ES2143190T3 - Componente de superaleacion con un sistema de revestimiento protector. - Google Patents

Componente de superaleacion con un sistema de revestimiento protector.

Info

Publication number
ES2143190T3
ES2143190T3 ES96910964T ES96910964T ES2143190T3 ES 2143190 T3 ES2143190 T3 ES 2143190T3 ES 96910964 T ES96910964 T ES 96910964T ES 96910964 T ES96910964 T ES 96910964T ES 2143190 T3 ES2143190 T3 ES 2143190T3
Authority
ES
Spain
Prior art keywords
anchor layer
super
protective coating
alloy component
disposed
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
ES96910964T
Other languages
English (en)
Inventor
Wolfram Beele
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Siemens AG
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US42844995A priority Critical
Priority to US42845295A priority
Application filed by Siemens AG filed Critical Siemens AG
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of ES2143190T3 publication Critical patent/ES2143190T3/es
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/32Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one pure metallic layer
    • C23C28/321Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one pure metallic layer with at least one metal alloy layer
    • C23C28/3215Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one pure metallic layer with at least one metal alloy layer at least one MCrAlX layer
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/02Pretreatment of the material to be coated
    • C23C14/024Deposition of sublayers, e.g. to promote adhesion of the coating
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/06Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the coating material
    • C23C14/0676Oxynitrides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/06Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the coating material
    • C23C14/08Oxides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/06Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the coating material
    • C23C14/08Oxides
    • C23C14/081Oxides of aluminium, magnesium or beryllium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/06Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the coating material
    • C23C14/08Oxides
    • C23C14/083Oxides of refractory metals or yttrium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/04Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D only coatings of inorganic non-metallic material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/34Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates
    • C23C28/345Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C28/00Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of groups C23C2/00 - C23C26/00 or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses C23C and C25C or C25D
    • C23C28/30Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer
    • C23C28/34Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates
    • C23C28/345Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer
    • C23C28/3455Coatings combining at least one metallic layer and at least one inorganic non-metallic layer including at least one inorganic non-metallic material layer, e.g. metal carbide, nitride, boride, silicide layer and their mixtures, enamels, phosphates and sulphates with at least one oxide layer with a refractory ceramic layer, e.g. refractory metal oxide, ZrO2, rare earth oxides or a thermal barrier system comprising at least one refractory oxide layer
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12493Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12535Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.] with additional, spatially distinct nonmetal component
    • Y10T428/12542More than one such component
    • Y10T428/12549Adjacent to each other
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/12All metal or with adjacent metals
    • Y10T428/12493Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.]
    • Y10T428/12535Composite; i.e., plural, adjacent, spatially distinct metal components [e.g., layers, joint, etc.] with additional, spatially distinct nonmetal component
    • Y10T428/12611Oxide-containing component
    • Y10T428/12618Plural oxides

Abstract

SUSTRATO DE SUPERALEACION A BASE DE NIQUEL O COBALTO (1) SE RECUBRE CON UN SISTEMA PROTECTOR RESISTENTE AL ATAQUE TERMICO, CORROSIVO Y EROSIVO. SE DISPONE UNA CAPA DE ANCLAJE (5) SOBRE EL SUSTRATO, QUE ESTA CONSTITUIDA COMO UN COMPUESTO DE OXIDO DOPADO CON NITROGENO, PREFERIBLEMENTE ALUMINA. SOBRE LA CAPA DE ANCLAJE SE DISPONE UN REVESTIMIENTO CERAMICO (2). LA MODIFICACION DE LA CAPA DE ANCLAJE EVITA LA TRANSMISION DE ELEMENTOS QUE DIFUNDEN A TRAVES DE LA CAPA DE ANCLAJE, HASTA LA CAPA DE BARRERA TERMICA.
ES96910964T 1995-04-25 1996-04-12 Componente de superaleacion con un sistema de revestimiento protector. Expired - Lifetime ES2143190T3 (es)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US42844995A true 1995-04-25 1995-04-25
US42845295A true 1995-04-25 1995-04-25

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
ES2143190T3 true ES2143190T3 (es) 2000-05-01

Family

ID=27027762

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
ES96910964T Expired - Lifetime ES2143190T3 (es) 1995-04-25 1996-04-12 Componente de superaleacion con un sistema de revestimiento protector.

Country Status (10)

Country Link
US (2) US5985467A (es)
EP (1) EP0832313B1 (es)
JP (1) JPH11504075A (es)
KR (1) KR19990008001A (es)
CN (1) CN1182459A (es)
CZ (1) CZ289159B6 (es)
DE (1) DE69606708T2 (es)
DK (1) DK0832313T3 (es)
ES (1) ES2143190T3 (es)
IN (1) IN187185B (es)

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US6132175A (en) * 1997-05-29 2000-10-17 Alliedsignal, Inc. Compliant sleeve for ceramic turbine blades
US6427904B1 (en) * 1999-01-29 2002-08-06 Clad Metals Llc Bonding of dissimilar metals
US6214473B1 (en) * 1998-05-13 2001-04-10 Andrew Tye Hunt Corrosion-resistant multilayer coatings
US6344282B1 (en) * 1998-12-30 2002-02-05 General Electric Company Graded reactive element containing aluminide coatings for improved high temperature performance and method for producing
US6455167B1 (en) * 1999-07-02 2002-09-24 General Electric Company Coating system utilizing an oxide diffusion barrier for improved performance and repair capability
US6296447B1 (en) * 1999-08-11 2001-10-02 General Electric Company Gas turbine component having location-dependent protective coatings thereon
US6434876B1 (en) * 2000-09-26 2002-08-20 General Electric Company Method of applying a particle-embedded coating to a substrate
JP2002167636A (ja) * 2000-10-30 2002-06-11 United Technol Corp <Utc> 接合被覆なしに断熱被覆を保持できる低密度耐酸化性超合金材料
US6511762B1 (en) 2000-11-06 2003-01-28 General Electric Company Multi-layer thermal barrier coating with transpiration cooling
JP3458849B2 (ja) * 2001-08-03 2003-10-20 株式会社日立製作所 コバルト基合金およびこの合金を用いた弁,原子炉プラント
US6380512B1 (en) 2001-10-09 2002-04-30 Chromalloy Gas Turbine Corporation Method for removing coating material from a cooling hole of a gas turbine engine component
NO318580B1 (no) * 2001-10-19 2005-04-11 Norsk Hydro As Keramisk varmeveksler
JP3865705B2 (ja) * 2003-03-24 2007-01-10 トーカロ株式会社 耐食性および耐熱性に優れる熱遮蔽皮膜被覆材並びにその製造方法
JP4537123B2 (ja) * 2004-06-10 2010-09-01 財団法人電力中央研究所 高温耐湿構造部材およびガスタービン
US20060093849A1 (en) * 2004-11-02 2006-05-04 Farmer Andrew D Method for applying chromium-containing coating to metal substrate and coated article thereof
US7140952B1 (en) * 2005-09-22 2006-11-28 Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. Oxidation protected blade and method of manufacturing
JP5164250B2 (ja) * 2007-06-08 2013-03-21 株式会社Ihi 遮熱コーティング部材とその製造方法
KR20090106887A (ko) * 2008-04-07 2009-10-12 삼성전자주식회사 반도체 소자 및 그 제조방법
DE102009010110B4 (de) * 2009-02-21 2014-08-28 MTU Aero Engines AG Erosionsschutz-Beschichtungssystem für Gasturbinenbauteile
CN101876061B (zh) * 2009-12-04 2012-01-25 北京科技大学 一种形成强结合热障涂层的方法
CN102398049B (zh) * 2010-09-09 2015-11-25 三菱综合材料株式会社 耐崩刀的表面包覆切削工具
US8347636B2 (en) 2010-09-24 2013-01-08 General Electric Company Turbomachine including a ceramic matrix composite (CMC) bridge
US10539039B2 (en) * 2012-08-14 2020-01-21 Safran Aircraft Engines Method of measuring the temperature reached by a part, in particular a turbine engine part
US9103731B2 (en) 2012-08-20 2015-08-11 Unison Industries, Llc High temperature resistive temperature detector for exhaust gas temperature measurement
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US9393620B2 (en) 2012-12-14 2016-07-19 United Technologies Corporation Uber-cooled turbine section component made by additive manufacturing
CA3073562A1 (en) * 2016-05-04 2017-11-09 Blykalla Reaktorer Stockholm Ab Pumps for hot and corrosive fluids
CN106167656B (zh) * 2016-08-01 2019-05-14 大唐环境产业集团股份有限公司 一种抗硫酸氢铵腐蚀的传热元件涂层及其制备方法
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
DK0832313T3 (da) 2000-07-31
CN1182459A (zh) 1998-05-20
DE69606708T2 (de) 2000-08-31
CZ289159B6 (cs) 2001-11-14
DE69606708D1 (de) 2000-03-23
IN187185B (es) 2002-02-23
JPH11504075A (ja) 1999-04-06
DK832313T3 (es)
EP0832313A1 (en) 1998-04-01
US6071556A (en) 2000-06-06
US5985467A (en) 1999-11-16
KR19990008001A (ko) 1999-01-25
EP0832313B1 (en) 2000-02-16
CZ339997A3 (cs) 1998-03-18

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