in the duct and mobile ailerons (13, 18) for controlling the aircraft in flight, the ring-shaped wing being obliquely truncated at one end, characterized in that when observed in horizontal flight, the rear end (11b) is obliquely truncated to form a ring-shaped wing with opposite sides of unequal lengths, so that the lower rear side extends beyond the upper rear side.
2. An aircraft according to claim 1, wherein the ring-shaped wing is truncated by a flat cut to through the ring-shaped wing.
3. An aircraft according to claim 1, wherein the ring-shaped wing is truncated by a curved cut, having the angle formed with the ring-shaped wing a relatively small slope on the longest side of the wing in ring shape and relatively large on the shorter side of the wing ring-shaped
4. An airplane according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the components and / or Any type of cargo (20, 21, 22, 23) are housed in a compartment (12) that is located outside the longest side of the ring-shaped wing.
5. A plane according to any of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the components and / or any type loading are housed in a compartment provided on the most side ring-shaped wing length.
6. An airplane according to claims 4 or 5, in which the compartment is provided at one end of the wing in ring shape, that end being the forward when it is in horizontal flight
7. A plane according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the spoiler (13) controlling the pitch is positioned to be substantially level with the underside of the ring-shaped wing when not unfolded.
8. An aircraft according to claim 7, wherein the spoiler that controls the pitch is intended as an element of the Longest side of the ring-shaped wing.
9. An airplane according to claims 7 or 8, which It also includes two orthogonal fins (18a, b), of which a fin (18b) provides aerodynamic lift in it direction than the spoiler (13) that controls the pitch.
10. An unmanned aircraft, according to any of the preceding claims.
ES01921639T 2000-06-10 2001-04-20 Aircraft of canceled wing. Active ES2211795T3 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0014064 2000-06-10
GB0014064A GB0014064D0 (en) 2000-06-10 2000-06-10 Improvements relating to aircraft

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
ES2211795T3 true ES2211795T3 (en) 2004-07-16

Family

ID=9893299

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
ES01921639T Active ES2211795T3 (en) 2000-06-10 2001-04-20 Aircraft of canceled wing.

Country Status (13)

Country Link
US (1) US6607162B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1289831B1 (en)
JP (1) JP3668224B2 (en)
KR (1) KR20030015263A (en)
AT (1) AT256029T (en)
AU (2) AU4860801A (en)
CA (1) CA2410308A1 (en)
DE (1) DE60101477T2 (en)
DK (1) DK1289831T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2211795T3 (en)
GB (1) GB0014064D0 (en)
NO (1) NO318488B1 (en)
WO (1) WO2001096179A1 (en)

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AT256029T (en) 2003-12-15
EP1289831B1 (en) 2003-12-10
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JP2004503430A (en) 2004-02-05
KR20030015263A (en) 2003-02-20
DK1289831T3 (en) 2004-03-08
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CA2410308A1 (en) 2001-12-20
AU2001248608B2 (en) 2004-09-30
NO318488B1 (en) 2005-03-29
WO2001096179A1 (en) 2001-12-20
US20020104923A1 (en) 2002-08-08
US6607162B2 (en) 2003-08-19
NO20025705D0 (en) 2002-11-27
EP1289831A1 (en) 2003-03-12
AU4860801A (en) 2001-12-24
GB0014064D0 (en) 2001-05-02
DE60101477T2 (en) 2004-05-27
NO20025705L (en) 2002-11-27

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